LenBuckeridgeDiesAged_77



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" by telling their secrets these powerful and evil people with evil methods to try and mind control the average person...they then lose their control and power...."
Cathy O'Brien..... from their book "Transformation of  America" .....by Cathy O'Brien and Mark Phillips....
http://www.trance-formation.com/

Distributing truths mainstream media must ignore.

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  • By Cathy O'Brien with Mark Phillips.

  • Trance Formation of America:
  • By Cathy O'Brien with Mark Phillips. Now in its 14th printing!


    On August 3rd, 1977 the 95th U.S. Congress opened hearings into the reported abuses concerning the CIA's TOP SECRET mind control research program code named MK-Ultra. On February 8th, 1988, a top-level MK-Ultra victim, Cathy O'Brien, was covertly rescued from her mind control enslavement by Intelligence insider Mark Phillips. Their seven year pursuit of Justice was stopped FOR REASONS OF NATIONAL SECURITY. TRANCE Formation of America exposes the truth behind this covert government program and its ultimate goal: psychological control of a nation.




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    The Who's Who of Perth's (Western Australia) business, political, police, legal, government, building, media circles attend Len Buckeridge Memorial Service at the Civic Centre in Cottesloe, Western Australia




    Siok Pauy Koh ( also known as Mrs Buckeridge and Tootsie… with other Buckeridge family members and the who’s who of Perth business, banking, legal, political and media circles at Len Buckeridge’s memorial service held at the Civic Centre, Cottesloe, Perth, Western Australia


    Julian Ambrose Son of Siok Pauy Koh being interviewed by reporters in Perth, Western Australia- Son of Siok Pauy Koh, became the de-factor wife of Len Buckeridge after Len Buckeridge divorced his first wife.  Siok Pauy Koh’s family organised in about September, 2013 to have Julian Ambrose take effective control of Len Buckeridge’s multi-billion building group of companies known as BGB (Buckeridge Geoup of Companies)… Siok Pauy Koh’s (known as Mrs Buckeridge and also as Tootsie) family had invested billions into BGC over the last 30 odd years and wanted to make sure one of their family members took over control their massive investment in BGC …. It is understood that Julian Ambrose had been selected, prepared and primed to take over BGC for the last 30 years as part of the behind the scenes deal with Siok Pauy Koh’s family financially backing Len Buckeridge’s BGC companies with billions in working capital and bank guarantees that helped BGC expand form a group of companies turning over a few million a year in the 1980’s to turning over in excess of $160 million a year in 2014.





    Everything you have ever been told is a lie
     

    Promotional Video Part C-for the INL News film called
    "The Great American Novel"

    Death of founder Buckeridge prompts speculation about building empire | The Australian

    The Australian

      

     

    Australia's Prime Minister Tony Abbott and Western Australian Premier Colin Barnett are happy and in fact proud to be publicly photographed, seen and place in the Australian newspaper with Len Buckeridge

    http://www.veooz.com/news/SGzJsyv.html

     

    THE death of prominent Perth businessman Len Buckeridge has thrown open the future of the West Australian building materials market, with questions looming over whether his family's $1 billion-plus empire will end up in competitors' hands. Rivals would have liked to have bought various parts of Buckeridge Group of Companies' operations through the years, but any potential suitor was never able to move beyond informal talks, industry sources said.

    Get Veooz 360 for Len BuckeridgeWest Australian

    http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/national

     

    http://www.egy2day.com/news-386495

     

     

    LEN Buckeridge left his fingerprints all over Perth but he also made a big impact on many people.

    He was the vice-patron and a great supporter of the North Cottesloe Surf Life Saving Club and the club's Facebook page said "Len and his company BGC donated a significant amount of building works during the club's recent renovation.

    "It was simply a project that wouldn't have happened without his support.

    "In honour of Len's long-time support one of our surf boats was christened the 'Len Buckeridge' in 2012."

    The RSPCA WA remembered him as "a quiet and generous contributor to charity and an avid animal lover."

    "The RSPCA will always be grateful for Len's vision and wonderful contribution to helping animals."

    Here's a few anecdotes from PerthNow readers, starting with Len's daughter Rachel.

    Rachel Buckeridge

    My father built a house on Garden Island with his brother Stanley, for the use of their immediate families. Their sisters, Jo and Margaret were always included in times spent there. We had no electricity and a kerosene fridge.

    We had a room at the back which had thirteen beds in a row for all the cousins of my generation. We children could roam freely, on the land and in the sea.

    This is one of the most memorable things about my father. It taught us all to love country.

    Full Coverage

     Business giant Len Buckeridge dies after long illness

     Len's legacy looms all over Perth

    Philip Schubert

    I remember one of Len's very first jobs as an architect. He designed and supervised the construction of a block of 8 flats, "Robyn Flats", after my cousin Robyn.

    They were built at 263 Lockhart Street, Como, in 1965 for my aunty Daphne Mewett.

    I spent many weekends there when they were completed, when I was in boarding at Hale School. My aunty lived in Flat 8.

    She used him many times over the next few years, and in hindsight probably gave him his first breaks to create his empire.

    She was always talking about him, and I met him many times in the late 1960's while he continued to built "flats" in South Perth. I never thought that he would become what he did. Sadly they are all gone now. End of an era

    Beth Willmer

    I worked for Len in the Apartments WA letting firm (an arm of his business) a million years ago when his offices were contained in a gorgeous old colonial house in Mount Street, which subsequently burnt down and then he built offices on that site.

    He was a person you could never forget, very much the boss. When I 'got used to him' I found him to be a fair man and quite lovable in the end.

    Len Buckeridge on North Quay at Fremantle Port. Source: News Limited

    V Bibby

    My husband is a bricklayer and worked on Len's mansion. At that time there was a lot about Len in the news and he was avoiding the media.

    There was press camped outside his house waiting for an interview but his people were telling the press he was not at home.

    When my husband came home that night and saw all that on the news, he said: "yes he was, he was sweeping up after us all day!"

    Rupert Corry

    I have a cheeky tale about Len Buckeridge and some missing Peppy Grove Shire scheme water from about 1995. '

    I should warn that it is unsubstantiated scuttlebutt, but a funny tale nonetheless that fits in with the legend/reputation of the man.

    Fresh out of uni, I was working on the construction of Len's palace on the Mosman Park/Peppy Grove foreshore.

    Word on the site was that he had called in a team on the previous weekend to dig under the road in front of his house and into the lawned foreshore opposite.

    There he instructed a crew to tap into the council reticulation to take water on the sly for his own gardens.

    It was my first day on the site when I heard the tale and I had no way of verifying it. But a few different blokes had the same story.

    Now he's passed, publish and be damned. I'm sure he'd like it, whether it's true or not.

    Helen Davies

    My heartfelt condolences to Len's family. I worked with Len for over seven years and he was the most wonderful boss.

    Sure he had his grumpy moments and he would always jokingly tell me off for smiling or laughing!

    I used to call him "Young Mr Buckeridge" which he loved! In return I was the Loud Pom Migrant. My husband recently passed away and Len wrote me a lovely personal letter expressing his wish that I be strong and carry on with life.

    I will miss him very much. RIP Len.

    Demolition of the former West Aviat Golf Course to make way for Len Buckeridge's controversial brickworks on Kalamunda Rd. Source: News Limited

    Avis Clements

    I am so sorry to hear of Len's passing. I worked for Len for 31 years starting in 1976 retiring in June of 2007.

    I worked in the Architectural Office - all those years working alongside him and John Mack on many projects, from flat developments to shopping centres, office buildings etc.

    Len and I had a great relationship particularly in the years in which he treated me like one of his daughters. I had nothing but admiration for him both in what he was achieving and the support and confidence he had in me, despite on many occasions calling me into his office and saying he didn't agree with some of the things I was doing. However he never stopped me.

    Len was a true Gemini - twin personalities. As soft as butter on one hand and as tough as nails on the other.

    I asked him one day, when we were driving to a site, just how did he do what he was doing - a huge workload running at a hundred miles an hour.

    He replied saying that he was a one and only. Oh how true was that.

    I watched him grow from very small beginnings to where he was in 2007. A remarkable achievement. A remarkable man.

    WA Premier Colin Barnett

    He built a remarkably successful company in BGC, which today employs more than 4,300 people, and has fostered great loyalty from his staff.

    He never shied away from a fight, and certainly never shied away from contentious issues. Len lived in my electorate and I would often see him around the area - he always had some advice to give me, regardless of whether I necessarily wanted to hear it!

    While he was often seen as a hard man in business, he was extraordinarily generous in the community and was always willing to help out local groups and sporting clubs.

    I extend my condolences to his wife, Tootsie, and his children.

    WA Opposition Leader Mark McGowan

    On behalf of WA Labor, I extend my deepest condolences to Mr Buckeridge's family and friends.

    Mr Buckeridge was extremely influential in the WA business community.

    He was a self-made man, who worked extremely hard to build the Buckeridge Group of Companies into one of the biggest companies in the nation.

    His influence and legacy through many construction projects in Western Australia will always be remembered.

    Once again, my thoughts are with his family and friends at this time.

    Perth Lord Mayor Lisa Scaffidi

    Mr Buckeridge was a friend and a WA treasure. It is a devastating loss.

    Many people didn't know the person that Len Buckeridge was. He was a really lovable larrikin and yet a very intelligent man.

    He was a man of vision. A lot of people don't realise the great charity work he did behind the scenes, he never wanted the accolades. He used to donate to a lot of charities without telling people, on the quiet.

    In terms of construction, he was always a big picture guy. Look at the companies he has developed and the amount of his concrete that is a number of buildings around our greater city.

    Former construction union heavyweight Kevin Reynolds, who had many clashes with the BGC boss over the years.

    I had known Len for 40 years and we have had many disputes and blues over those times.

    I wouldn't say those were fond memories.

    He was a tough old war horse. We battled it out over many issues.

    He was a major employer in the industry and didn't like unions and we didn't like some of the things he did. At the end of the day we had to tolerate one another.

    Nothing surprised me with Len, he had plenty of money. He fought governments, he fought unions and anyone he felt he needed and we ended up in court with him on many occasions.

    He had a particular hatred for the union officials.

    But during the construction of the entertainment centre, he begrudgingly had to admit the union workers he had on the project were the most skilful he had ever employed.

    I can remember him saying to me that he had to employ all these 'bloody commo union bastards but at least they knew what they were doing'. He was having a dig but he knew the unionised workforce were the skilled workers. And he said so.

    Master Builders director Michael McLean

    Len Buckeridge was an industry powerhouse who pioneered affordable housing and freedom of association in the commercial building sector.

    The fruits of many of Len's initiatives will continue to benefit Western Australian homebuyers for many decades.

    http://www.trading-house.net/news/the-fingerprints-of-len-buckeridge-can-be-found-all-over-35805524

     

    Len?s legacy looms over Perth THE fingerprints of Len Buckeridge can be found all over Perth on some of the city’s most iconic buildings.

     

    Len Buckeridge, founder of builder BGC, has died age 77 | The Australian

    The Australian

    Len Buckeridge, with WA Premier Colin Barnett and Prime Minister Tony Abbott
    Len Buckeridge, with WA Premier Colin Barnett and Prime Minister Tony Abbott Source: News Limited

    BGC founder Len Buckeridge, left, with then-Federal Opposition leader Tony Abbott and WA Premier Colin Barnet at a July 2012 Liberal party lunch in Perth. The magnate had battled poor health for several years and had recently been caught up in a bitter legal battle with the West Australian government over Mr Buckeridge's plan to build a private port at Kwinana, south of Perth.

    Len Buckeridge’s legacy in Perth includes Perth Arena, the WACA ground and Telethon Institute

     

    EMILY MOULTON PERTH NOW MARCH 12, 2014

     

    http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/len-buckeridges-legacy-in-perth-includes-perth-arena-the-waca-ground-and-telethon-institute/story-fnhocxo3-12268517055

     

    Len Buckeridge, with WA Premier Colin Barnett and Prime Minister Tony Abbott
    Len Buckeridge, with WA Premier Colin Barnett and Prime Minister Tony Abbott Source: News Limited

    Len Buckeridge, with WA Premier Colin Barnett and Prime Minister Tony Abbott Source: News Limited

     

    The BGC building on The Esplanade, Perth. Picture: Scott Podmore
    The BGC building on The Esplanade, Perth. Picture: Scott Podmore Source: Supplied

    The BGC building on The Esplanade, Perth. Picture: Scott Podmore Source: Supplied

     

     

    Ashes Cricket at the WACA Ground, which was redeveloped by BGC.
    Ashes Cricket at the WACA Ground, which was redeveloped by BGC. Source: News Limited

    Ashes Cricket at the WACA Ground, which was redeveloped by BGC. Source: News Limited

     

    Perth Arena, one of BGC’s best known and most controversial projects.
    Perth Arena, one of BGC’s best known and most controversial projects. Source: News Limited

    Perth Arena, one of BGC’s best known and most controversial projects. Source: News Limited

     

     

    The first race at the new WA Athletics Stadium - Jody Henry (24) crosses the finish line
    The first race at the new WA Athletics Stadium - Jody Henry (24) crosses the finish line in the 100m sprint. Source: News Limited

    The first race at the new WA Athletics Stadium - Jody Henry (24) crosses the finish line in the 100m sprint. Source: News Limited

    The Perth Police Complex in Northbridge, which opened last year.
    The Perth Police Complex in Northbridge, which opened last year. Source: News Limited

    The Perth Police Complex in Northbridge, which opened last year. Source: News Limited

     

     

     

    THE fingerprints of Len Buckeridge can be found all over Perth on some of the city’s most iconic buildings.

    For more than five decades the loud spoken and headstrong BGC boss was at the helm of some of the most significant developments in our city.

    Mr Buckridge passed away at the age of 77 this morning, after a long battle with illness.

    ■ PerthNow would like to hear your best stories and anecdotes about Len Buckeridge. Email staff@perthnow.com.au or leave a comment below.

    His hand helped shape WA, with projects including:

    Perth Arena

    ■ Telethon Institute for Child Health Research

    ■ WACA Ground redevelopment

    Perth Police Complex, Northbridge

    ■ WA Athletics Stadium, Floreat

    ■ WA Basketball Centre

    ■ Armadale Health Campus

    Curtin Business School

    Cambrai Village RAAFA Retirement Community, Merriwa

    ■ Success Retirement Community

    Mr Buckeridge came from humble beginnings.

    His family emigrated from England and eventually settled in Rivervale.

    But his home was not the luxurious pad he came to own later in his life, but a modest fibro shack.

    Money was tight and he spent most of his childhood in hand-me-downs.

    But a young Len excelled at school and went on to study architecture at Perth Tech.

    A few years later he began BGC and the rest, as they say, is history.

    But besides his business prowess, he was also known for his temper, which sometimes landed him in a lot of hot water.

    In 1986, he reportedly lost his driver’s licence after ploughing his Mercedes Benz through a union picket line at his Canning Vale site.

    He has also spent a lot of time in the courts, and was known to spend millions on cases, dragging them out for years.

    Mr Buckeridge had recently been caught up in a bitter legal battle with the WA government over his plans to build a private port at Kwinana.

    For the past 15 years, the BGC boss has been fighting to have a deal he signed with the former Court Government to build a private port at James Point honoured.

    Mr Buckeridge was seeking more than $1 billion in damages against the state over the matter.

    The Barnett Government recently agreed to sell the port to the construction magnate in a bid to settle the dispute.

    But it was recently reported, the sale has not gone smoothly with the Fremantle Ports authority which ran the Kwinana Bulk Terminal, still not handing over key financial records.

    It is understood Mr Buckeridge was very keen to finalise the matter.

    http://www.perthnow.com.au/realestate/news/owner-of-australias-most-expensive-home-puts-mansion-on-the-market-but-not-the-one-you-think/story-fnhlgriw-1226854168493

     

    Owner of Australia’s most expensive home
    puts mansion on the market — but not the one you think

    •  
    • PERTHNOW
    • MARCH 13, 2014 

    MINING magnate Chris Ellison, the owner of Australia’s most expensive home, is selling his Perth mansion — just not that one.

    In addition to the sprawling Mosman Park estate Mr Ellison and his wife Tia picked up for $57.5m in 2009, the couple own a five-bedroom, four-bathroom mansion across the river in Applecross.

    The Ellisons bought the Mosman Park palace from mining heiress Angela Bennett.

    The Mosman Park mansion bought for $57.5 million in December 2009, setting an Australian
    The Mosman Park mansion bought for $57.5 million in December 2009, setting an Australian record. Picture: File image Source: News Limited

    The Mosman Park mansion bought for $57.5 million in December 2009, setting an Australian record. Picture: File image Source: News Limited

    Their stunning Applecross home features a four car garage and workshop with a showroom for a fifth car, a gym and sauna, a swimming pool and sundeck, a theatre room and an entry-way atrium with a gold lift to access its three storeys.

    It’s located on a 1080sq m block one street back from the river.

    The home is up for auction next month.

    Selling agent Alastair Baird-Murray of Vitale Fine Properties said the home had a relaxed “resort-style ambience” and was ideal for entertainers.

    The Ellison’s picked up the home for a cool $6.85m in 2008 — significantly less than their other Perth purchase.

    The residence would need to sell for more than $13.25m to break the record for Applecross’ most expensive sale.

    The record is currently held by a four-bedroom, three-bathroom mansion just down the road on a 1541sq m parcel.





    Billionaire Building Magnate Len Buckeridge dies of an alleged heart attack at his desk

    Moday the 10th March 2014

    http://www.businessspectator.com.au/news/2014/3/12/resources-and-energy/buckeridge-dies-his-desk

    Julian Ambrose new Managing Director of BGC
    Read about the leader of BCG Julian Ambrose on INL News.com

      

    Ref no: 84004843 - Date: 13/2/2010 - SDT February 13, 2010: Julian Ambrose and Tracey Fox attend the 2010 Leeuwin Concert. Published: Sunday Times - February 14, 2010 Page: 003 Edition: STREET Pic. Allen Stewart http://newsphotos.com.au/ImageDetail.asp?RefNum=84004843

     
      

    Ref no: 14069068 - Date: 7/12/2003

     December 7, 2003: HOME Julian Ambrose Director of BGC at The Matrix National Display Home in Rosalie Estate Story Annika Priest Picture: Stewart Allen- http://newsphotos.com.au/ImageDetail.asp?RefNum=84004843


    Above: Julian Ambrose, who was already fully in charge of BGC by the end of 2013, many months before the death of his step father Len Buckeridge

    Julian Ambrose, step son of Billionaire bulding magnate Len Buckeridge planned for along time to be the new King Pin of the BGC Group



    Billionaire construction magnate Len Buckeridge has died aged 77 in Perth - the city that he helped to build.

    Mr Buckeridge amassed his estimated $1.2 billion fortune from the his Buckeridge Group of Companies (BGC), touted as Australia's largest home builder.

    He died of a heart attack at his desk at his Peppermint Grove home on Tuesday morning, having been in poor health for some time.

    He was immediately remembered as one of the country's great business success stories.

    Training as an architect after arriving from the UK and settling in suburban Rivervale, Mr Buckeridge founded BGC in 1960, developing it into one of Australia's biggest private business empires.

    Forbes last year listed Mr Buckeridge as the 19th richest Australian.

    He remained the dominating force in the company, despite his sons Andrew and Sam being directors, with the company involved in most of the big construction projects around the WA capital over the past 20 years.

    BGC helped build the Perth Arena, the redevelopment of the WACA Ground, the new Northbridge police complex, the WA Athletics Stadium and the Armadale Health Campus.

    But his success did not quell his appetite for a business battle, with a billion-dollar lawsuit continuing against the state government over a private port development.

    Mr Buckeridge claimed several state governments had failed to honour a 2000 agreement allowing a BGC-led consortium to build and operate a port at James Point, near Kwinana.

    And his relationship with the state government was also strained over delays in his company's construction of the Perth Arena, with costs blowing out to triple the original budget to almost $550 million.

    Mr Buckeridge was even listed to appear in a Federal Court hearing against the Australian Tax Office on the day he died.

    State Premier Colin Barnett described Mr Buckeridge as "one of the great characters of WA business".

    "He never shied away from a fight, and certainly never shied away from contentious issues," Mr Barnett said.

    "Len lived in my electorate and I would often see him around the area - he always had some advice to give me, regardless of whether I necessarily wanted to hear it!"

    Mr Buckeridge's sister Margaret Halcombe confirmed her brother had suffered a heart attack while working at home.

    "It's such a terrible loss. He had so much more still to do," she told News Ltd.

    Kevin Reynolds, the former head of WA's construction union, said Mr Buckeridge was a formidable opponent.

    "People will remember Len as a person who was prepared to take on anyone and everyone whether it would be the unions, government or other employer groups or other builders," Mr Reynolds said.

    "If Len believed in something he would take 'em on."

    By Mr Buckeridge's request, a private funeral is set to be held within 24 hours in line with Jewish tradition.

    A memorial will take place at a later date.


    Bilionaire Construction magnate Len Buckeridge who founded  BGC has died aged 77 at his home
    in Peppermint Grove of an alleged heart attack, and noting to do with
     the cancer Len Buckeridge  has been suffering form for a long time

    Monday  11 Mar 2014
    The legacy of Western Australian construction magnate Len Buckeridge is recalled after his death following a long illness.
    Source: 7pm TV News WA | Duration: 1min 42sec






    Rumours are rife that Building Magante Len Buckeridge 

    http://inlnews.com/LenBuckeridgeDiesAged_77.php

    was Murdered at 77 year old
    read  INL News.com

    http://inlnews.com/LenBuckeridgeDiesAged_77.php

    http://inlnews.com/ChineseTriadsInAustralia.php

    Also read in INL News.com about: Meeting Malaysia's notorious triads
    “I admit that I am a bad guy, and that I'm a gangster “..Ah Hing
    As part of the BBC's Who Runs Your World? series, Jonathan Kent in Kuala Lumpur looks at 
    how Malaysia's notorious triad gangs are run.

    http://inlnews.com/ChineseTriadsInAustralia.php

    Ah Hing
    Ah Hing says he makes deals with politicians and policemen



    “..We have some cases where [those owing debts] have been assaulted…”… Michael Chong, Malaysian
     Chinese Association



    Len Buckeridge.....
     "..a man that built an image of being a man who was above the law..."



     Len Buckeridge, Australia's 19th richest person, with an estimated pwersonal wealth of over $3 billion, has died on Monday at 8am at his dest at hope of a alleged heart attack, at the age of 77, ... Len Buckeridge construction materials and home building business, Buckeridge Group of Companies, known as BGC has an estimated yearly turnover of in excess of $160 billion dollars.... with many multi-million large lucrative government building and supply contracts awarded to BGC over the years.

    Len Buckeridge

    On Tuesday, Australia lost one of its most successful and colourful business people. Aged 77, Len Buckeridge, the former shoeless war child from England who built the Buckeridge Group of Companies into a manufacturing and construction empire suffered a suspected heart attack and died.

    Updated | Outspoken building mogul Len Buckeridge, the founder of the Buckeridge Group with an estimated wealth of $2.1 billion, has died from a suspected heart attack at his Perth home.

    Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has died aged 77. 
    The self-made billionaire behind the Buckeridge Group of Companies died at his home in the 
    Perth suburb of Peppermint Grove this morning.
    A desire to provide low-cost housing led to the creation of BGC (Buckeridge Group of Companies), which in 2013 had an estimated turnover of $160 billion per year ... BGC had always seemed to end up withlucrative large government building and building supply contracts, along with controlling the lion's shares of residential and commercial building companies in Western Australia and over 20 building manufacture and supply companies. Many of the BGC companies were built from the ground up on empty blocks of land that were not always zoned at the time for the purpose the businesses needed,  with the help of massive capital injections in the 1980's and 1990's onwards from the family of  Siok Pauk Koh, who is the mother of Julian Ambrose, who in Len Buckeridge started a de-facto relationship with in the late 1980's, and divorsed his original wife. Len Buckeridge's attitude was rules were meant for mugs, and simply built houses and factories where he wanted, when he wanted and how he wanted and argued the rules, building approvals and zoning after the buildings were completed and businesses already operating... one particular case that is well know, is when Len Buckeridge had a massive legal battle with the Mosman Park Shire Council, when Len Buckeridge completed ignore the original building plans for his two new Swan River frontage duplex homes in Johnson Parade, Mosman Park, that were approved by the Mosman Park Shire Council, and built the two duplex homes about the legal and approved hight limits, blocking Len Buckeridge's neighbours Swan River views. When neighbours forced the Mosman Shire Council to take Len Buckeridge to court to enforce Len Buckeridge to remove his new home and rebuild it according tot the original shire approved plans and for the council to fine Len Buckeridhe the maximum fine of $5,000 a day for building an illegal building... Len Buckeridge managed to just receive a fine, but was never forced by the courts or the council to remove the illegally built house....
    Len Buckeridge was reported by the West Australian newspaper as "..a man that built an image of being a man who was above the law..."
    A tell all book about the otherside of the life and times of Len Buckeridge and the way be built up BGC from a small company building cheap flats in Battle Street, Mosmans Park to cater for the battlers of society .... to being Australia's 19th richest man, with his BGC Group of Companies turning over each year in excess of $160 billion a year, has been written which will be published by the the INL News Group unless the rights are purchased Len Buckeridge's family to stop the book being published and made into a feature film... titled,
     " 60 years of Living Next Door to Billionaire Building Magnate Len Buckeridge..."

    which describes in great detail, with no holes barred .... what is was like for this one family that lived next door to Len Buckeridge from the early 1950's onwards .... 

    The INL News Group had written in 2013 prior to Len Buckeridge's untimely death, to Len Buckeridge and his family and Len Buckeridge's Perth, Western Australia family solicitor Michael Hotchkin of Hotchin Hanly Solicitors based on the 1st Floor of the BGC Centre, 28 The Esplanade, Perth, Western Australia, Tel: +61 8 9218770 Fax: +61 8 9218777, email: hothan@iinet.net.au, and to Len Buckeridge's other solicitors and barristers, Corrs Westgarth and Chambers and Barrister Nicolas Dillon offering to sell the book and film rights to Len Buckeridge's family for $100 million ....then they could chose not to allow the puiblication of the book and not to allow the film to be made, or publish and make the film and make a billion dollars in doing so..

     
                                Please email any inquiries, information and/or requests regarding this proposed publication 
                                and/or any other matters, stories and information concerning Len Buckerdge and BGC to
                                                           David Rosen 
                                                           INL News Group
                                                           "David Rosen" <
    david.rosen.inlnews@gmail.com>, 



    Thought Of The Day

     The best things in life are never rationed. Friendship, loyalty, love do not require coupons. ”

    — George T. Hewitt


    Len Buckeridge, Australia’s 19th richest person, has died at the age of 77, leaving open the question who will take charge at his construction materials and home building business, Buckeridge Group. Despite a fortune estimated at $1.2 billion Buckeridge never exhibited an interest in wealth, happier mixing with workers on the floor of one of his factories.

    “I just like doing things,” was one of his favourite comments, and one that he put into practice first as an award-winning architect specializing in the design of affordable homes for working-class Australians in his town of Perth, and then in building the factories which supplied most of the materials that went into a home, from bricks and cement to window frames and gypsum drywall.

    At Work Every Day

    He started work early every day at the dining-room table at his Mosman Park home, which is where he suffered a fatal heart attack at 8am on March 11. Buckeridge had been acutely aware of his failing health, suffering from a number of illnesses, some of which forced him to spend extended periods in hospital, darkly quipping after one period of treatment that “I’m busy dying”. His wife Tootsie, whose real name is Siok Pauk Koh, said Buckeridge’s death was “unexpected, but expected” because of his ill health. A heavy smoker for much of his lifetime Buckeridge was often seen visiting his construction sites in a distinctive 30 year-old Mercedes, the same car he famously drove through a union picket line, earning him sharp criticism from organized labor. Significantly, given Buckeridge’s many disagreements with the union movement some of the kindest words on his passing came from former union adversaries who applauded the hard-work and self-made fortune of their one-time enemy.

    “An Old War Horse”

    Kevin Reynolds, a former leader of the construction union, described Buckeridge as “an old war horse”.

    “But, he certainly earned every dollar he had,” Reynolds said. “He worked for it, and he created a lot of projects and a lot of jobs.”

    For several years Buckeridge had been thinking about how to handle succession in his business which is Australia’s third biggest home building company, analysing plans for a stock exchange listing, or an outright sale to a bigger building materials business, or dividing it into the key components of manufacturing, contracting and home building.

    He never got around to finalising his plan which means his six children and eight grandchildren will now have to make decisions which affect the Buckeridge Group’s 4300 employees and the future direction of an order book valued at $3.6 billion order book. Len Buckeridge's real son, son Sam Buckeridge has been mentioned as possible head of the manufacturing businesses, and stepson Julian Ambrose mentioned as head of the home building division. Buckeridge himself ran contracting and no-one has yet been mentioned as a possible replacement. Daily reports from all operating divisions meant Buckeridge knew exactly what was happening anywhere in the group at any time, another hallmark of a self-made man who spent more than 50 years totally focussed on a single mission, to build Buckeridge Group.


    A Hard Act To Follow

    His children will find that a hard act to follow. Humour, generally of the darker variety, was a hallmark of Buckeridge who was always ready with a story or joke to tell, often as a way of deflecting questions about his business interests which he kept intensely private. Quirkiness was also a hallmark of the man who was known to haggle with the barber we shared with him, arguing that he had less hair and was entitled to a discount. His name was mentioned at the barber shop last week when I asked whether Buckeridge had been in recently. No, was the answer, he’s found somewhere cheaper. Saving $5 on a haircut was important to Buckeridge who was known to carry his spare cash in a clear plastic Ziploc bag. It was the principal of not over-paying for anything. Another true sign of a self-made man who knew the value of every dollar he had earned.


         




    Read about the leader of BCG Julian Ambrose on INL News.com

      

    Ref no: 84004843 - Date: 13/2/2010 - SDT February 13, 2010: Julian Ambrose and Tracey Fox attend the 2010 Leeuwin Concert. Published: Sunday Times - February 14, 2010 Page: 003 Edition: STREET Pic. Allen Stewart http://newsphotos.com.au/ImageDetail.asp?RefNum=84004843

     
      

    Ref no: 14069068 - Date: 7/12/2003

     December 7, 2003: HOME Julian Ambrose Director of BGC at The Matrix National Display Home in Rosalie Estate Story Annika Priest Picture: Stewart Allen- http://newsphotos.com.au/ImageDetail.asp?RefNum=84004843


    Above: Julian Ambrose, who was already fully in charge of BGC by the end of 2013, many months before the death of his step father Len Buckeridge

    Julian Ambrose, step son of Billionaire bulding magnate Len Buckeridge planned for along time to be the new King Pin of the BGC Group


    ONE of the nation’s richest people, West Australian construction magnate Len Buckeridge, has died of a suspected heart attack.
    Mr Buckeridge, 77, died at his home in the Perth riverfront suburb of Mosman Park about 8am
     
     
    When Len Buckeridge broke up with his first wife, Lne Buckeridge moved in with Siok Pauy Koh, whose son was Julian Ambrose.. from that day on Siok Pauy Koh's family who have put a lot of money into working capital of BGC to help BGC grow from a multi-milion dollar company with a turnover of just in the millions in the 1970's and 1980's to a multi buillion dollar company with a year turnover of in excess of $160 billion, insisted that it was her son, Juilian Ambrose that you become head man of the BGC Group. This seems natural, when Siok Pauy Koh's family put hundreds of millions into the working capital to help BGC create over 20 building businesses from a block of land upwards.. that now combined turnover in excess of $160 billion a year.... this takes a lot of money, a lot of faith and a lot of risk... risk the Australian Banks would never have gone along with....naturally Siok Pauy Koh's family wanted to make sure their invstment was protected for the long term by insisted Siok Pauy Koh's son became the Managing Director of BGC when Len Buckridge died.. this day has now come
     
     
    Mr Buckeridge started his construction firm, BGC, more than 50 years ago ... 51, and Len Buckeridge's son Sam, 48, along with his stepson Julian Ambrose, 45. are directors of BGC, with Julian Ambrose expected to be the heand man in the bulti billion BGC Group.
    Len Buckerdge never backed away from taking a stand whether it was against ...
    with the West Australian government over Mr Buckeridge's plan to build a ...
    Media_launch_23_December_2013_–_BGC_Managing_Director_Julian_Ambrose_with_The_Hon_Liza_Harvey_MLA_Minister_For_Tourism

     
     
    http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/building-billionaire-buckeridge-dies-at-his-desk/story-e6frg8zx-1226851904950#mm-premium
    ONE of the nation’s richest people, West Australian construction magnate Len Buckeridge, has died of a suspected heart attack.
    Mr Buckeridge, 77, died at his home in the Perth riverfront suburb of Mosman Park about 8am yesterday, according to his long-time lawyer Michael Hotchkin.
    The outspoken businessman, who had been ill for several years, was understood to be sitting at his desk in his home office when he died. “It was quite well known that he hadn’t been well for some time, but nonetheless it was still sudden,” Mr Hotchkin said. “His doctor hadn’t expected it.”
    Mr Buckeridge started his construction firm, BGC, more than 50 years ago and developed it into one of Australia’s most successful private business empires with more than 4000 employees and annual turnover of more than $2.5 billion. The pugnacious magnate was known for his frequent run-ins with unions, rival companies and both Liberal and Labor governments, but Mr Hotchkin said his client had a softer side. He was Australia’s 17th richest person, according to BRW, with a fortune estimated at $2.1bn.
    Mr Buckeridge’s sons Andrew, 51, and Sam, 48, are directors of BGC along with his stepson Julian Ambrose, 45. They are expected to assume control of the business.
    Mr Hotchkin said he believed Mr Buckeridge should be remembered as one of Australia’s great business visionaries.
    “He was courageous in all of his dealings, he never backed away from taking a stand whether it was against government or unions or other businesses that he thought were trying to muscle him out of a market,” he said. “He was one of the largest manufacturers in the state, or even Australia. And he created it all — he didn’t buy into it or inherit anything.”
    Mr Buckeridge had recently been caught up in a bitter legal battle with the WA government over his plan to build a private port at Kwinana, south of Perth. “It was very distressing to him that the state wouldn’t honour its agreement,” Mr Hotchkin said.
    West Australian Premier Colin Barnett described Mr Buckeridge as one of the great characters of the state’s business community.
    “He never shied away from a fight, and certainly never shied away from contentious issues,” he said. “Len lived in my electorate and I would often see him around the area. He always had some advice to give me, regardless of whether I necessarily wanted to hear it.”


     
     
     







          

     Billionaire Construction magnate Len Buckeridge
    dies aged 77 after long illness


    http://www.news-australia.com/news/business-icon-len-buckeridge-dead-201403111512.html

    http://www.watoday.com.au/wa-news

    http://au.news.yahoo.com/thewest/national/

    http://www.news-australia.com/news/construction-magnate-len-buckeridge-dies-after-long-illness-201403111547.html

    Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies after long illness
    WA businessman Len Buckeridge

    from Western Australia on Mar.11, 2014, under NewsWestern Australia

    http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-03-11/prominent-businessman-len-buckeridge-dies/5313106

     

    Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has died aged 77. The self-made billionaire behind the Buckeridge Group of Companies died at his home in the Perth suburb of Peppermint Grove this morning.A desire to provide low-cost housing led to the creation of BGC which turns over more than $2.5 billion per annum.

    Leave a Comment

    Filed under: business-economics-and-financedeathWAWestern Australia

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    http://au.news.yahoo.com/thewest/national/

    Kwinana Bulk Terminal offered to construction magnate Len Buckeridge to end law suit

    http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-07/kwinana-terminal-offered-to-end-law-suit/5077658

     

    The State Government is offering the Kwinana Bulk Terminal to construction magnate Len Buckeridge as part of a deal to settle a high profile lawsuit with the builder.

    Mr Buckeridge has been suing the government in the Supreme Court, claiming huge damages over the stalled private port project at James Point Port near Kwinana.

    The terminal handles iron ore, coal and LPG.

    In a statement, the Transport Minister Troy Buswell says the sale of the port is part of mediation to settle the legal dispute with Mr Buckeridge.

    The statement goes on to say the decision is consistent to with the government's policy to attract private investment to the ports.

    It is understood the decision was relayed to port staff earlier today.

    If Mr Buckeridge does not buy the port, the Government will look to sell the port through an expression of interest process.

    if"�\ oo�"�8 '>And his relationship with the state government was also strained over delays in his company's construction of the Perth Arena, with costs blowing out to triple the original budget to almost $550 million.

    Mr Buckeridge was even listed to appear in a Federal Court hearing against the Australian Tax Office on the day he died.

    State Premier Colin Barnett described Mr Buckeridge as "one of the great characters of WA business".

    "He never shied away from a fight, and certainly never shied away from contentious issues," Mr Barnett said.

    "Len lived in my electorate and I would often see him around the area - he always had some advice to give me, regardless of whether I necessarily wanted to hear it!"

    Mr Buckeridge's sister Margaret Halcombe confirmed her brother had suffered a heart attack while working at home.

    "It's such a terrible loss. He had so much more still to do," she told News Ltd.

    Kevin Reynolds, the former head of WA's construction union, said Mr Buckeridge was a formidable opponent.

    "People will remember Len as a person who was prepared to take on anyone and everyone whether it would be the unions, government or other employer groups or other builders," Mr Reynolds said.

    "If Len believed in something he would take 'em on."

    By Mr Buckeridge's request, a private funeral is set to be held within 24 hours in line with Jewish tradition. A memorial will take place at a later date.

    Billionaire Len Buckridge dies at his desk at 6:59 PM March 11, 2014

    http://news.ninemsn.com.au/national/2014/03/11/16/22/billionaire-builder-len-buckeridge-dies

    Billionaire construction magnate Len Buckeridge has died aged 77 in Perth - the city that he helped to build.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deaths_in_2014

    Deaths in March 2014

    Len Buckeridge, 77, Australian billionaire businessman, founder of Buckeridge Group of Companies, heart attack.

    He died of a heart attack at his desk at his Peppermint Grove home on Tuesday morning, having been in poor health for some time.

    He was immediately remembered as one of the country's great business success stories.

    Training as an architect after arriving from the UK and settling in suburban Rivervale, Mr Buckeridge founded BGC in 1960, developing it into one of Australia's biggest private business empires.

    Forbes last year listed Mr Buckeridge as the 19th richest Australian.

    He remained the dominating force in the company, despite his sons Andrew and Sam being directors, with the company involved in most of the big construction projects around the WA capital over the past 20 years.

    BGC helped build the Perth Arena, the redevelopment of the WACA Ground, the new Northbridge police complex, the WA Athletics Stadium and the Armadale Health Campus.

    But his success did not quell his appetite for a business battle, with a billion-dollar lawsuit continuing against the state government over a private port development.

    Mr Buckeridge claimed several state governments had failed to honour a 2000 agreement allowing a BGC-led consortium to build and operate a port at James Point, near Kwinana.

    And his relationship with the state government was also strained over delays in his company's construction of the Perth Arena, with costs blowing out to triple the original budget to almost $550 million.

    Mr Buckeridge was even listed to appear in a Federal Court hearing against the Australian Tax Office on the day he died.

    State Premier Colin Barnett described Mr Buckeridge as "one of the great characters of WA business".

    "He never shied away from a fight, and certainly never shied away from contentious issues," Mr Barnett said.

    "Len lived in my electorate and I would often see him around the area - he always had some advice to give me, regardless of whether I necessarily wanted to hear it!"

    Mr Buckeridge's sister Margaret Halcombe confirmed her brother had suffered a heart attack while working at home.

    "It's such a terrible loss. He had so much more still to do," she told News Ltd.

    Kevin Reynolds, the former head of WA's construction union, said Mr Buckeridge was a formidable opponent.

    "People will remember Len as a person who was prepared to take on anyone and everyone whether it would be the unions, government or other employer groups or other builders," Mr Reynolds said.

    "If Len believed in something he would take 'em on."

    By Mr Buckeridge's request, a private funeral is set to be held within 24 hours in line with Jewish tradition. A memorial will take place at a later date.

    Mr Buckeridge amassed his estimated $1.2 billion fortune from the his Buckeridge Group of Companies (BGC), touted as Australia's largest home builder.

    He died of a heart attack at his desk at his Peppermint Grove home on Tuesday morning, having been in poor health for some time.

    He was immediately remembered as one of the country's great business success stories.

    Training as an architect after arriving from the UK and settling in suburban Rivervale, Mr Buckeridge founded BGC in 1960, developing it into one of Australia's biggest private business empires.

    Forbes last year listed Mr Buckeridge as the 19th richest Australian.

    He remained the dominating force in the company, despite his sons Andrew and Sam being directors, with the company involved in most of the big construction projects around the WA capital over the past 20 years.

    BGC helped build the Perth Arena, the redevelopment of the WACA Ground, the new Northbridge police complex, the WA Athletics Stadium and the Armadale Health Campus.

    But his success did not quell his appetite for a business battle, with a billion-dollar lawsuit continuing against the state government over a private port development.

    Mr Buckeridge claimed several state governments had failed to honour a 2000 agreement allowing a BGC-led consortium to build and operate a port at James Point, near Kwinana.

    And his relationship with the state government was also strained over delays in his company's construction of the Perth Arena, with costs blowing out to triple the original budget to almost $550 million.

    Mr Buckeridge was even listed to appear in a Federal Court hearing against the Australian Tax Office on the day he died.

    State Premier Colin Barnett described Mr Buckeridge as "one of the great characters of WA business".

    "He never shied away from a fight, and certainly never shied away from contentious issues," Mr Barnett said.

    "Len lived in my electorate and I would often see him around the area - he always had some advice to give me, regardless of whether I necessarily wanted to hear it!"

    Mr Buckeridge's sister Margaret Halcombe confirmed her brother had suffered a heart attack while working at home.

    "It's such a terrible loss. He had so much more still to do," she told News Ltd.

    Kevin Reynolds, the former head of WA's construction union, said Mr Buckeridge was a formidable opponent.

    "People will remember Len as a person who was prepared to take on anyone and everyone whether it would be the unions, government or other employer groups or other builders," Mr Reynolds said.

    "If Len believed in something he would take 'em on."

    By Mr Buckeridge's request, a private funeral is set to be held within 24 hours in line with Jewish tradition. A memorial will take place at a later date.

    http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-03-11/prominent-businessman-len-buckeridge-dies/5313106

    Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies at home after long illness

    Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has died aged 77.

    The self-made billionaire behind the Buckeridge Group of Companies (BGC) died at his home in the Perth suburb of Peppermint Grove this morning.

    A trained architect, Mr Buckeridge leaves his wife, six children, and eight grandchildren.

    Mr Buckeridge built a vast empire in construction, manufacturing and civil contracting in the Pilbara.

    A desire to provide low-cost housing led to the creation of BGC, which controlled the manufacture of most of the materials that went into construction.

    Today the company turns over more than $2.5 billion per annum.

    Named by Forbes as Australia's 19th richest man, Mr Buckeridge rose to prominence in 1960.

    BGC was behind several Perth landmarks including the Perth Arena, the WACA ground redevelopment and the Northbridge police complex.

    However, Mr Buckeridge was not without controversy.

    He was suing the Government in the Supreme Court, claiming huge damages over a stalled private port project at James Point in Kwinana.

    The former head of the construction union, Kevin Reynolds, described Mr Buckeridge as a formidable opponent.

    "People will remember Len as a person who was prepared to take on anyone and everyone whether it would be the unions, government or other employer groups or other builders," he said.

    "If Len believed in something he would take 'em on."

    Perth property developer Nigel Satterley, who sold his company Statesman Homes to Mr Buckeridge, remembered the businessman as someone not frightened of breaking new ground.

    "It's a sad day for the Perth business community that Len has passed on," he said.

    "He was the first home builder to get what we would call virtually fully integrated in what he did.

    "He was not only a substantial home builder, he was a substantial manufacturer.

    "He'll leave a few [legacies], being a real character, not frightened to tackle the establishment, tackle the unions, tackle many councils."

    Generous contributor to sporting and community groups

    Premier Colin Barnett remembered him as someone who never shied away from a fight, but also a man generous in his support for local clubs and sporting organisations.

    "Len was seen as a tough man in business and he was, he was also very generous and would support people needing help, very generous to local sporting and community clubs and look I think he was a great West Australian."

    "Len will be remembered as one of the more colourful characters of West Australian business, extraordinarily successful, from his home building to his building and manufacturing businesses and the BGC Group today employs over 4000 people.

    "I've been in many disagreements with Len and invariably he would tell me how useless I am and so on and after about 10 minutes or so, you'd say, 'come on, Len let's go and have a beer', and we'd go and have a beer."

    Strong supporter of North Cottesloe surf club

    Mr Buckeridge was a strong supporter of the North Cottesloe Surf Life Saving Club, where the flag has been flying at half mast since 10:00am.

    "He has been part of the club for I would say near to 45 years," club president Chris Shellabear said.

    "A lot of times as a service organisation we would really struggle to get things happening and Len would come and deliver us materials to get things out of.

    "Even recently when he was suffering ill health and we were pouring concrete foundations for the extensions of our new surf club, he was down here at 6:30 in the morning watching over the concrete pour."

    Mr Buckeridge's family travelled to Australia from England near the turn of the century, Mr Shellabear said.

    He came from relatively humble origins.

    "I think he felt the North Cottesloe Surf Cottesloe is a surf club that has a really proud working-class history," Mr Shellabear said.

    "I think Len always saw himself as working class and he just felt comfortable here."

    Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies at home after long illness


    PHOTO: WA building magnate Len Buckeridge. (ABC News)

    RELATED STORY: Magnate refuses to pay arena penalties

    RELATED STORY: Kwinana Terminal offered to end law suit

    MAP: Perth 6000

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    1.                             Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies after long illness - ABC

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    2.                             Billionaire Buckeridge dies at his desk - News - Ninemsn

    news.ninemsn.com.au/national/.../billionaire-builder-len-buckeridge-dies‎ 

     

    4 godziny temu - Leading Perth businessman Len Buckeridge has reportedly died of a heart attack at his Peppermint Grove home.

    Brakujące: cancer

    3.                             Deaths in 2014 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deaths_in_2014‎ 

     

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    6.                             Taiwan police probe betting on cancer patient deaths | News.com.au

    www.news.com.au/...cancer...deaths/story-fncynjr2-1226549944257‎ 

     

    9 sty 2013 - Business giant Len Buckeridge dead at 77 ... Punters are allowed to visitcancer patients before placing their bets, which start at a minimum of  ...

    7.                             Study links cancer to WA mining town of Wittenoom | News.com.au

    www.news.com.au/.../cancer-cases.../story-fndo4eg9-1226464354454‎ 

     

    4 wrz 2012 - Business giant Len Buckeridge dead at 77 · 15/12/1996 ... By the end of 2007, 228 of them had died from a range of causes. There were 215  ...

    8.                             Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies after long illness | News ...

    www.news-australia.com › News › Western Australia‎ 

     

    49 minut temu - Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has diedaged 77. The self-made ... Dean Bailey dies after cancer battle · Pesticide  ...

    9.                             Perth & WA - Western Australia local & state news | WA Today

    www.watoday.com.au/wa-news‎ 

     

    Aleisha Orr 1:59pm Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge, 77, has died on ... in turn increasing our risks of skin cancers, one Perth health professional has been  ...

    10.                        Billionaire builder Len Buckeridge dies | Click Sport Get in the Game!

    www.clicksport.com.au/news/billionaire-builder-len-buckeridge-dies‎ 

     

    •  

    6 godzin temu - Leading Perth businessman Len Buckeridge has reportedly died of a heart attack at his Peppermint Grove home. ...

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=Ev0eU-isIYuV7Qbl-ID4AQ&start=10&sa=N

    1.                             Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies after long illness | Daily ...

    daily-feeds.com/construction-magnate-len-buckeridge-dies-after-long-ill...‎ 

     

    6 godzin temu - Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has diedaged ... U.S. cancer doctors urge payment fix as cases set to rise March 11,  ...

    2.                             Prominent businessman Len Buckeridge, who built up a ...

    www.rssnews.co/.../prominent-businessman-len-buckeridge-who-built-u...‎ 

    29 minut temu - Mr Buckeridge built a ...Billionaire Buckeridge dies at his deskNinemsnTributes flow for business giant Len BuckeridgePerth NowLen ...

    3.                             Google News

    news.google.com.au/‎ 

    Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies at home after long illness .... AFL mournsdeath of Dean Bailey after battle with lung cancer ...

    4.                             Dean Died - Search - AllNewsAu - All News from Australia

    www.allnewsau.com/search/Dean%20Died‎ 

     

    6 godzin temu - Dean Died. Most relevant news Dean Died. ... Dean died from lungcancer, aged just 47. All related ... Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead

    5.                             Australian Newspapers | Paperboy Australian Edition - The Paperboy

    www.thepaperboy.com/australia/‎ 

     

    Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has died aged 77. The self-made billionaire behind the Buckeridge Group of Companies died at his home in the Perth suburb of Peppermint ... AFL coach Bailey loses cancer fight

    6.                             National - The Daily Telegraph

    www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/national‎ 

    Emily Moulton, Peter Law UPDATE: WA business giant Len Buckeridge, one of the state's richest men, has died aged 77 after a long battle with illness. The rise  ...

    7.                             NewsWhip | The world's Most shared stories , live

    www.newswhip.com/Australia/News‎ 

     

    AFL coach Dean Bailey loses cancer fight. ADELAIDE Crows senior ... Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies after long illness. Prominent West Australian  ...

    8.                             Obituaries Newswire (Page 9) - Topix

    www.topix.com/wire/news/obits/p9‎ 

     

    Community raising money for tombstone for girl who died from drinking soda, water ...Medical Center in Northern California after an eight-month battle with brain cancer. ...Business giant Len Buckeridge dead at 77 Read the original story  ...

    9.                             News from newspaper ABC News - Australia news

    www.live-news.com.au/newspapers/abc-news/‎ 

    Prominent West Australian businessman Len Buckeridge has died aged 77. ... Fakecancer tests: Cancer Council issues warning on 'alternative therapy' after  ...

    10.                        ce soir double dose de "!!!" #doubledelice et une #battle Lorde vs ...

    inagist.com/all/441154076848713728/‎ 

    6 dni temu - One of the State's leading businessman, Len Buckeridge, has died ... to @ClaudiaCTV about his staying positive despite new cancer battle.

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=qv0eU9uJJYb27AaRx4Bo&start=20&sa=N

    1.                             WA Today - HOTheadlines - Australian News Headlines

    www.hotheadlines.com.au › News‎ 

      

    + Perth billionaire Buckeridge dead—Building mogul Len Buckeridge has died ...senior assistant coach Dean Bailey dies at 47 after a short battle with cancer.

    2.                             Sun City News: Home

    www.suncitynews.com.au/‎ 

    ... 2 hours, 4 minutes; Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 2 hours, 8 minutes ...Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

    3.                             Local News | Mandurah Mail

    www.mandurahmail.com.au/news/local-news/‎ 

     

    GALLERY: Mandurah women ride Vietnam-Cambodia for cancer ... unchanged for Newcastle Knights clash · Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead · + more  ...

    4.                             Perth billionaire Buckeridge dead - dailymail.org.uk

    dailymail.org.uk/news/657038/Perth-billionaire-Buckeridge-dead.html‎ 

       

    • godzin temu - Perth billionaire Buckeridge dead. ... Breast cancer patients failed by .... construction magnate Len Buckeridge, has died after a long illness.

    5.                             State issues won't hurt Senate bid: Abbott | Business News

    www.businessnews.com.au/.../State-issues-wont-hurt-Senate-bid-Abbott‎ 

     

    7 godzin temu - 01:13pm Len Buckeridge dies Staff reporter 11 March 2014 ..... the facility, where scientists are researching serious diseases including cancer,  ...

    6.                             A | Afr.com

    www.afr.com/tag/C_A-CAP%20RESOURCES%20LIMITED-ACB‎ 

     

    PRINT: 11 March 2014 | PAGE 3 | Billionaire mogul Len Buckeridge dies ...... in contracts to provide front-line cancer treatment and care for the terminally ill.

    1. [XLS]

    검색결과 엑셀 출력 | 연세대학교 의학도서관

    ymlib.yonsei.ac.kr/searchA/ebk/excel?os=DESC&cpp=15&aq...‎ 

    8, E-Book, The role of genetics in breast and reproductive cancers [electronic ...radiologique: prüfungsfragen für die facharztprüfung [electronic resource], Sadry, Forat... 48, E-Book, Routes to cellulosic ethanol [electronic resource], Buckeridge, ...... 417, E-Book, Refractive lens surgery [electronic resource], Fine, I. Howard  ...

    8.                             Bob Crow death: RMT Union leader dies of heart attack aged 52 ...

    www.bizbilak.com/.../bob-crow-death-rmt-union-leader-dies-of-heart-att...‎ 

     

    •  

    40 minut temu - Bob Crow RMT union leader is dead at 52Daily MailLatest: RMT Union leader Bob ... Melbourne coach and Adelaide assistant Dean Bailey dies after cancer .... Len Buckeridge, who built up a construction empire, dies (ABC).

    9.                             Business icon Len Buckeridge dead | Pro News Flash

    pronewsflash.com/business-icon-len-buckeridge-dead/‎ 

     

    7 godzin temu - Business icon Len Buckeridge dead · Pro News Flash · 03/11 · World News. WA business giant Len Buckeridge, one of the state's richest men, has .....Breast cancer victims suffer from inadequate checks 03/10; Clinical trials:  ...

    10.                        Business giant Len Buckeridge dead at 77 | Pro News Flash

    pronewsflash.com/business-giant-len-buckeridge-dead-at-77/‎ 

     

    7 godzin temu - 03/11 · World News. WA business giant Len Buckeridge, one of the state's richest men, has died, aged 77, after a long battle with …read more.

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=zP0eU8GzOcuf7AbjlYHwCw&start=30&sa=N

    1.                             Business icon Len Buckeridge dead | Pro News Flash

    pronewsflash.com/business-icon-len-buckeridge-dead/‎ 

       godzin temu - Business icon Len Buckeridge dead · Pro News Flash · 03/11 · World News. WA business giant Len Buckeridge, one of the state's richest men, has .....Breast cancer victims suffer from inadequate checks 03/10; Clinical trials:  ...

    2.                             Business giant Len Buckeridge dead at 77 | Pro News Flash

    pronewsflash.com/business-giant-len-buckeridge-dead-at-77/‎ 

     

    7 godzin temu - 03/11 · World News. WA business giant Len Buckeridge, one of the state's richest men, has died, aged 77, after a long battle with …read more.

    3.                             Bunbury Mail: Bunbury News, sport and weather

    www.bunburymail.com.au/‎ 

     

    ... Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 1 hour, 5 minutes; Malaysia Airlines ....Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

    4.                             Collie Mail: Collie News, sport and weather

    www.colliemail.com.au/‎ 

     

    SuperTowns 'far from dead' ... Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 52 minutes; Malaysia Airlines plane: 34 .... Ovarian cancer risk for overweight women.

    5.                             The Esperance Express: Esperance News, sport and weather

    www.esperanceexpress.com.au/‎ 

     

    •  ... Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 53 minutes; Malaysia Airlines plane: 34 ...The NSW Environment Protection Authority has identified the cause of death of ....Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

    6.                             [BOT] Man faces court over aggravated sexual assault of disabled man

    drugpolicycentral.com/bot/article/abc.net.au10670.htm‎ 




    AUSTRALIA: BIKIES, TRIADS, OFFICIALS LINKED IN DRUG SMUGGLING RING 
    by 
    ABC News -September 8th, 2010

    …The Triads, are headquartered in Hong Kong, and control a $200 billion-a-year heroin trade, operate brothels into which children as young as 6 are abducted or sold by their parents….”

    “.. the Triads  fear the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997 and have begun to establish new bases…in other countries like Australia and America …and have chosen Perth, Western Australia a safe haven to launder a lot of their ill-begotten gains.,, the Triads used local established business companies owned by local business people to front for them, so that no one knows that it is really triad money backing and financing their business expansion”

     

    “….The Triads are already reported in WikiPedia and other major reliable news and information organizations as being involved with illegal activities such as illegal gambling, loan sharking, money laundering, murder, heroin and opium, arms trafficking, prostitution, people smuggling, extortion, counterfeiting and, to a lesser extent, home invasion robberies.. etc…”

    “..Senior criminal intelligence officers in the Hong Kong police believe that the biggest of the Triad gangs, the Sun Yee On, which is thought to have more than 30,000 members in the British colony, now has a stranglehold on the government of Guangdong Province [in mainland China] which boasts one of the world's fastest growing economies…. The Triads are doing the same with Perth and the Western Australian economy and now through BGC have a stranglehold on Perth…

     

    Warlords of Crime: Chinese Secret Societies: The New...

    “…The triads headquartered in Hong Kong, control a $200 billion-a-year heroin trade, operate brothels into which children as young as 6 are abducted or sold by their parents and have tentacles in Thailand, Burma and Laos, and they are all but untouchable, Posner writes. But…

    ….. the Triads  fear the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997 and have begun to establish new bases…in other countries like Australia and America …”









    http://inlnews.com/ChineseTriadsInAustralia.php

    Also read in INL News.com about: Meeting Malaysia's notorious triads
    “I admit that I am a bad guy, and that I'm a gangster “..Ah Hing
    As part of the BBC's Who Runs Your World? series, Jonathan Kent in Kuala Lumpur looks at
    how Malaysia's notorious triad gangs are run.

    http://inlnews.com/ChineseTriadsInAustralia.php

    Ah Hing
    Ah Hing says he makes deals with politicians and policemen



    “..We have some cases where [those owing debts] have been assaulted…”… Michael Chong, Malaysian
     Chinese Association



    In some places they still have rituals, as Jessica Lau, a well-connected member of the Malaysian Chinese community, found out.
    When Ms Lau lived in New Zealand, her neighbour was a Hong Kong triad boss who decided to retire.
    "During his very last days as the leader of the triad society, he gathered everybody from his society and in front of leaders from other societies he washed his hands in a gold basin which symbolised that from today onwards he is not going to be involved in the triad society any more, and now he is old and respectable and a free man," she said.
    But Malaysia's triads are rather more prosaic than those in Hong Kong. The element of ceremony has gone, and these groups are run as businesses.
    Ah Hing referred to his as "our company". It's a pragmatic affair, where deals are reached with the authorities - who set boundaries for crimes they know can never be eliminated.
    "If I want to operate on a particular street and ask a politician to ask the authorities not to disturb me, the politician might say: 'It's impossible to have zero arrests, so you can operate on certain hours and we will patrol after those hours' - so it's a win-win situation," Ah Hing said.
    If someone crosses him, however, it's most certainly not win-win.
    "If someone betrays me personally... I will get a few gang members together and beat him up until he's paralysed or he's a vegetable, but if the matter is really big then they'll be brought before my tai ko for a trial," he said.
    "If my tai ko asks us to deal with someone, even if we kill that person, we won't be worried, because if the police arrest us, my tai ko will get me out," he added.
    "Last time I was taken in the front door of the [police] lock-up, and right away I walk out of the back door."
    Part of society
    Most Malaysians have little or nothing to do with the triads. But many poorer people have nowhere else to turn when they need to borrow money.
    All too often, Michael Chong, head of public services for the political party the Malaysian Chinese Association, sees what happens when borrowers default on their payments.
    "We do have cases where they run away, you know, with the family... and of course we have some cases where they have been assaulted - assaulted in the sense they have to be hospitalised," Mr Chong said.
    Ah Hing makes no bones about his world and his life. "I admit that I am a bad guy, and that I'm a gangster," he said.
    "So who runs your world?" I asked - to which he gave a simple reply : "The government".
    "If the government doesn't want to be a bit lenient with us and if they are strict about everything, then there's no way that I can make a living. There's no work," Ah Hing said.
    When the economic downturn of 1998 hit Asia, many Malaysians turned to the triads for work.
    It allowed thousand to fill their rice bowls.
    That in itself is reason enough for some in power to turn a blind eye to what these gangs do - that and the knowledge that the triads are there to make a living, not to cause trouble.
    They may be bad men, but they're also businessmen
     
     
    In my attempt to find out more the triads, I made the ground rules clear from the start.
    I didn't want specifics, I didn't want details and I certainly didn't want names. I just wanted to know how the gangs worked.
    I have no idea what Ah Hing's real name is, but I do know that he is being groomed to take over as tai ko - big brother (a term triad members use for their bosses) - in a gang that operates in a small town in northern Malaysia.
    We had chosen a room in an old shop house in which to meet. Ah Hing looked like many working class Malaysian Chinese, with heavy jewellery, cheap shoes and spiky hair. His minder collected tattoos.
    "We do sell some ecstasy pills and that is how we make a living, me and my friends," he said.
    "We do take girls for prostitution, and this is much easier to do than ecstasy because usually the government will not bother us when we do this."
    The triads and Malaysia's other criminal gangs dabble in any number of rackets. Some even smuggle opiated cough syrup.
    Dealing drugs in Malaysia carries the death penalty. Hangmen got a pay rise earlier this year - it is an issue the government takes seriously.
    Prostitution is easier to get away with, and so is loan sharking or making and peddling fake goods. Malaysia is thought to be the world's largest producer of pirated optical discs.
    But Ah Hing runs girls and sells pills. The women cost the gangs between $750 and $2000 each. They are bought and sold like cattle, and the pimps want a return.
    "The girls know they have to work to pay back the money we paid to buy them," Ah Hing said.
    "We do find girls who refuse to work, and we will keep them in solitary confinement and give them a bad time until they tell me they want to work," he said.
    Ancient rituals
    The triads have their roots in a 17th Century movement dedicated to restoring China's Ming dynasty to the throne, but over time they degenerated into criminal gangs.

     

     

    http://www.news.com.au/national/ivan-milats-great-nephew-matthew-milat-loses-appeal-for-axe-murder/story-fncynjr2-1226854701359

    Ivan Milat’s great nephew Matthew Milat loses appeal for axe murder

    Bill Milat, the brother of Ivan Milat, leaves court at the sentencing of Matthew Milat an

    Bill Milat, the brother of Ivan Milat, leaves court at the sentencing of Matthew Milat and

     Cohen Klein for the murder of David Auchterlonie. Source: News Limited

     Sentencing of Matthew Milat and Cohen Klein for the murder of David Auchterlonie in Belanglo State Forrest. Matthew Milat is...

    Matthew Milat after being sentenced to 43 years jail.Source: News Limited



    Cohen Klein at the NSW Supreme Court after being sentenced to a maximum 32 years jail for

    Cohen Klein at the NSW Supreme Court after being sentenced to a maximum 32 years jail for his involvement in the murder of David Auchterlonie in Belanglo State Forest. Source: News Limited



    Donna Locke, mother of victim David Auchterlonie.

    Donna Locke, mother of victim David Auchterlonie. Source: News Limited

    THE great nephew of backpacker murderer Ivan Milat has lost an appeal against his sentence for killing his friend with an axe.
     
    His co-offender, on the other hand, has had his sentence reduced.

    Matthew Milat and Cohen Klein appealed the severity of their sentences handed down in 2012 for murdering teenager David Auchterlonie in the Belanglo State Forest Milat, who was a teenager at the time, murdered David with an axe on his 17th birthday in the same forest used by his relative and serial killer Ivan Milat. Milat was sentenced to at least 30 years, with a maximum term of 43, for the 2010 murder. Klein was jailed for at least 22 years, with a maximum 32-year term. In a judgment handed down in the NSW Supreme Court on Friday, Milat's appeal was dismissed. Klein's appeal was allowed and his sentence was quashed. The Court of Criminal Appeal instead sentenced Klein to serve at least 20 years in jail with a maximum of 27. He will be eligible for parole on November 21, 2030. During an appeal hearing last year, deputy senior public defender John Stratton SC, representing Milat, submitted that the crime was heinous but it was not in the worst class of murder. Instead Mr Stratton argued for a maximum 22-year jail term with a non-parole period of 15 years. Klein's barrister, Janet Manuell SC, said Milat was the dominant one who found the weapon, organised to bring the victim to the forest, delivered the fatal blow and later bragged about it. “The role of (Klein) was one of support and facilitation,” she told the appeal hearing. The axe attack took place in the same NSW Southern Highlands forest where Ivan Milat murdered seven backpackers in the early 1990s.

    The alleged murder weapon used by Milat and Klein, submitted in evidence at their trial a

    The alleged murder weapon used by Milat and Klein, submitted in evidence at their trial at the NSW Supreme Court. Source: Supplied

    Solitude: Cohen Klein in a prison van after the sentencing.

    Solitude: Cohen Klein in a prison van after the sentencing.Source: News Limited

    Bags with Milat's name on them on the back seat of the van he was taken to the Supreme Co

    Bags with Milat's name on them on the back seat of the van he was taken to the Supreme Court in. Source: News Limited

    Milat is led into Court to hear his sentence.

    Milat is led into Court to hear his sentence. Source: News Limited



    1.                             Western Australia | Breaking News Perth WA | News.com.au

    www.news.com.au/national/western-australia 

    •  

    News: John Kizon arrives at the District Court to face insider trading charges ... POLICE have seized drugs and almost $40,000 in cash from a Perth hospital room as part of an organised crime bust. ... LEN Buckeridge left his fingerprints all over Perth but he also made a big impact ... Charges expected over Manus Is death.

     Police discover firearm during investigation of Michael Pruiti's alleged murder-Perth Now

    Police discover firearm during investigation of Michael Pruiti's alleged murder

    -PHIL HICKEY PERTHNOW

    DECEMBER 19, 2013

     

    http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/police-discover-firearm-during-investigation-of-michael-pruitis-alleged-murder/story-fnhocxo3-1226786559788

    POLICE investigating the alleged murder of Michael Pruiti, whose body was found in the Perth hills last week, have a recovered a firearm today.

    Officers found the firearm at a home in Carmel late this afternoon down a well.

    Dredging equipment had to be used to recover the firearm from the well. Officers close to the case said the firearm was recovered about 2.30pm today.

    PerthNow understands however the owners of the Carmel property were unaware of the firearm being there.

    Police have not yet disclosed what sort of firearm it is.

    Mr Pruiti, 31, was last seen in Forrestfield on October 23.

    His remains were found in bushland in Karragullen last week. Police remained there today collecting evidence.

    Three men have been charged in connection with Mr Pruiti's death.

    Ben Mansfield, 33, appeared in Perth Magistrates Court yesterday charged with murder. He was not required to plead to the charge and was remanded in custody.

    Christian Gillmore, 32, faced a charge of being an accessory after the murder and was also remanded in custody.

    Both men are due back in court next month.

    A 19-year-old Pickering Brook man appeared in court today also charged with Mr Pruiti's murder. Daniel Marchesano was not required to plead to the charge and was remanded in custody.

    Yesterday, officers spent the day searching for evidence at several sites in Perth's hills.

    A Pickering Brook home was searched as was the semi-rural property in Carmel.

    Mr Pruiti, 31, had been missing since October 26. 

    His body was found last week in bushland in Karragullen, about 40km east of Perth.

     



    http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/Hansard/hansard.nsf/0/E05A82E9079FDDEBC825758A001A99FF/$File/C36%20S2%2020030626%20All.pdf

     

    Legislative Council
    Thursday, 26 June 2003
    THE PRESIDENT (Hon John Cowdell) took the Chair at 10.00 am, and read prayers.
    DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND WORKS, TENDERING POLICY
    Statement by Minister for Housing and Works
    HON TOM STEPHENS (Mining and Pastoral - Minister for Housing and Works) [10.03 am]: Members will be aware that I have withdrawn the previously announced policy that dealt transparently with the issue of market dominance in the housing and works portfolio. This was in response to the legal action taken by Homestyle Pty Ltd, one of the BGC Group, against the State Housing Commission and me in relation to the policy that had limited to five the number of Department of Housing and Works contracts valued at between $1.5 million and $25 million which could be held by any company at any one time. The policy first came into effect in a way that would have prevented BGC from
    tendering for a housing commission tender for the construction of 22 homes in Hamilton Hill. Tenders for that job closed at 2.30 pm on Tuesday last, 24 June. The Supreme Court granted an interlocutory injunction prior to that time to preserve Homestyle’s interests in relation to the Hamilton Hill tender, until the substantive action relating to the policy is determined. In effect, this put the tender on hold. Furthermore, BGC has made it clear that it would apply for similar injunctions in the future if it was similarly affected in applying to tender for Department of Housing and Works
    contracts in this value range.
    Yesterday in this House, I announced that given the potential of such legal action to disrupt government tendering processes and delay important projects throughout the State, I had withdrawn the policy, as it had become clear that it was too difficult to implement. The policy will now be reviewed and consultations will proceed with industry and the department on how to deal with the issue of market dominance.
    Accompanying the writ of summons from Homestyle Pty Ltd were two affidavits: one from Mr Gerry Forde, General Manager of BGC Construction, and one from Mr Len Buckeridge, Chairman of Directors of the BGC Group. These affidavits contained false accusations relating to my conduct, and the conduct of the Director General of the Department of Housing and Works, which I utterly reject. Mr Buckeridge and Mr Forde’s affidavits both purport to provide records
    of separate conversations with Mr Joyce. The affidavits falsely claim that Mr Joyce had said words to the effect that I, as minister, was targeting BGC and was going to make it difficult for it to tender for more work with the Department of Housing and Works.
    I completely reject these allegations. Nothing could be further from the truth. The policy initiatives that have been taken by the Government in the area of Department of Housing and Works contracting have at all times been aimed at promoting competition and have been general in their intent and application. My staff and I have stressed in conversations and correspondence with the director general and the department that any policies being applied in the housing and works area - whether to promote skills training, occupational health and safety or market competition - were about the general performance of the industry and not aimed at any company in particular. I have never - never - spoken to the director general in the manner or intent suggested in the affidavits; in fact, I have spoken to him in exactly the opposite terms indicating that while I was minister there would be no discrimination for or against individual
    companies; instead of informal arrangements between the department and individual contracting companies, there would be clear, transparent and open policy settings and framework.
    I specifically informed the director general on several occasions that I did not support the previous informal practices, which I had been led to believe had occurred, whereby the department had private discussions with contractors who were perceived to be getting too much work from the department. I was not happy with this practice and directed that an open and transparent policy be adopted, and this led to the contracts policy which has now been withdrawn. The director general has confirmed this with me today. In a memo to me today, 26 June 2003, entitled “STATEMENT BY
    GREG JOYCE - DIRECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND WORKS”, Mr Greg Joyce states -
    1 The market share of BGC in respect of public housing contracts has been an ongoing issue for many years. From time to time there has been criticism, primarily by the smaller builders in the same
    market, to myself as the head of the department and also to the respective Minister for Housing of the
    day.
    2 Historically, myself and my officers have dealt with the issue by discussing with Len Buckeridge or
    his officers the issue and asking his company to modify its market share. Len Buckeridge has always
    responded positively to these requests.
    3 The criticism of the smaller builders is that BGC has a thoroughly vertically integrated company and
    hence a tendering advantage and over

     

    [COUNCIL - Thursday, 26 June 2003]
    4 The view of the State Housing Commission (the legal body responsible for the implementation of
    public housing subject to the control and direction of the Minister for Housing) has always been to
    have an open tendering system but to closely monitor the tender process to ensure there is always a
    competitive base.
    5 BGC has always been an excellent builder, its performance in respect of time, cost and quality has
    been at an exceptionally high standard. I have no doubt that the keenness of the BGC’s tender rates
    over time has substantially contributed to the well being of public housing over a long time.
    6 The challenge for the department has always been to get a balance in the tendering process to ensure that the prices remain competitive in the short and long term.
    7 On 1 July 2001 the Ministry of Housing was amalgamated with the Works function of the Department of Contract and Management Services to form the Department of Housing and Works.
    8 BGC which historically had not been a large tenderer for public works (although it had won some
    large contracts from time to time) became very active in the tendering process for public works and
    won four big contracts in the early part of 2003.
    9 In respect of both telephone conversations I make the following points:
    • Minister Tom Stephens has always held the view that my ongoing discussions with BGC was not
    the correct way to deal with this issue. His view was that there should be a specific policy that
    applies to all builders that is open and transparent.
    • Minister Tom Stephens never asked me to discuss any issues with BGC.
    • Minister Tom Stephens never said to me he “is going to make it difficult for BGC Construction to
    tender for more work” nor has he said he “is looking for ways to get you (BGC) off the tender
    list.”
    10 It was in this context that I spoke to Len Buckeridge (as I have done on previous occasions) about his market share. I was becoming very concerned about the criticisms that were being raised at my level and also at the Ministerial level and I asked him to consider modifying his tendering rate. Both in
    respect of Works and Housing.
    11 In respect of the comments Len Buckeridge has alleged I have made, I make the following points:
    • I would have indicated to him that concerns were being raised both at my level and at the
    Minister’s level in respect of his market share.
    • I would have indicated to Len Buckeridge that in my view he was the best company we had on
    the tender list.
    • I would not have indicated that “Tom Stephens is looking for ways to get you off the tender list.”
    • I would not have told Tom Stephens that “if we were forced to use more builders we would have
    more bankruptcies and more late completions.” As this is contrary to the open tender system.
    12 In respect of the alleged telephone conversation I had with Gerry Forde I would have discussed the matter along similar lines to that of Len Buckeridge. I would not have said “You should be careful of Tom Stephens as he going to make it difficult for BGC Construction to tender for more work” but I
    would have indicated to Gerry Forde that concerns were being raised at my level and at the Minister’s
    level about the market share of BGC and that he should in consultation with Len Buckeridge
    reconsider his tendering schedule. I no doubt would have indicated my complete satisfaction with
    BGC and the way in which it operates.
    The advice concludes -
    My responsibility as Director General of the Department of Housing and Works is to get the best value for money for the State both in respect of public housing and public works. I must take a long term and a short term view. Ultimately I have always sought a balanced approach, to have a laissez faire system but a system that recognises the expectations of both the big and the small builders in this State.
    It is signed Greg Joyce, director general. I will table the director general’s comments at the conclusion of my remarks.
    I will now complete my ministerial statement. As Minister for Housing and Works I have never attempted to remove any company, including BGC, from a tender list. In the six months since December 2002, following the conversations alleged to have taken place between the director general and Mr Forde and Mr Buckeridge, the Department of Housing and Works has awarded $38 million worth of contracts to BGC Construction for four works projects and it has tendered for a number of others. I had to sign off on all those tenders, and I did. The company currently holds six contracts

     

    [COUNCIL - Thursday, 26 June 2003] 9317
    valued at between $1.5 million and $25 million, at a total value of $41 845 430. This represents just over one-quarter of the total value of contracts in this value range awarded by the department this financial year. Furthermore, BGC Construction has in the past year been very successful in securing housing contracts with the Department of Housing and Works. I note that BGC indicates that over the past 10 years it has held more than 100 contracts with the State Government. Between 1 July 2002 and 30 April 2003 BGC was awarded eight contracts valued at more than $500 000, for a total value of $8.2 million. These eight projects represent one-third of all residential contracts above $500 000
    awarded by the department in that period and 73 per cent of the metropolitan contracts. Further, BGC’s share of the total value of residential contracts was 45 per cent of the total and 81 per cent of the value of metropolitan residential contracts worth more than $500 000. BGC has been successful in winning further residential contracts since 30 April worth approximately $2 million. These figures do not demonstrate a Government or a minister supposedly targeting one company; namely, BGC. Indeed, the works policy did not address housing contracts below $1.5 million.
    Members will be interested to know that BGC was exempted from the application of the new policy in relation to two other large contracts for which expressions of interest had already been advertised and was included in tenders relating to those contracts. It is also included in the tendering process for the proposed redevelopment of Geraldton Regional Hospital, a project that fell outside the range of the policy. With regard to the Geraldton hospital project, a false claim was made yesterday wrongly suggesting that I had improperly interfered in the tendering process for this project, and the false suggestion was made that I had sought to increase the number of tenderers on the proposed short list for the project. Again I reject these accusations. The relevant facts are as follows: I never received a written recommendation
    from the director general of the Department of Housing and Works about the preferred number of tenderers. I had earlier asked, through my office, whether on a large job like this in a regional area all companies that had applied would be short-listed. DHW produces a document entitled “Tendering and Contracting Practices for Works Contracts”.
    Section 1.3.3. of the document relates to tendering for contracts greater than $25 million in value. The section states in part -
    Tenders will be selected, from those that have expressed an interest and responded to all the selection criteria, by a panel of senior DHW officers and, when appropriate, the responsible Consultant and a Client representative. In normal circumstances, this process will result in about three tenderers being selected and invited to submit a tender. Circumstances may dictate that a greater number be invited. However, this will never be less than three and only in unusual circumstances, or where necessary to meet local purchasing obligations, would the number exceed six. It should be noted that it is in the interests of Government not to confine the number of competitive bids too strictly. However, Government is also aware of the costs that tendering for contracts at this level places on the building industry.
    The director general received a memo on 21 May 2003 from his director of project services presenting him with three options for the number of companies to be short-listed from the eight submissions that were made. The first option was that five companies should be short-listed in accordance with the recommendation of the selection. The second option was to increase the number of short-listed tenderers to seven, as the sixth and seventh tenderers were just outside the determined cut-off score of six. However, the memo noted that this was one more than the industry desire of six and did not conform to stated guidelines. The third option was to increase the short list to include all eight applicants. This was not supported by the memo as it did not believe the eighth applicant had the experience and resource for this project.
    In effect, the second and third option, suggesting seven and eight short-listed companies respectively, were not within the Department of Housing and Works’ guidelines as stated above. The director general asked for my views on what would be an appropriate number of short-listed companies for the Geraldton project in view of the memo sent to him from his department. He expressed his preference for open tendering, subject to pre-qualification tests as occurs in the residential construction sector. However, he was also aware of the preference of the non-residential construction sector for short lists according to the department’s policy.
    After discussions with the director general, I asked whether the department would be comfortable proceeding to six tenderers being short-listed - the maximum number permitted under the department’s guidelines - to maximise competition for the contract. The director general indicated that he would be comfortable with that option. Today I am advised that after a meeting on 9 June, which was attended by officers from the department and my ministerial office, the decision was reached by the director general to opt for six companies on the short list. It was noted at that meeting that the sixth tenderer, Broad Construction Services Pty Ltd, had recently become part of a group of companies that included another of the short-listed companies. It was therefore decided, at my insistence, to also insist on a noncollusion clause being entered into by those two companies before allowing them to tender for the project. Again, that was done in the interests of maximising competition for the project.
    I was made aware at the meeting to which I just referred that Broad Construction Services was the sixth contractor on the list and that it had either just begun or was soon to begin a major unrelated construction project based in the Geraldton area. To my knowledge this had not been taken into account by the selection panel in its deliberations. As the tender was to include strategies for maximising local content as a key criterion for the project, this reinforced the

    view of increasing the number of tenderers from the selection panel’s recommendation of five to the maximum of six permitted under the department’s tendering and contracting practices publication.

    I have had no contact with Broad Construction Services but I presume the changed circumstances of the ownership of the company may well have meant that any historical links with personnel about whom there has been controversy have been terminated. This scant knowledge played absolutely no part in my suggestion to the director general that he should consider approving six tenderers. My interest in this issue was to promote the maximum extent of competition for the Geraldton Regional Hospital construction project - a project that I would hope has the support of all members of this place. I therefore reject utterly any allegation that I acted improperly with regard to this tender. I responded to questions from my director general, who was seeking advice on an issue over which the department was itself divided.

    In the case of the now withdrawn works contracting policy and the short-listing of companies for the Geraldton

    Regional Hospital project, I have acted solely for the purpose of promoting competition and value for money in

    government contracting. There has been no impropriety on my behalf and I completely refute the allegations made yesterday and by BGC officials about my discussions with the director general.

    I table an internal memorandum dated 26 June from the Director General of the Department of Housing and Works to me in my capacity as Minister for Housing and Works.

    [See paper No 1210.]

    Consideration of the statement made an order of the day for the next sitting, on motion by Hon Bruce Donaldson.









    1. 7 godzin temu - AFL mourns death of Dean Bailey after battle with lung cancer. Connect with ... Construction magnate Len Buckeridge dies after long illness.

    2.                             Sun City News: Home

    www.suncitynews.com.au/‎ 

     

    ... 2 hours, 4 minutes; Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 2 hours, 8 minutes ...Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

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    www.busseltonmail.com.au/‎ 

     

    ... Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 1 hour, 7 minutes; Malaysia Airlines ....Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

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    www.margaretrivermail.com.au/‎  

    ... Len Buckeridge dead 1 hour; Wave of funding for AMR Shire projects 1 hour, ....Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

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    www.webwombat.com.au/news/‎ 

     

    Business giant Len Buckeridge dead at 77 · Len's legacy looms over Perth · Political leaders launch WA Senate bid · Business icon Len Buckeridge dead.

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=-_0eU_SQN4HT7AbQ0IAI&start=40&sa=N

     

    1.                             Donnybrook-Bridgetown Mail: Donnybrook News, sport and weather

    www.donnybrookmail.com.au/‎ 

     

    ... Perth billionaire Len Buckeridge dead 1 hour, 8 minutes; Malaysia Airlines ....Overweight women are more likely to get ovarian cancer than their thinner ...

    1. [PDF]

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    info-thewest.anittel.net/westadvertising/feature/20131024/.../feature.pdf‎  

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    1. [PDF]

    information, resources and environmental changes: Review 1

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    Several factors increase the risk of developing and dying of skin cancer, for ...... olength and destination of the holiday (south vs. north Queensland), ...... Campbell M,Buckeridge D, Dwyer J, Fong S, Mann V, Sanchez-Sweatman O, et al.

    1. [PDF]

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    Joe, I was born union and will die union, I'm .... you listening Len Buckeridge? ..... see Whisk was diagnosed with prostate cancer – a lot of blokes can get it but  ...

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    www.questia.com › ... › March 2010‎ 

     

    Pozycje: 30+ - Research within Questia's collection of full-text online ...

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    6 lis 2012 - Mr Len Buckeridge and his consortium. (1) ...... centre at $55 million and the new cancer centre at $47 million—and, of course, in the northern ..... dangerous driving causing death or grievous bodily harm (section 59(1)(b)); or.

    7.                             Topic matches for may - The Daily Press

    www.ashlandwi.com/topic/?q=may&t...‎ 

     

    Leonard "Len" J. Hebert, 74, of 118 N. Fourth St., Bayfield, died Wednesday, Oct. 28,.... GURNEY — Dorothy A. Buckeridge, 72, of Gurney, died this morning, Wednesday, Oct. 14, 1998, at her home after a 3-1/2 year ordeal with breast cancer.

    1. [PDF]

    Winter 2011 - Every Australian Counts

    everyaustraliancounts.com.au/wp-content/uploads/.../cw_winter_2011.pd...‎ 

     

    Len Buckeridge, the boss of BGC, has come ..... forklifts every year, and five workers had died in forklift incidents since 2004. ..... currently working on the Cancer.

    1. [PDF]

    Who dies where, when and why? Modelling determinants and space ...

    wiredspace.wits.ac.za/.../Sartorius_Thesis_Final_23Nov2011.pdf?...1‎ 

     

    B Sartorius - ‎2011 - ‎Powiązane artykuły

    clusters, including for example for cancer (Moore and Carpenter, 1999; ... 2008), other diseases (Fang et al., 2006; Lombardo and Buckeridge , 2007; ...... Applying an equitylens to child health and mortality: more of the same is not enough.

    10.                        Annotations to League of Extraordinary Gentlemen Volume III ...

    jessnevins.com/annotations/1969annotations.html‎ 

     

    AA Milne, creator of Winnie-the-Pooh, bought the house in 1925, and died there on ...This usage appears in the contemporaneous Anthony Buckeridge series of ...... In A Cure for Cancer (1971), the second Jerry Cornelius novel, Cornelius is a ..... V. Woolf, of course, was married to the Jewish Leonard Woolf, but she and  ...

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=Mv4eU_ejAoSM7Qav8IDQAg&start

     

    1.                             WA News Archives - Page 23 of 43 - Perth news | oneperth.com.au

    www.oneperth.com.au/category/wa-news/page/23/‎ 

     

    24 paź 2011 - “Marri is an iconic tree species in Western Australia but this cancer is ...“It is very costly to remove these dead trees and repair the damage they do to ... in the Perth CBD and founded by Len Buckeridge - was relegated to third  ...

    2.                             IDEAS: Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier

    ideas.repec.org/s/eee/socmed26.html‎ 

     

    905-913 Disclosure of cancer diagnosis and prognosis in Northern Tanzania ..... M. & Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Johannesson, Magnus & Bingefors, Kerstin & Smith, Len .... Rob; 1663-1669 High-frequency death certifiers in Taiwan: a sociocultural product ... byBuckeridge, David L & Mason, Robin & Robertson, Ann & Frank, John  ...

    1. [PDF]

    Vol 39 No. 49 December 08, 2012 - Post Newspapers

    https://www.postnewspapers.com.au/editions/20121208/pdf/paper.pdf‎ 

     

    8 gru 2012 - who had died days earlier from lung cancer, aged 50. ...... The Malcolm Sargent Cancer. Fund for ...... A Len Buckeridge company has been.

    1. [PDF]

    Exposure to vehicle-exhaust has also been linked to ovarian cancer

    www5.mississauga.ca/agendas/planning/.../Item07_PublicHealth_UF.pdf‎ 

     

    26 cze 2006 - Reducing the length of car trips will free up time and reduce stress for those that must use .... people in Ontario will die prematurely in 2005 because of ..... 25Buckeridge D, Glazier R, Harvey B, Escobar M, Amrhein C, Frank J.

    5.                             在线留言 - 庞贝捷漆油贸易(上海)有限公司

    www.nexaautocolor.com.cn/index.php/service/feedback?amp%3Bp...‎ 

     

    It\'s believed more than one thousand people died. The cause ... Sixteen of them are 70 or over, including Len Buckeridge, who is fighting for his life. Another longtime billionaire, Richard Pratt, lost his battle with cancer in late April, at age 74.

    6.                             Wedding photos resurface after being buried in quake - Entertainment

    entertainment.topnewstoday.org › Entertainment‎ 

     

    21 paź 2012 - BGC owner Len Buckeridge has offered his condolences to the family of a man who died after being buried alive in a sand silo at a company site. news.com.au (1 .... Ray Price Dead at 87: Country Star Loses Cancer Battle.

    7.                             Winnipeg Free Press, Tuesday, January 09, 2001, Page 36

    newspaperarchive.com › ... › Tuesday, January 09, 2001‎ 

     

    9 sty 2001 - ... WILLIAM ALLAN Born in July died at Van couver Hospital University of... or The Canadian Cancer OLGA PAULINE DRAILICK Sunday January at the ... went to his eternal Harold is survived by his sister Verna Buckeridge of by ... Sue Drouin of Montreal as well as brother Len Elsie of Colston was born in  ...

    1. [PDF]

    POHEM-OA - NATSEM

    www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/.../NATSEM%20presentation%20Nov%20...‎ 

     

    David Buckeridge ... Cancer. • Methodological issues. – Model validation methods. – Use of large ..... For each person, HUI3 trajectory (current age to death) is .....OA/arthritis prevalence projections for Canada. 0.15. 0.2. 0.25. 0.3 va len c e.

    9.                             Workers Online Print Edition

    workers.labor.net.au/232/print_index.html‎ 

     

    6 sie 2004 - ... Perth case, anti-union activist Len Buckeridge's, BGC, binds its sub-contractors to only employing on AWAs. ... The federal government, employers like the Buckeridge Group, and the .... and hot temperatures may have led to the high rate ofcancer. .... Josh died too young with too much to offer the world.

    10.                        NLA Newspaper User Profile - Trove

    trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/profile/user:public:wattlesong‎ 

     

    His death was registered on the WA BDM at Roebourne 15/1913. ..... 2012-03-30 00:55:53.0, Lt. Leonard Charles COOKE, M.C., killed 7th October, 1917.

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=Zf4eU96tFYOq7QaykoC4BA

     

    1.                             cancer surveillance system: Topics by Science.gov

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    The Integrated Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer .... women are more likely to die from breast cancer than women of any other racial/ethnic group. ...... in terms of wavelength, resolution, field-of-view, focal length or sensitivity. ...... Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David; Okhmatovskaia, Anna; Tu, Samson W.;  ...

    1. [PDF]

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    www.garvan.org.au/about-us/annual.../garvan-annual-report-2007.pdf‎ 

     

    Determined that cancer cell DNA with altered methylation patterns can be ......Pancreatic cancer is the “fth leading cause of cancer death in Western societies, with a “ve year survival rate of less ...... Mr Len Ainsworth ... Mr Graham Buckeridge.

    1. [PDF]

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    4.                             On This Day in History - Tamil Chat - Friends Tamilchat

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    27 cze 2013 - 2012 - Don Grady [Agrati], American actor, dies from cancer at 68. Logged .... 1970 - Mary Mills wins LPGA Len Immke Buick Golf Open 1971 - Fillmore East closes ..... 2004 - Anthony Buckeridge, English author (b. 1912)

    5.                             BBC - Programmes - A to Z, Id

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    Pozycje: 90+ - Accessibility links. Skip to content; Accessibility Help.

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    1. [PDF]

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    David Syme, who died in 1908, includes a surprisingly ... Cancer as a .... (L-R) Darryl Bennet, Chris Cunneen, John Lack, Paul Pickering, Pat Buckridge, Stephen Garton, Jill Roe, Nick Brown, Tom ...... BEADELL, Len (1923-1995), surveyor.

    1. [PDF]

    Innovations in Post-Marketing Safety Research - TI Pharma

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    30 sie 2011 - Intensive Glucose Control and Risk of Cancer in Patients with Type II ......Length of COX-2 inhibitor treatment has been mentioned in the .... death in patients treated with cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective and non-selective non-steroidal ...... [10] Eguale T, Buckeridge DL, Winslade NE, Benedetti A, Hanley JA,  ...

    8.                             WA s - Docstoc

    www.docstoc.com/docs/154695077/WA-s‎ 

     

    29 kwi 2013 - His Buckeridge after 20 years together to inject a little touch of the company ..... mother and two sisters died in the Holocaust, but his father, a Czech ....$4.3b 3 Angela Bennett and Michael Wright $2.7b 4 Len Buckeridge $2.6b 5 Kerry...... so investment has caused his son, Comprehensive Cancer Centre at  ...

    9.                             cancer-a uk population-based: Topics by WorldWideScience.org

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    Information on patient characteristics, primary treatment and cause of death was .....and the excess hazard of dying from breast cancer up to 3 years after diagnosis. ......Kopec Jacek A; Finès Philippe; Manuel Douglas G; Buckeridge David L; ...... or dislocated lens extraction, performed 1 to 14 days after cataract surgery.

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    www.scribd.com/doc/.../POST-Newspaper-for-3rd-of-November-2012‎ 

     

    2 lis 2012 - talking to died in the wool. Liberal and former party ...... A Len Buckeridgecompany ...... for cancer services at PMH over the past six years.

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    1.                             march 2012 edition - full issue (pdf) - Canadian Healthcare ...

    www.canhealth.com/.../Canadian%20Healthcare%20Technology%20201...‎ 

     

    2 mar 2012 - of Dr. David Buckeridge, an assistant professor of .... Trevor Hodge, Dr. Wendy Graham, and U of T's Kevin Leonard. am. ..... tension, cancer, and many other condi- tions has ..... 9,000 to 24,000 Canadians die annually af-.

    2.                             Australasian Business Intelligence December 28, 2003 Article ...

    www.highbeam.com › ... › Oct - Dec 2003‎ 

     

    28 gru 2003 - Articles from Australasian Business Intelligence December 28, 2003 on HighBeam Research.

    3.                             103_4365 - Virtuous Magazine

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    18 wrz 2010 - ... kind of uterine cancer, cataracts, sexual problems, and hot flashes....... die ohne eine passende KFZ-Versicherung unmoglich bezahlbar wären. ...... Len Buckeridge Married with 6 children, age 73 This is the best and most  ...

    1. [PDF]

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    Sun Sense, Canadian Cancer Society ...... lens is not new to Community Health ......condition who die over a certain period ...... Buckeridge DL, Moghadas SM.

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    https://www.facebook.com/TheIndependentOnline?rf...filter=1‎ 

     

    Japanese WWII soldier who refused to surrender for three decades dies aged 91 http://ind.pn/19yRMa1 ... Google have unveiled the prototype of a 'smart' contact lensthat will help diabetics by monitoring the blood sugar ...... Did she cure cancer. ....Cåmpbell Buckeridge Had the potential to be a very gruesome sack whack.

    1. [PDF]

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    24 sty 2012 - Already a small child has died this year from non-accidental injuries and.... and Dr Sharad Paul for his medical breakthrough in skin cancer treatment. ... One Labour person who has said something at length in public during the ..... others on the menu included the Jennings series by Anthony Buckeridge,  ...

    1. [PDF]

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    John Buckeridge, RMIT University School of Civil,. Environmental and ...... would design genetics so that cancers did not arise! .... also been discussed at length in the second volume of ..... 'type' died, it would still be expected (on that view) that  ...

    1. [PDF]

    Summer 2010 - Department of Pediatrics - University of British ...

    pediatrics.med.ubc.ca/files/2012/03/PediagogueSummer201019658.pdf‎ 

     

    It has provided me with a broader lens with which to view medicine and .... represents approximately 10% of the number who die by HIV or malaria each ...... with cancer, infectious diseases, the lungs, atherosclerosis, type I .... Kwong JC, Foisy J, Quan S, Heidebrecht C, Kolbe F, Bettinger JA, Buckeridge DL, Chambers LW,  ...

    1. [PDF]

    Print this article - Emerging Health Threats Journal

    www.eht-journal.net/index.php/ehtj/article/download/7174/8090‎ 

     

    DG Cochrane

    Influenza mortality surveillance using a statewide electronic death registration system F Nebraska, 2009–2010. BF Buss, R ... AG Hoen, DL Buckeridge, KML Charland, KD Mandl, and JS Brownstein. 38. ...... through the lens of social competition between public ...... Cancer Institute: Bethesda, MD, 2007, www.satscan.org.

    https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=zf4eU5niDanT7AaLvIHAAg&start=80&sa=N

     

    1.                             Endsleigh Salon update - dovegreyreader scribbles

    dovegreyreader.typepad.com/dovegreyreader_scribbles/2010/.../en.html‎ 

     

    10 lut 2010 - HAGEGE Claude : On the Death and Life of Language .... ACOCELLA MARCHETTO Marisa : Cancer Vixen · ADICHIE .... one from 1998 entitled School Stories From Bunter to Buckeridge edited by ...... Len Chester: Bugle Boy

    1. [PDF]

    The importance of staffroom friendships - Victoria Online

    https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/.../inspire2mar2011.pd...‎ 

     

    24 mar 2011 - nikon D90 Lens with a zoom shutter speed of 30 seconds. You can see the ..... Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer among 12 to ...... passing by and even die-hard beach bums admitted ...... Buckeridge, edward.

    1. [PDF]

    CRC Compendium - Cooperative Research Centres

    www.crc.gov.au/Publications/Past-publications/.../Compendium_2002.pd...‎ 

     

    29 maj 2002 - (Australia) Pty Ltd; Comalco Aluminium Limited; Australian Die ..... AOC Australia Ltd; Allen and Buckeridge Pty Ltd; Australian Photonics ...... The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. ..... The ultimate contact lens is comfortable and biocompatible to the  ...

    1. [PDF]

    July 2012 Bulletin - The Royal College of Pathologists

    https://www.rcpath.org/Resources/Images/July2012BulletinWeb.pdf‎ 

     

    27 lip 2012 - in advance for the length of this account but it's inescapable, as you will see ..... with the Cancer Research Campaign though the generous .... Whimster, after his untimely death. The Bulletin is a ...... Mr David Mark Buckeridge.

    1. [PDF]

    Autumn 2012 - The Ramsgate Society

    www.ramsgate-society.org.uk/archive/about-ramsgate-autumn-2012.pdf‎ 

     

    2 lis 2012 - From Further Afield. Mr Tim Buckeridge - Lewes, Mr David Webster - Chipping Sodbury, .... death to his friend and business adviser in the period when he was .... typhus, gout and cancer. ... the length of St. Luke's Avenue and.

    1. [PDF]

    Vol 47.pdf - International Union of Biological Science

    www.iubs.org/pdf/publi/BI/Vol%2047.pdf‎ 

     

    John Buckeridge, RMIT University School of Civil,. Environmental and ...... would design genetics so that cancers did not arise! .... also been discussed at length in the second volume of ..... 'type' died, it would still be expected (on that view) that  ...

    1. [PDF]

    Nov. 2005 - Eubios Ethics Institute

    www.eubios.info/EJ112005b.pdf‎ 

     

    19 paź 2005 - Keywords: death, decisions, killing, ethics of concerns, ...... see people not through race lens, but through their .... differences in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer. ..... John Buckeridge in his paper “Applying Ethics in a.

    1. [PDF]

    7 April 2011 issue - Coromandel Peninsula Post

    www.peninsulapost.co.nz/_literature_87874/7_April_2011_issue‎ 

     

    7 kwi 2011 - but tomatoes develop die back if the leaves are ..... Phone Len 867. 1607...... Kay Buckeridge and Chrissie. Smith .... Cancer Society. About a  ...

    9.                             ISSUU - APR05-07 by The Monitor Inc

    issuu.com/themonitornewspaper/docs/apr05-07‎ 

     

    5 kwi 2007 - Prominent expert, Professor John Buckeridge, Head of the School of Civil,... Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women ..... C/port UMR & drive thru to attached c/port, full length rear verandah ..... the dog dies or is missing or the ownership of the dog is transferred to another person.

    10.                        Discussions | New News Thread [Archive] - Page 17 - SkyscraperCity

    www.skyscrapercity.com › ... › Western Australia‎ 

     

    23 maj 2012 - Liczba postów: 100 i więcej - ‎Liczba autorów: 39

    if it wasnt for len buckeridge someone else wouldve created BGC? .... at roy hill? a project that she found and started AFTER her father died and has now been valued at $12bn? ...... She probably could cure cancer with that $.

    1. https://www.google.ie/search?q=len+buckeridge+dies+of+cancer&rlz=1C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=9

    1.                             Blog 24 (for 2012) / (Contents) - Just World Campaign

    www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont24.htm‎ 

     

    "The royal commission was a dead duck after that," said former detective Mick ...... by the pharmaceutical industry, or cancer researchers who are funded by the ...... houses on them, which builders like Len Buckeridge would quickly supply.

    2.                             Derek Watkins's Memorial Website - Condolences | OurMemoryOf.com

    ourmemoryof.com/DerekWatkins/condolences/‎ 

     

    22 mar 2013 - I was so saddened to hear on the Monday of Derek's death that very same weekend. What an ... Then I read at the internet about his recovery from cancer...... Len Skeat 7 April, 2013 ..... Corin Buckeridge 26 March, 2013.

    1. [PDF]

    To download a PDF of the Department of Medicine 2012-13 report ...

    thinkottawamedicine.ca/wp.../DOM_AnnualReport_2012-13_Web.pdf‎ 

     

    Heart Institute, Multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Consultations, and the Complex Airway Clinic. CLINICAL CARE ... time while decreasing length of stay and in-hospital mortality. We understand ..... Born but to die, and reasoning but to err;. Alike in ......Huang AR, Mallet L, Rochefort C, Buckeridge D, Eguale T, Tamblyn RM.

    1. [PDF]

    A Manager's Guide to Public Health Geomatics - CP-IDEA

    www.cp-idea.org/.../126-a-managers-guide-to-public-health-geomatics?...‎ 

     

    26 lut 2010 - only be realized by applying a spatial lens is a very powerful message. ......Cancer is the top cause of premature death in Canada and is expected to consume a steadily ..... Email address:david.buckeridge@mcgill.ca  ...

    5.                             Mr Gnome's Blog: January 2008

    mrgnomeisblogging.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html‎ 

     

    2 sty 2008 - Anthony Buckeridge's skill is to find laugh-aloud comedy in the lives of boys ..... of the picture stares directly into the lens, knees drawn up to his chest. ... my grandmother for twenty-eight years until her early death from cancer.

    1. [PDF]

    CSIRO Annual Report 1996-1997

    www.csiro.au/~/media/.../CSIRO_Annual_Report_1996-1997.pdf‎ 

     

    of prostate cancer;. - production of one of ...... equivalent of a wide-angle lens. .... were three times more likely to die in crashes than if ...... Dr Roger Buckeridge.

    1. [PDF]

    macro to nano spectroscopy - Indian Institute of Technology Indore

    iiti.ac.in/people/~xray/book.pdf‎ 

     

    length spectrophotometry, and diode array spectrophotometers. ...... (accumulation of fluid in the lungs), cancer of the lung and nasal sinus ulcers, ...... necropsy material from infants that died of sudden infant death syndrome and from ...... Amaral, L.I.V.; Gaspar, M.; Costa, P.M.F.; Aidar, M.P.M. & Buckeridge, M.S. (2007).

    8.                             Black Dossier Annotations - Enjolrasworld.com

    www.enjolrasworld.com/Jess%20Nevins/Black%20Dossier/dossier.html‎ 

     

    “Fighter ace dies” is presumably a reference to something, but the .... Peter Sanderson writes, "The Picture of Dorian Gray was a full-length portrait, whereas the picture ......Queen Mary I (1516-1558) died of what was likely ovarian cancer. ...... from the left looks a lot like JCT Jennings from the series by Anthony Buckeridge.

    1. [PDF]

    Proceedings of the 1998 Geographic Information ... - HealthCyberMap

    healthcybermap.org/HGeo/res/gisbook.pdf‎ 

     

    D Buckeridge (1), L Purdon (2), the South East Toronto Urban Health Research .... GIS Analysis of Brain Cancer Incidence near National Priorities List Sites in ...... event should activate investigation of possibly related factors of each death: ...... difference between the areas in terms of subjects' age or exposure length (p>.1).

    1. [PDF]

    Tribute to Prof. Otto R. Gottlieb - Instituto de Química - Unicamp

    chipre.iqm.unicamp.br/~marcia/BCNP.pdf‎ 

     

    4 lis 2007 - Marcos Silveira Buckeridge ...... JURD, LEONARD; WONG, ROSALIND Y. New quinolinone Alkaloids from the heartwood of ...... ascitic fluid, relative number oftumor cells , number of dead tumoral cells and total number.

    ies+of+�%de&� ps� C1KMZB_enIE522IE524&espv=210&es_sm=93&ei=9_4eU-C9MIHA7AbG6ICICg&start=90&sa=N#" target="_blank" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); text-decoration: none; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; min-height: 12px; line-height: 27px; margin: 0px; min-width: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: center; background-image: none; border: 0px; width: 13px; display: inline-block;">
    4 lis 2007 - Marcos Silveira Buckeridge ...... JURD, LEONARD; WONG, ROSALIND Y. New quinolinone Alkaloids from the heartwood of ...... ascitic fluid, relative number oftumor cells , number of dead tumoral cells and total number.





    AUSTRALIA: BIKIES, TRIADS, OFFICIALS LINKED IN DRUG SMUGGLING RING
    by ABC News -
    September 8th, 2010


    “….The Triads are already reported in WikiPedia and other major reliable news and information organizations as being involved with illegal activities such as illegal gambling, loan sharking, money laundering, murder, heroin and opium, arms trafficking, prostitution, people smuggling, extortion, counterfeiting and, to a lesser extent, home invasion robberies.. etc…”

    http://www.fas.org/irp/world/australia/docs/ncaaoc2.html

    “. PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

    ASIAN ORGANISED CRIME IN AUSTRALIA

    A Discussion Paper by the Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority- February 1995

     

    3. Asian Organised Crime - Definitions

    3.1 The words 'Asian', 'organised' and 'crime' each require a brief comment in order to explain the scope of the remainder of this discussion paper.

    3.2 The discussion paper deals with the three ethnically-based groupings commonly regarded as making up the 'Asian' organised crime of interest to Australian law enforcement agencies:

    The various Chinese groups, sometimes referred to as the triads;

    The Vietnamese groups;

    and the Japanese groups, generally referred to as the yakuza or boryokudan.

    3.3 The Report of the Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements recommended that the NCA have 'a strategic and/or coordination role' in respect of eleven matters, three of which were 'Chinese Triad Societies', 'Vietnamese organised crime groups', and 'Yakuza groups' (para. 7.50(4)). The Government has accepted this recommendation..”.

     

    http://www.flarenetwork.org/learn/asia_and_pacific/article/australia_bikies_triads_officials_linked_in_drug_smuggling_ring.htm

    One of the nation's biggest investigations into organised crime has exposed an international drug importation syndicate with links to the Comancheros outlaw bikie gang, Chinese triads and corrupt Australian officials

    The two-year Operation Hoffman has uncovered how multi-million-dollar crime syndicates are operating like multinational enterprises, evading police by drawing on local and overseas resources and the latest technology.

    It has led to major ecstasy, heroin and crystal methamphetamine drug busts across Australia, the biggest-ever drug bust on the Pacific island group of Tonga, and the discovery in May last year of a bikie armoury in Sydney - including automatic weapons and imitation police equipment.

    Those arrested include alleged drug runners with links to Chinese triads and the Perth president of the Comancheros, Steven Milenkovski.

    Despite Hoffman severely damaging the bikie group, the Comancheros have continued establishing a foothold in Melbourne under the control of local club controller Amad 'Jay' Malkhoun, a convicted heroin trafficker with interests in several Melbourne strip clubs

    Operation Hoffman, a landmark multi-agency investigation led by the Australian Crime Commission, has also revealed the deep links between drug importers and rogue Australian maritime workers.

    A joint ABC Four Corners and The Age investigation into organised crime can also reveal that:

    In Victoria, authorities have uncovered links between corrupt Melbourne port workers, the Hells Angels and prominent Italian criminals

    NSW police have identified a group of drug-importing Sydney port workers with government maritime security cards who have been active since 2004

    Law enforcement agencies in Sydney recently updated a list of 150 organised crime targets in NSW alone

    The two-year Operation Hoffman has uncovered how multi-million-dollar crime syndicates are operating like multinational enterprises, evading police by drawing on local and overseas resources and the latest technology.

    It has led to major ecstasy, heroin and crystal methamphetamine drug busts across Australia, the biggest-ever drug bust on the Pacific island group of Tonga, and the discovery in May last year of a bikie armoury in Sydney - including automatic weapons and imitation police equipment.

    Those arrested include alleged drug runners with links to Chinese triads and the Perth president of the Comancheros, Steven Milenkovski.

    Despite Hoffman severely damaging the bikie group, the Comancheros have continued establishing a foothold in Melbourne under the control of local club controller Amad 'Jay' Malkhoun, a convicted heroin trafficker with interests in several Melbourne strip clubs.

    One of Hoffman's key targets is Hakan Ayik, 32, from Sydney, who is understood to have worked as the local manager of an international drug syndicate with strong links to the triads and which used domestic criminal networks, including outlaw bikie clubs, as distributors and to provide muscle.

    NSW police intelligence describes Ayik as a ''very serious money maker'' who ''generates a lot of money'' for the Comancheros and has multiple links to waterfront workers. Operation Hoffman ended earlier this month after NSW police issued an arrest warrant for Ayik for drug trafficking. It is believed he is now on the run.

    http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/racing-watchdog-investigates-asian-crime-gang/story-fni0fee2-1226808017606

    Racing watchdog investigates Asian crime gang

    CARLY CRAWFORD- HERALD SUN-JANUARY 22, 2014

    AN Asian triad is moving to infiltrate Australian horse racing, sparking an unprecedented investigation by racing authorities.

    The Herald Sun can reveal a suspected senior figure, active within Hong Kong's notoriously violent crime gangs, has invested heavily in thoroughbred racing in Australia.

    He owns a local horse stud and has connections to some of the biggest-name horses in Australian racing, including a Melbourne Cup runner.

    Law enforcement and integrity figures believe the crime boss is a triad money launderer. Racing Integrity Commissioner Sal Perna confirmed he would investigate the man's activities with assistance from the Australian Crime Commission.

    "We have received information about this matter and disclosed it to the ACC for assessment," Mr Perna said.

    The Herald Sun cannot identify the figure or his assets for legal reasons.

    The suspected triad figure is known to global integrity authorities as a key player in a powerful Hong Kong triad.

    Hong Kong's dominant triads are the Sun Yee On and 14K.

    A wealthy and apparently legitimate businessman, the figure heads a global manufacturing empire.

    His business interests span a range of other fields, including mining, property, resources and horse racing.

    He heads an international organisation that has secured ownership of a horse stud in Australia and has purchased a number of horses, according to industry figures. The stud acquired by his firm is home to some of the finest thoroughbred bloodlines in Australia. In a statement to the Herald Sun, Hong Kong police declined to publicly identify any triad members, but said: "Some individual members or persons claiming to have triad affiliations are occasionally found involving in criminal activities overseas or cross-boundary."

    Triad-related crime accounts for about three per cent of all crime in Hong Kong, police said. The alleged triad figure heads a big investment firm that is listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange. Its business interests extend to Macau, the United Kingdom, China and Australia.

    It does business out of a tropical tax haven.

    The triad figure is listed as a director of a public company in Australia whose business relates to thoroughbreds. The Sun Yee On is Hong Kong's biggest, richest and best organised triad. It has tens of thousands of members and deals in nightclub standover, illegal gambling, drugs and extortion. According to officials from the Hong Kong Police Organised Crime and Triad Bureau, the Sun Yee On remains ¬active. Some of its members are alleged to have Communist Party links and dozens have been arrested for slashing to death members of rival gangs. Triad 14K is known for loan sharking, illegal gambling and the brutal public executions of its rivals.

    http://www.fas.org/irp/world/australia/docs/ncaaoc2.html

    PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

    ASIAN ORGANISED CRIME IN AUSTRALIA

    A Discussion Paper by the Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority- February 1995

    3. Asian Organised Crime - Definitions

    3.1 The words 'Asian', 'organised' and 'crime' each require a brief comment in order to explain the scope of the remainder of this discussion paper.

    3.2 The discussion paper deals with the three ethnically-based groupings commonly regarded as making up the 'Asian' organised crime of interest to Australian law enforcement agencies:

    The various Chinese groups, sometimes referred to as the triads;

    The Vietnamese groups;

    and the Japanese groups, generally referred to as the yakuza or boryokudan.

    3.3 The Report of the Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements recommended that the NCA have 'a strategic and/or coordination role' in respect of eleven matters, three of which were 'Chinese Triad Societies', 'Vietnamese organised crime groups', and 'Yakuza groups' (para. 7.50(4)). The Government has accepted this recommendation.

    3.4 The Committee recognises that the vast majority of the ethnic communities referred to are not involved in organised, or indeed any, criminal activity. In using ethnicity as a defining factor, the Committee is following the well-established practice of law enforcement agencies both in Australia and overseas. In the view of these agencies, the particular criminal organisations use membership of the relevant ethnic group as a key factor in determining who is allowed to participate, especially at the more senior levels or in taking the major roles in particular crimes. Ethnic group membership is sometimes seen as a key factor enabling ethnic-group organised crime to be more successful than other groups. note#4 It is a matter for debate, however, whether the ethnic factor is sometimes overstated in the context of 'Asian organised crime' in Australia.

    3.5 Russian organised crime has attracted a great deal of media interest since the break-up of the Soviet Union. However, it is not covered in this discussion paper, mainly because it is not conventionally considered as 'Asian'. Moreover, there is, it seems, little evidence that it has established any Australian presence so far. Only one significant case appears to have been reported, the one in 1993 by the Australian Federal Police (AFP): note#5

    In January 1993, the AFP provided ACS [Australian Customs Service] with information which led to the targeting of Russian ships visiting Melbourne. As a result, a Russian seaman was arrested as he left the dock area in possession of 5.5kg of heroin and l50g of cannabis resin. Further inquiries resulted in the arrest of two alleged principals in Melbourne. This operation was the culmination of several years investigation and resulted in the identification of alleged syndicate members in the former Soviet Union and Australia. AFP members have travelled to Russia and as a result liaison has been established with the Russian police authorities.

    3.6 However, by omitting consideration of Russian organised crime from this discussion paper, the Committee is not taking issue with the view that Australian agencies must remain alert to the real possibility that Russian-based criminal groups may target Australia. The Committee notes that the Report of the Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements recommended that the NCA have 'a strategic and/or coordination role' in respect of, amongst other groups, 'Eastern Block Organised Crime Groups', and that the Government has accepted this recommendation

    3.7 Although geographically part of Asia, the Lebanon is not normally considered 'Asian' in the context of discussion of Asian organised crime. Hence, the Committee's discussion paper does not cover the activities of organised Lebanese criminal groups in Australia, although the Committee notes that such groups have for many years been involved in drug trafficking into Australia. note#6

    3.8 Organised crime groups of ethnic Koreans reportedly exist in the United States, note#7 but there is nothing that the Committee is aware of to suggest they have established any presence in Australia.

    3.9 The question of how best to define the term 'organised crime' has caused much debate over the years. note#8 For the purposes of this discussion paper, the Committee does not consider it necessary to enter into this debate or to define organised crime in any rigorous way. The following definition used by the NCA will serve: 'For the purpose of describing the broader criminal environment, the NCA defines organised crime as a systematic and continuing conspiracy to commit serious offences'. note#9

    3.10 The Committee recognises, however, that an important issue in assessing the threat from, and the impact of, Asian organised crime in Australia is the degree to which it is organised. One of the suggestions made in this discussion paper is that Asian organised crime, as it impacts on Australia at least, is considerably less organised than might be thought from an uncritical reading of media reports. The Committee considers that the following observation made in 1989 by Dr Grant Wardlaw is pertinent in this context:

    It seems that one problem we have is that we may often confuse criminal organisation or sophistication with organised crime. As society becomes more complex and as technologies open the way to new crimes or more sophisticated or larger scale ways of committing old ones, so the nature of crime is changing with the result that it is, almost by definition, becoming more organised. Looked at this way, most major crime will eventually become organised crime. Surely this is not what we mean when we speak of organised crime though, and use its existence to justify the creation of new investigative agencies and the legislating of new powers? Nevertheless, it seems to me that many of the cases, particularly in the drug trafficking field, which are cited as evidence of the grip of organised crime are evidence of nothing more than organisation and (rarely) sophistication. To be sure, this constitutes a serious law enforcement problem, but one which does not carry the sinister implications of being 'organised crime'. note#10

    4. Chinese Organised Crime in Australia

    Scope of Criminal Activity

    4.1 The attention of Australian law enforcement agencies has focused on Chinese organised criminal activity in relation to a wide range of matters, including drug importation and distribution, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution, extortion, immigration malpractice and money laundering. A relatively new area in which organised ethnic-Chinese are believed to be prominent is sophisticated credit card fraud. note#11 There appears to be no solid evidence of significant organised, ethnic-Chinese, street gang activity, although it is difficult to be sure as there are many media reports that refer simply to 'Asian' gangs. note#12

    4.2 The priority interest of Australian agencies has been in relation to organised, ethnic-Chinese, involvement in heroin trafficking into Australia from south-east Asia.

    Drug Trafficking Activities

    4.3 A 1991 assessment for the Commonwealth Government stated:

    In terms of what might be termed 'mainstream' importation of heroin to meet Australian market demand, the principal source region (in terms of regularity of supply) is South-East Asia. This statement is not intended to diminish the importance and threat from other regions; a significant amount of heroin is known to be sourced from South-West Asia and the Middle East (even though seizure results indicate that these areas are responsible for 5 to 10 per cent of overall supply, some enforcement authorities estimate that the real order of magnitude is much higher than this). The assertion concerning South-East Asia as the principal source of heroin supply is persuasively based on both the consistent intelligence reporting on criminal activities and in the investigative outcomes of successful seizures of heroin. note#13

    4.4 Others agree on the importance of south-east Asia as a source of the heroin arriving in Australia. The Report of the New South Wales Crime Commission for the year ended 30 June 1993, for example, stated on page 16 that 'the large importations mainly originate in China and South East Asia'. More recently, the Australian Federal Police (AFP) stated: 'Some 80% of the heroin seized in Australia can be sourced to the Golden Triangle' note#14 - that is, to the area in south-east Asia where Burma, Thailand and Laos meet.

    4.5 Australian law enforcement agencies believe that ethnic Chinese have been for many years, and still are, the major organisers of heroin imports into Australia. A 1988 media report cited the National Crime Authority's Chinese liaison officer as saying that the Chinese had been linked to every major seizure of heroin in the previous two financial years, totalling 63 kg, and that an estimated 96 per cent of those cargoes seized had been triad-related. note#15

    4.6 A 1991 assessment stated: 'The AFP and others estimate that Chinese crime groups are responsible for the importation of perhaps 80 per cent of all heroin being imported into Australia'. note#16 According to a media report based on a leaked 1992 national intelligence assessment, 85 to 90 per cent of heroin imports into Australia were organised by Chinese organised crime groups. note#17 The NSW Crime Commission reported in 1993: 'Essentially, heroin importation is largely controlled by persons of Chinese origin in Australia and overseas'. note#18 The AFP said in 1994 that:

    Stability in the price of heroin and its quality in Australia indicate the importation of heroin into Australia is well organised and dominated by Chinese Organised Crime groups. Heroin is routed through Bangkok, the Malay Peninsula, Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China. note#19

    4.7 Ethnic-Chinese are much less dominant in the distribution of heroin once it has been imported. The NSW Crime Commission reported in 1992 on organised heroin trafficking:

    Some groups are concentrated at certain levels. Thus it has been observed that the highest stratum is often occupied by persons of Chinese origin who tend to be responsible for the introduction of much heroin to Australia and conduct the largest bulk transactions. It is unusual to find persons of Chinese origin in a supply stratum involving small quantities. The pattern is less consistent with other groups which will buy bulk locally and also engage in importation. Their associates within a group may occupy a range of levels in the supply chain and they will deal with groups which dominate particular levels such as the Chinese groups. note#20

    4.8 A 1991 intelligence assessment stated:

    One feature of heroin trafficking arrangements in Australia that reinforces the notion of an accommodation between operators, is that the majority of the importation efforts of the Chinese criminal groups is geared towards supplying other, non-Chinese, groups for their own distribution networks. The Chinese operate what is largely a heroin wholesale business, with little evidence of their further involvement downstream into retail distribution. note#21

    Triad Societies and Chinese Organised Crime

    4.9 In much popular discussion, Chinese organised crime is treated as synonymous with the triad societies, although the importance of the connection between the two is a matter for some debate. The following description of the triads is taken in edited form from a 1992 report of a United States Senate subcommittee: note#22

    Modern triads trace their history to secret political societies formed in China during the 17th Century to overthrow the Ching Dynasty and to restore the Ming Dynasty to power. The term 'triad', later coined by British authorities in Hong Kong, is based on the triangular symbol found on flags and banners of the early secret societies. The symbol represents the three essential elements of heaven, earth, and man.

    Because the early triads were attempting to topple the ruling elements of the day, and had, in fact, been persecuted in the past they developed secret forms of identification and communication. Triads today remain obsessively secretive and closed criminal fraternities. The triads also developed highly ritualized initiation ceremonies meant to instill a strong sense of secrecy, and more importantly, loyalty to other triad members. ...

    The existence of triads is most extensively documented in Hong Kong, where the number of triad members is estimated to be in the tens of thousands, and to a lesser extent in Taiwan. ...

    Triad societies all display some degree of hierarchy, and a typical triad has members organized by rank. Each rank carries a title and a numerical value, based on triad ritual. The leader of a triad is known as the 'Dragon Head,' and carries the rank '489'. Other 'office bearer' positions also exist, including '438', which is the second highest rank in a triad, and may be held by several different officials. ... other triad members are known as ordinary members or soldiers, and hold the rank of '49'. The relationships among individual triad members are based on ties between 'Dai-Lo's' (big brothers) and 'Sai-Lo's' (little brothers), where the Sai-Lo's give loyalty, support and sometimes money to their Dai-Lo, in exchange for protection and advice.

    Although hierarchical in nature, triads tend not to be strictly controlled from the top, in contrast to more familiar crime groups such as La Cosa Nostra. Instead, triad members frequently branch out into their own criminal enterprises. While the triad leadership does not always initiate and direct the activities of all the triad members, triads clearly serve as international networking associations that facilitate such activity. Moreover, monetary profits from criminal activity of triad members often flow to the top in indirect ways, such as through gifts. ...

    As one member of the Hong Kong-based 14K triad testified:

    "I was not required to pay any percentage of profits to the 14K leadership. Triads do not work that way. Triad members do favors for each other, provide introductions and assistance to each other, engage in criminal schemes with one another, but triads generally do not have the kind of strictly disciplined organizational structure that other criminal groups like the Italian mafia have. For example, a triad member would not necessarily be required to get permission from the dragonhead of his particular triad in order to engage in a particular criminal undertaking - even if the particular deal involved an outsider or even a member of another triad. On the other hand, on the occasion of traditional Chinese holidays such as Chinese New Year, triad members traditionally give gifts to their 'big brother' or 'uncles' who often are office bearers in the triads."

    Further testimony regarding relationships among Chinese crime groups came from Johnny Kon, a convicted heroin smuggler and triad member. He noted the importance of the Chinese concept of 'Guan Shi' in facilitating criminal relationships:

    "Members of the Big Circle get power from 'Guan Shi' which is a relationship among people. Through such relationships, Big Circle members can call on triad members or other Big Circle members for help."

    Triad membership is thus a valuable asset to the new international criminal. Triad membership facilitates criminal activities in a manner similar to the way membership in business associations facilitates the activities of a legitimate businessman. Thus, even though triads, as organizations, may not control a wide range of criminal activity, it is important for law enforcement officials to understand, investigate, and develop intelligence about triad organizations, because individual triad members are invariably involved in a wide range of criminal activity.

    Although the criminal activities of triad members can be thought of as constituting both domestic and international activities, even domestic activities such as illegal gambling, extortion, and prostitution often have an international element. For example, prostitutes are imported or smuggled, sometimes against their will, over national borders, while proceeds from illegal domestic activities such as gambling are often laundered internationally. International activities include narcotics trafficking, money laundering, counterfeiting currency and credit cards, and alien smuggling. ...

    The RHKP [Royal Hong Kong Police] estimate that there are currently about 50 triad societies in Hong Kong, with about 15 of those being very active. While it is very difficult to determine the exact number of triad members in Hong Kong, most authorities agree that there are at least 80,000. Some triads are thought to have as little as 100 members while Hong Kong's largest triad, the Sun Yee On, is believed to have at least 25,000 members.

    After the Sun Yee On, the next largest triads are the Wo Group, including the Wo Hop To and at least nine other subgroups, which have over 20,000 Hong Kong members. The 14K Triad, including over 30 subgroups, is also believed to have over 20,000 Hong Kong members. The fourth largest group is the Luen Group with approximately 8,000 Hong Kong members. The Tung Group is thought to have approximately 3,000 Hong Kong members. All of these groups also have substantial overseas membership. Other triads exist with smaller membership. ...

    The Big Circle Gang, which is sometimes referred to as a 'Mainland-based triad' is a relatively new group. This group initially consisted primarily of former Red Army Guards who left China for Hong Kong. Big Circle Gang members are particularly violent, specializing in armed robberies of jewelry stores in Hong Kong as well as in heroin trafficking. The Big Circle Gang is not technically a triad, but most Big Circle Gang members are also members of various triad societies. Johnny Kon, a former Big Circle associate and convicted heroin smuggler, testified that he helped organize a group of Big Circle Gang members into a tightly organized and disciplined group known as the Flaming Eagles which expanded from jewelry store robberies in Hong Kong to a world wide heroin distribution network. All of Kon's Big Circle associates were also members of other triads. ...

    The main law enforcement body in Taiwan, the National Police Administration (NPA), recognizes two major Taiwan-based triads. The best known and largest of the two is the United Bamboo Gang, also known as the Chu Lien Pang. The second group is the Four Seas Gang, also known as Sei Hoi.

    The United Bamboo Gang has an estimated membership of over 20,000. ... The Four Seas Gang has an estimated membership of over 5,000.

    4.10 The Director of the United States Central Intelligence Agency told a United States Senate committee in April 1994:

    These triads are fluid associations of criminals and quasi-legitimate businessmen based on contact networks and cultural, geographic and linguistic ties. ... The triads play an important role in worldwide heroin trafficking by facilitating transport and by providing a network of contacts for triad affiliated smugglers. They play a particularly important role in moving heroin through transshipment hubs, such as Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore, due to their influence over transportation unions and over shipping companies. note#23

    4.11 Criminal triad societies of a sort are said to exist in Australia, even if they lack some of the characteristics of the traditional Hong Kong triad societies. The National Crime Authority's then Chairperson, Justice Stewart, said in 1988:

    Broadly speaking, the Authority's investigations confirm earlier assessments that Chinese criminal elements in Australia have formed criminal associations, modelled to some extent on the traditional Chinese Triad secret societies such as exist in Hong Kong, Taiwan and elsewhere in Asia. These groups involve themselves in a wide range of criminal activities such as drug importation and distribution, extortion, fraud and money laundering.

    There is no real evidence that these associations follow Triad initiation ceremonies or other rituals, or adopt a strict internal hierarchy. There is evidence however that members of well known Triad societies are resident in Australia and overseas members visit here from time to time for illegal purposes.

    The power of individuals in these Australian Triad groups seems to be based on accumulated wealth, connections or demonstrated capacity for criminal enterprise rather than on traditional Triad power bases. Many of these people move with comparative ease between Australia, Hong Kong and elsewhere in South East Asia. note#24

    4.12 In 1988, Mr Peter Lamb, at the time an AFP Assistant Commissioner, said that there were 'between three and ten' triad societies then operating in Australia.note#25 Media reports in 1988 claimed that Australian triad societies had perhaps 2,000 members. note#26 A 1989 report claimed that the 14K triad 'is well organised and well entrenched in Sydney, with offshoots in Melbourne'. note#27 In June 1991 a former NCA officer, Mr Carmel Chow, said: 'We are looking at maybe half a dozen triad groups in Sydney. We are talking about the Sun Yee On, the 14K, the Wo Yee Tong, the Big Circle. So really, we have half a dozen gangs now operating in Sydney.' note#28

    4.13 The buyer of a 1988 importation into Sydney of 31 kg of heroin was (John) Chai Nam Yung, who was sentenced in March 1991 to 24 years' imprisonment for his part in the deal. He was described as the head of the Australian branch of the Wo Yee Tong triad, as well as being the owner of an illegal Sydney gambling club.note#29 A media follow-up story on the case said that 'Police sources here estimate that no more than half-a-dozen of these triad cells are operating in Australia, with an estimated membership of between 2000 and 3000' and that 'the majority of triad activity is centred on Sydney'. note#30 A 1992 internal report by the Asian division of the Victoria Police reportedly stated that there were known to be triads based in Melbourne and referred to members from triad groups such as the 14K, Sun Yee On, Wo Yee Tong and Wo Shing Wo. note#31

    4.14 A 1992 United States report stated that the Sun Yee On triad has 'a presence' in several countries including Australia, the Wo Hop To triad 'has been tied to criminal activity' in Australia, and the Big Circle Gang 'has gained a foothold' in Australia. note#32 More recent reports from United States sources state that the 14K triad group and the Sun Yee On triad have a foothold in Australia. note#33 In September 1994, a member of the Victoria Police Asian crime squad told a court that the Sun Yee On triad had become more active in Melbourne in the previous year. note#34

    4.15 The February 1994 Report of the Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements stated (para. 4.49):

    Within Australia, it is apparent that several Triad societies do exist. As in Hong Kong, they provide a local pool of contacts for criminal ventures. Moreover, Australian residents who were Triad members in Hong Kong or other foreign countries have immediate access to a range of colleagues overseas who may be prepared to assist with criminal activities. There have been claims that certain Triad groups in Australia have operated as organisations when establishing gambling and protection rackets, but it is also possible that the criminals concerned were using a Triad's name for their own benefit and were acting outside the organisation.

    4.16 As noted in paragraph 2.8 above, as long as people believe in the existence of powerful triad groups, they will be reluctant to resist the demands of those claiming to be triad members, or to inform police of their activities. This provides an incentive for ethnic-Chinese criminals to claim triad membership, however spurious the claim may be or however powerless and unorganised the triad in question may really be. note#35 Thus claims by criminals to be triad members cannot be taken at face value. Equally, assertions that criminal triads exist in Australia as powerful, well-organised, functioning entities must be treated sceptically insofar as the assertions are based on statements from criminals claiming membership in such organisations.

    4.17 In 1988, the leaders of a non-criminal triad, the Melbourne-based Mun Ji Dong (MJD), which began life on the Victorian goldfields in the middle of the last century, presented their view on possible criminal triad presence in Australia. note#36

    MJD members said law enforcement agencies were on the wrong track if they were working on the 'Chinese Mafia network' theory that international criminal Triads had established themselves in Australia and controlled a comprehensive range of criminal activities.

    The MJD said there appeared little evidence that these crime Triads had established themselves here. A more realistic scenario was that some Chinese crime syndicates had individuals on the fringes of the Australian Chinese community, working as contacts for the importation of illicit narcotics and Asian prostitutes.

    However, these people appeared to be low-profile operators without established criminal Triad power bases. 'I think we'd have spotted them (established Triad crime gangs) if they were around, but we haven't seen anything to suggest they've established themselves here,' said Mr Edmond Louey, a vice-secretary of the MJD.

    Mr Louey said there were indications that some petty Asian criminals claimed 'heavy' Triad affiliations to intimidate victims.

    MJD members dismissed suggestions that criminal Triads controlled illegal gambling: Chinese casinos in Melbourne and Sydney were operated by individuals.

    4.18 There has in recent years apparently been some difference of opinion among law enforcement agencies in Australia and overseas about how important triads are to understanding and tackling Chinese organised criminal activity. The Chairperson of the National Crime Authority, Mr Tom Sherman told the Committee in 1992:

    You get your two schools of thought, really. There is one school of thought that says the Triads are very important, and there is another school of thought that seems to be equally well informed that says that they are not so important. I suspect that, like all things, the truth lies somewhere in between.note#37

    4.19 The National Crime Authority's General Manager, Operations, Mr Peter Lamb, made a similar point in a media interview in 1993: note#38

    Asked if there was an organised Asian crime system in Australia, Mr Lamb said: 'I don't think anyone who has worked against organised crime would deny that.' But Mr Lamb said that was not to say groups like the Yakuza and Triads had cemented an illegal operation in Australia. The NCA's intelligence shows that some criminal groups in Australia have Triad members. But as Mr Lamb said: 'Whether that equates to the Triads being the real force behind the crime is another matter.'

    4.20 As far as the Committee can discern, there is an increasing tendency to play down the relevance of triad links. It is not clear from the material available to the Committee to what extent this tendency is due to a better understanding of Chinese organised criminal activity, and to what extent it might reflect a shift in the way that activity is being conducted. There are suggestions that the more traditional, triad-oriented, way in which those criminal activities were once organised is increasingly being replaced by a more entrepreneurial, ad hoc, and multi-ethnic approach.

    4.21 From a United States' perspective, the 1992 United States Senate subcommittee report previously referred to stated:

    ... neither triads, tongs nor gangs appear to be currently involved, as organizations, in heroin trafficking. While members of these groups frequently utilize their membership to benefit their heroin trafficking enterprises, the groups themselves are not typically part of the heroin smuggling.

    ... In fact, it is relatively easy for triad members to form criminal associations with members of other triads or with outsiders. note#39

    4.22 An overview of the south-east Asian heroin trade was given to that subcommittee by a witness from the Central Intelligence Agency. He also stressed the fragmented, ad hoc organisation that was involved.

    The main point is that Southeast Asian heroin trade is highly segmented with many independent organizations conspiring to supply the United States and other consuming countries. As heroin moves through the trafficking chain, control of the shipment is transferred several times:

    In the initial phase, producers and refiners in Burma, Thailand and Laos obtain raw opium from farmers and refine it into heroin. Some three-quarters of the region's heroin refining capacity is concentrated just inside Burma.

    In the second stage, international brokers in the region arrange the sale, consolidation and movement of large heroin shipments from refineries in Burma through Thailand to transshipment points elsewhere in Asia. note#40

    Next, wholesale buyers, in places like Hong Kong and Singapore, purchase heroin from the brokers and move shipments to the United States for resale. The buyers are frequently connected with Chinese or other international organized crime groups.

    Finally, retail distribution networks in the United States and Western Europe sell the product on the streets. They often have business connections with the Asian organized crime groups who dominate the wholesale business.

    We believe that each heroin shipment has unique features. Processing, financing and transport operations are tailored according to the resources and requirements of the producers and the wholesale buyers. A single heroin shipment may involve multiple transactions between different brokers. note#41

    4.23 A 1991 internal review of the NCA's Chinese organised crime reference (Iliad) stated:

    Investigations under the Iliad Reference have, however, provided significant collateral for the proposition that Triad organisations in Australia are not central to the heroin trade, but are one element of the Chinese criminal environment in which criminal entrepreneurs undertake a variety of activities, including heroin importation. note#42

    4.24 The Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence provided a 'national strategic assessment' in May 1992 called Chinese Organised Crime in Australia. The NCA informed the Committee that:

    The ABCI Report considered a range of criminal activities including heroin importation and distribution, prostitution, illegal gambling, violence and money laundering. It also discussed Triad activities and questioned the importance of Triads to an understanding of COC [Chinese Organised Crime] activities in Australia. note#43

    4.25 A 1993 paper by two Australian criminologists argued: 'Our ethnically Chinese criminals are just ethnic Chinese criminals; they can be organised in the corporate or enterprise sense but Triad membership or otherwise appears something of an irrelevance'. note#44 Another criminologist, Ian Dobinson, offered a similar view of the role of the triads in ethnic-Chinese organised heroin trafficking. He noted that '...law enforcement in Hong Kong appears to hold the view that small groups are involved and that there are no significant triad links'. note#45 He also argued that:

    This is not to suggest that Chinese heroin groups are not 'organized'. Rather, it is to argue that they are not organized in the sense of large hierarchical syndicates inexorably linked to various triads. The significance of these groups in relation to their contribution to heroin availability cannot be denied, but Chinese involvement may be simply a reflection of a criminal counterpart to the legitimate economic dominance of ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia.note#46

    4.26 The prevalent view, therefore, appears to the Committee to be that whatever criminal triads exist in Australia do not operate as branches that are subject to control from some overseas headquarters. Indeed, it may be overstating things to regard them as enduring entities at all. In recent years in Australia, loosely-organised, syndicates appear to have been the predominant form in which Chinese organised crime has manifested itself. Some syndicate members may belong to a particular triad, others may belong to different triads, and some syndicate members may not have any triad connections.

    4.27 The impetus for engaging in a particular criminal activity seems to come from the individuals rather than a triad. Syndicates form for particular purposes in very flexible ways and may dissolve once the immediate purpose, such as a major heroin importation, has been achieved. Alternatively they may re-form with altered membership for another purpose. Individuals may claim to be members of one triad at one time, and a different triad on a later occasion. The strength of a particular triad may be perceived to increase as particular successful criminals use it to facilitate their activities, and may rapidly decline if these criminals are arrested, retire or shift to another triad. In other words, this view suggests that Australian triads have little enduring strength, continuity of power, or inherent organisation.

    Approach of the Law Enforcement Review Report

    4.28 In describing the role of Chinese in 'major and organised crime in Australia', the February 1994 Report of the Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements, focused on the triads, note#47 although it did note that not all organised criminal activity undertaken by people from Chinese backgrounds could be attributed to the triad societies. note#48 In listing the criminal groups and activities upon which it thought the National Crime Authority should focus, the Review Report listed 'Chinese Triad Societies' rather than using an expression such as 'Chinese organised crime groups'. note#49

    4.29 Too much, perhaps, should not be read into the expression used. Nonetheless, the Committee found this approach by the Review somewhat puzzling, given the preponderant view (set out above) that concentration on triad societies and membership in them is of only limited value in understand and tackling ethnic-Chinese organised criminal activity. It is interesting to contrast the Review's approach with an April 1994 statement by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation setting out the main international organised crime/drug enterprises that it regards as a major threat to United States society. On Asian organised crime, the statement does not refer to triad societies at all, but defines the groups as follows:

    Asian Criminal Enterprises - the groups which pose the greatest threats are:
    - Chinese criminal enterprises, such as criminally-influenced Tongs and their affiliated street gangs, which control illegal gambling, loansharking, and extortion activities in many Asian communities.
    - Multi-ethnic Asian drug trafficking groups which smuggle Southeast·Asian heroin into the United States.
    - Independent Asian gangs with international, national, or regional influence, including violent Chinese and Vietnamese gangs that are transient in nature.note#50

    Geographic Spread within Australia

    4.30 Justice Stewart told the Committee in 1988 that the NCA had not been able, due to lack of resources, to look at Chinese organised crime in any depth outside Sydney. However, it had evidence which strongly supported the conclusion that Chinese organised crime was just as entrenched in Melbourne as it was in Sydney, and that there was a strong Western Australian connection too. He suggested that wherever there was a Chinese community there would be some organised extortion. note#51

    4.31 The South Australian Police Commissioner, Mr David Hunt, said in September 1994 that there was no direct evidence of triad activity in South Australia, although the number of Chinese prostitutes in Chinese-owned massage parlours had increased. note#52

    4.32 In relation to the geographical scope of drug trafficking, an intelligence assessment in 1991 stated that:

    Intelligence reports suggest strongly that, for most consignments of heroin, Sydney is the main destination point, with importation taking place either in Sydney itself or, on occasion, in other gateway airports for subsequent movement within the domestic transportation system across the country to Sydney. Border interdiction results from law enforcement operations show, likewise, a higher level of detections in Sydney than at any other port in Australia. note#53

    4.33 Of the 33.667 kg of heroin seized at the Customs barrier in 1993, just over half (17.576 kg) was seized in NSW. note#54 Data for total seizures (ie. at the barrier and elsewhere in Australia) for 1993 also show the dominance of Sydney: of the 115.8 kg of heroin seized, 90 kg was seized in New South Wales. note#55To the extent that ethnic-Chinese groups dominate the import of heroin, this gives some measure of the distribution of their activities, although the figures fluctuate from year to year. Thus a single seizure of 71.6 kg in Sydney in 1993 accounts for nearly 80 per cent of the total seized in NSW during 1993. A single importation of over 120 kg that was seized in Darwin in September 1994 will similarly have a distorting effect on the 1994 figures.

    4.34 In addition, point of seizure is, of course, not necessarily a reliable guide to where the importer is based. In September 1994 an operation involving the AFP and other agencies resulted in the seizure of 37.5 kg of heroin in Perth and another 11 kg in Adelaide. note#56 According to media reports, police believed the heroin originated in the Golden Triangle. It had been imported into Australia on a bulk-carrier through the port of Geraldton by Chinese seamen recruited in southern China and Hong Kong. Police thought that the entire shipment was destined for Sydney and was organised by a Sydney-based group with links to Hong Kong and Canada. Those arrested included Chinese nationals resident in Australia, Hong Kong nationals and Chinese-Canadians.

    Cooperation with Other Criminal Groups

    4.35 The observation was made above (para. 4.7) that much of the heroin importation by Chinese criminal groups is directed towards supplying other, non-Chinese, groups for their own distribution networks. As an illustration, a former Queensland Criminal Justice Commission officer was reported in February 1994 as having said that Chinese heroin importers were the source for an ethnic-Romanian drug distribution network on Australia's eastern seaboard. note#57

    4.36 The Western Australia Police Deputy Commissioner, Mr Les Ayton, was recently reported as saying: 'An emerging threat is the cooperation that is developing between Chinese and Italian organised groups (that are) complementing each other with their knowledge of importation practices and distribution networks'. note#58However, the Committee is not aware of other evidence for the emergence of this threat.

    4.37 The extent of organised criminal connections between Vietnamese, Vietnamese-born Chinese (Sino-Vietnamese) and other Chinese is unclear. In 1988, Justice Stewart told the Committee that there was some evidence that Chinese organised criminals were using ethnic-Vietnamese as 'foot-soldiers'. note#59 There is more recent evidence that suggests that the Vietnamese are no longer so ready to adopt subordinate roles.

    4.38 Deputy Commissioner Ayton recently said: 'Vietnamese criminals, initially, were used by Chinese organised crime for use as couriers and as part of the distribution network. There is good intelligence and anecdotal evidence that the Vietnamese (criminals) are now emerging as major importers of heroin.' note#60 Mr Ayton also said that Vietnamese criminals were acting in concert with Chinese criminals in serious and widespread credit card fraud. He said counterfeit credit cards were being manufactured in Hong Kong and were readily available in Australia to organised crime groups.

    4.39 The Australian Federal Police Annual Report 1992-93, p. 57 noted: 'A national intelligence project into Chinese organised crime continued. Research in Sydney has been widened to focus on the Vietnamese and Sino-Vietnamese gangs engaged in heroin trafficking and money laundering.' The NCA's most recent annual report states that NCA investigations in Melbourne had 'identified a Sino-Vietnamese group involved in heroin importation, distribution and other offences'.note#61

    4.40 A January 1994 media report referred to the activities of the Criminal Justice Commission and stated:

    It is suspected that members of the Vietnamese community may have criminal links to members of the Chinese community in Brisbane. Because of the increasingly noticeable criminal activities of the ethnic Chinese from Vietnam as well as native Vietnamese, a CJC intelligence project has been launched to embrace total Asian crime in Queensland ... note#62

    4.41 On the other hand, another recent media report cited an unnamed 'senior Perth academic' as saying that the Vietnamese and Chinese had been fighting for dominance in the Perth heroin market. note#63 The report said in the previous two years the wholesale price of heroin in Perth had dropped from $15,000 an ounce to about $8,000 while the strength (purity) on offer had doubled. Police considered it was plausible to attribute this to the effect of the competition.

    4.42 Law enforcement agencies have a legitimate concern that their task will be made more difficult if different groups of organised criminals work together - if for example, the triads form alliances with Italian or Vietnamese organised crime groups. The inconclusive reports that this may be occurring are, however, open to more than one interpretation. They may be no more than a reflection of the view set out above - that much that might be attributed to triad activity is more accurately seen as the work of temporary syndicates and networking by individuals. In the context of this view, alliances with non-triad groups are just further evidence of the opportunistic and ad hoc nature of those who use the triad label.

    Hong Kong's Reversion to Chinese Rule in 1997

    4.43 Some years ago concerns began to be expressed that the return of Hong Kong to the control of the People's Republic of China in 1997 would lead to an exodus of triad members. It was feared that those leaving would try to establish themselves in criminal activities in countries such as Australia, note#64 although this view was not unanimous. note#65 However, the February 1994 Report of the Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements (para. 4.50) presented a different view:

    While there had been concern that there would be an exodus of Triad members from Hong Kong to Australia in the lead up to 1997, it now seems probable that the Triads have already established themselves in southern China and that they are mostly unconcerned about the return to PRC rule.

    4.44 It seems that the economic boom in China, especially the part nearest Hong Kong, combined with greater economic freedom in China, have presented attractive opportunities for Hong Kong-based organised criminals. There are media reports of increased triad activity in China, especially in the coastal areas, and in November 1994 China's Justice Minister said that the re-emergence of the triads in China was posing a serious threat to its social stability. note#66

    (continue to start of section 5)

    (return to table of contents)

    ENDNOTES

    4. See for example United States Senate, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Relations, Recent Developments in Transnational Crime Affecting U.S. Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, Hearings, 21 April 1994 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994), p. 123 where Bill Olson, a former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Narcotics and a Fellow at the National Strategy Centre set out what he regarded as five major characteristics of international organised crime:

    ... Fifth, such groups are generally ethnically based. This is a particular advantage when groups begin to operate beyond their original homes or in multi-ethnic societies. By relying on a closed community of people who speak the same language and have cultural clues about identity that outsiders cannot penetrate easily, such groups developed added protection against penetration by law enforcement.

    5. Australian Federal Police, Annual Report 1992-93, p. 58. See also "Police follow drug trail to Russia", Canberra Times, 24 July 1993, p. 16.

    6. See Review of Commonwealth Law Enforcement Arrangements, February 1994, AGPS, Canberra, paras. 4.56 - 4.59 for a brief description. See also "Australia the main target for Lebanese drug exports", Australian, 29 March 1994 (reporting claim by Lebanese Interior Ministry referring to cannabis and cocaine, as well as heroin).

    7. See for example the evidence of the United States Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Robert S. Mueller, before the US Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, Asian Organized Crime, Hearing, 6 November 1991 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992), p. 167:

    Let me speak for a moment about the Asian organized crime problem in this country. It, in essence, consists of 4 major groups: first, Chinese organized crime, including triads, criminally-influenced tongs, and street gangs; second, the Japanese criminal society known as the Boryokudan, or "Yakuza"; third, Vietnamese organized crime, which largely consists of street gangs; and, lastly, Korean gangs, some of which are closely associated with the Boryokudan.

    8. For two recent contributions see: P. Dickie and P. Wilson, "Defining Organised Crime: An Operational Perspective", Current Issues in Criminal Justice, vol. 4, no. 3, March 1993, p. 215; and D. Greaves and S. Pinto, "Redefining Organised Crime: Commentary on a Recent Paper by Phil Dickie and Paul Wilson", Current Issues in Criminal Justice, vol. 5, no. 2, November 1993, p. 218.

    9. National Crime Authority, Corporate Plan July 1993 - June 1996, AGPS, Canberra, 1993, p. 22.

    10. G. Wardlaw, "Conceptual Frameworks of Organised Crime Useful Tools or Academic Irrelevancies?", paper delivered at the Australian Institute of Criminology's Organised Crime Conference, Canberra, 5-7 September 1989, p. 4.

    11. See for example, para. 4.38 below and "Triads strike on gold cards", Sunday Mail (Brisbane), 23 October 1994, p. 34. See also United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, The New International Criminal and Asian Organized Crime, Report, December 1992 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993), pp. 44-45 (footnote omitted):

    Losses resulting from counterfeit credit card activity have risen dramatically over the past few years. Technological innovations during the mid-1980's managed to stem a previous spurt of counterfeiting, but the criminal sophistication of Chinese criminal groups based in Hong Kong has led to a notable resurgence of credit card counterfeiting in the past few years. Hong Kong-based counterfeiting rings were responsible for as much as 40 percent of the total worldwide counterfeit credit card losses of about $200 million in 1991. While much of the actual counterfeiting is done in such locales as Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia, the counterfeit cards are now being used in Europe, Australia, and North America as well.

    12. See para. 5.12 below in the context of discussion of Vietnamese street gangs.

    13. G. Wardlaw, D. McDowell and J. Schmidt, Australia's Illegal Drug Problem: A Strategic Intelligence Assessment, (A paper prepared by The Criminal Environment Assessment Unit), April 1991, Attorney-General's Department, Canberra, para. 5.11.

    14. Australian Federal Police, "Australia's Relations with Thailand: An AFP Perspective", September 1994 (a submission from the AFP to the Foreign Affairs Sub-Committee of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade), p. 4.

    15. "Chinese Triads behind '86 pc of heroin seized'", Australian, 13 July 1988, p. 3. Note that the headline uses the figure 86% while the body of the story uses 96%.

    16. G. Wardlaw, D. McDowell and J. Schmidt, Australia's Illegal Drug Problem: A Strategic Intelligence Assessment, (A paper prepared by The Criminal Environment Assessment Unit), April 1991, Attorney-General's Department, Canberra, para. 5.35.

    17. "Asian crime gangs lead heroin imports", The Weekend Australian, 20-21 November 1993, p. 3

    18. New South Wales, Report of the New South Wales Crime Commission for the year ended 30 June 1993, p. 16.

    19. Australian Federal Police, "Australia's Relations with Thailand: An AFP Perspective", September 1994 (a submission from the AFP to the Foreign Affairs Sub-Committee of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade), p. 4.

    20. New South Wales, Report of the Crime Commission for the year ended 30 June 1992, para. 2.76.

    21. G. Wardlaw, D. McDowell and J. Schmidt, Australia's Illegal Drug Problem: A Strategic Intelligence Assessment, (A paper prepared by The Criminal Environment Assessment Unit), April 1991, Attorney-General's Department, Canberra, para. 5.40.

    22. United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, The New International Criminal and Asian Organized Crime, Report, December 1992 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993), pp. 3-6, 10-11.

    23. United States Senate, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Relations, Recent Developments in Transnational Crime Affecting U.S. Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, Hearings, 20 April 1994 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994), p. 7.

    24. Text of a public statement, 22 June 1988, reproduced in the NCA's Annual Report 1987-88, p. 66.

    25. ABC TV, 7.30 Report, 24 October 1988 (transcript, p. 5).

    26. For example, see "Chinese Triads behind '86 pc of heroin seized'", Australian, 13 July 1988, p. 3; "The story of a Chinese mafia", Melbourne Herald, 23 August 1988, p. 13; "The day of the Triads: Hong Kong's gangs move in on Australia", Newsweek, 8 November 1988.

    27. "Big Circle Gang a maverick group", The Age, 13 May 1989, p. 4.

    28. Channel Nine, Sixty Minutes, 23 June 1991 (transcript, p. 2).

    29. "How Australian cops snared the triad's diplomat couriers", Sydney Morning Herald, 11 May 1991, p. 45; "The Asian Connection" The Bulletin, 2 April 1991, p. 86.

    30. "The Asian Connection" The Bulletin, 2 April 1991, pp. 86, 87.

    31. "Police report predicts rise in Asian crime", The Age, 10 August 1992, p. 1.

    32. United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, The New International Criminal and Asian Organized Crime, Report, December 1992 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993), pp. 9, 10, 11.

    33. "Triads linked to Australia", West Australian, 7 September 1994, p. 7 citing "FBI documents".

    34. "Police tell of triad push", Herald Sun, 14 September 1994, p. 10.

    35. See for example R.J. Kelly, Ko-Lin Chin and J.A. Fagan, "The dragon breathes fire: Chinese organized crime in New York City", Crime, Law and Social Change, vol. 19, 1993, p. 258: "By emulating Triad initiation rites and internalizing Triad norms and values, they [gang members] can claim a certain traditional legitimacy within their communities. This folkloric benediction elevates them above the kind of simple street thug and enables them to instill a level of fear that no other ethnic gangs can match."

    36. "Cut out the theatrics, 'good' Triad tells police", Australian, 19 November 1988, p. 4.

    37. Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority, in camera Hansard, 27 November 1992, p. 87.

    38. "Terror as Asian gangs rule the streets", Sun-Herald, 30 May 1993, pp. 12-13.

    39. United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, The New International Criminal and Asian Organized Crime, Report, December 1992 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993), p. 29.

    40. More recent reports suggest that there has been a significant shift in the trafficking route, with only about half the heroin traffic passing through Thailand, with a significant proportion now going through China: "Pusher With A Cause", Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 January 1994, p. 26.

    41. United States Senate, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, Asian Organized Crime: The New International Criminal, Hearing, 4 August 1992 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992), pp. 67-68 (Evidence of D. Cohen, Associate Deputy Director for Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency).

    42. NCA, Shamrock Report, April 1991 quoted in a paper by the NCA Intelligence Branch, Progress Report to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority on the Chinese Organised Crime National Initiative, December 1992, para. 11.

    43. ibid., para. 16.

    44. P. Dickie and P. Wilson, "Defining Organised Crime: An Operational Perspective", Current Issues in Criminal Justice, vol. 4, no. 3, March 1993, p. 222.

    45. I. Dobinson, "Pinning a Tail on the Dragon: The Chinese and the International Heroin Trade", Crime & Delinquency, vol. 39, no. 3, July 1993, p. 374.

    46. ibid.

    47. paras. 4.48 to 4.50.

    48. para. 4.37.

    49. para. 7.50(4).

    50. United States Senate, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Relations, Recent Developments in Transnational Crime Affecting U.S. Law Enforcement and Foreign Relations, Hearings, 20 April 1994 (US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994), p. 81 (prepared statement, incorporated in the transcript, of James Frier, Deputy Assistant Director, Criminal Division, FBI). The statement also lists yakuza gangs and eurasian gangs (ie. from the former Soviet Union). Later in the statement (p. 83) the term "multi-ethnic Asian drug trafficking organizations" is expanded:

    These groups are often comprised of Chinese, Thai and other Asian criminals, who frequently use their current or past membership in Triads, criminally-influenced Tongs, or gangs to facilitate their activities. These loosely organized groups are global in nature and scope, and are involved in the production, transportation, distribution, and money laundering aspects of international heroin trafficking.

    51. Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority, in camera Hansard, 3 June 1988, p. 578.

    52. "Fear of gang ties to prostitution", Advertiser, 22 September 1994, p. 9.

    53. G. Wardlaw, D. McDowell and J. Schmidt, Australia's Illegal Drug Problem: A Strategic Intelligence Assessment, (A paper prepared by The Criminal Environment Assessment Unit), April 1991, Attorney-General's Department, Canberra, para. 5.27.

    54. See Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, Australian Drug Intelligence Assessment 1993, p. 35.

    55. ibid., p. 38.

    56. See "Arrests, drug seizure have hurt gang: police", West Australian, 24 September 1994, p. 31; "WA gateway for heroin", Sunday Times, 25 September 1994, pp. 1, 2; and "Massive hauls of high-grade heroin", Sunday Mail (Brisbane), 25 September 1994, pp. 12-13. A report subsequent to completion of this discussion paper indicated that the heroin was originally destined for Canada, and a last-minute change of destination by the ship resulted in the heroin coming to Australia: "Heroin trio face life in jail", West Australian, 10 December 1994, p. 6.

    57. "Chinese import drug, Romanians control it", Sunday Mail (Brisbane), 13 February 1994, p. 13.

    58. "Triads linked to Australia", West Australian, 7 September 1994, p. 4.

    59. Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority, in camera Hansard, 3 June 1988, p. 578.

    60. "Triads linked to Australia", West Australian, 7 September 1994, p. 4.

    61. NCA, Annual Report 1993-94, p. 30.

    62. "CJC probes ethnic links to cocaine, heroin", The Weekend Australian, 1-2 January 1994, p. 3.

    63. "Cheap Asian heroin blamed for deaths", West Australian, 8 September 1994, p. 10.

    64. See for example, NCA, Annual Report 1987-88, p. 66 (report of 22 June 1988 public statement by the NCA's Chairperson, Justice D. Stewart); M. Booth,The Triads, Grafton Books, London, 1990, pp. 137-38, 148-49; "Police report predicts rise in Asian crime", The Age, 10 August 1992, p. 1.

    65. See for example, United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary and the Caucus on International Narcotics Control, U.S. International Drug Policy - Asian Gangs, Heroin and the Drug Trade, Joint Hearing, 21 August 1990, p. 16 (statement of R.M. Bryant, FBI):

    One theory puts forth the idea that the triads will basically leave Hong Kong and come to other countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, whatever. The second theory held by the Royal Hong Kong Police is that they will remain in Hong Kong and exist under the People's Republic of China.

    66. "Crackdown urged on rising organised crime", South China Morning Post 29 November 1994, p. 16. See also "Criminals know no boundaries", Sydney Morning Herald, 15 September 1994, p. 15:

    Senior criminal intelligence officers in the Hong Kong police believe that the biggest of the Triad gangs, the Sun Yee On, which is thought to have more than 30,000 members in the British colony, now has a stranglehold on the government of Guangdong Province [in mainland China] which boasts one of the world's fastest growing economies.



    Who really runs the UK?
    What do You Really Know about mind control? 
    Access Denied For Reasons of National Security and Trance Formation of America: by 

    By Cathy O'Brien with Mark Phillips. Now in its 14th printing! http://www.trance-formation.com/

    Special Operations is a name given in most cases, but not always, to any clandestine, covert, undercover, or secret operations by the government or by someone, U.S. citizen or a foreign national . . . even in special cases a stateless professional, or U.S. or foreign activity or organization. It is usually secret and highly classified.
    It is to be differentiated from Secret intelligence and in a very parochial sense from Secret or Special Intelligence Operations.

    David Cameron or Rothschild's private security firms: MI5, MI6, Mossad, CIA and FSB (former KGB)
    The Big Lie

          "...I'll call myself a conspiracy theorist if you call yourself a coincidence theorist."....John Judge

    As Leroy Fletcher Prouty states in his book The Secret Men

    http://www.inlnews.com/TheSecretTeamLeroyProuty.php
    THE SECRET TEAM by L. FLETCHER PROUTY Col., U.S. Air Force (Ret.)  and senior CIA employee

    "..no one has to direct an assassination - it happens.
    The active role is played secretly by permitting it to happen. This is the greatest single clue.
    Who has the power to call off or reduce the usual security precautions?..."

    http://www.inlnews.com/ChippingAwayTheBullSh_t.html

    "....the CIA was a tool for a 'high cabal' of industrialists and bankers ...." Leroy Fletcher Prouty  revealed in his book, The Secret Team....

     Leroy Fletcher Prouty who was a man with enormous experience in covert operations by the US security apparatus. He worked with the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner for the Central Intelligence Agency, and established Air Defense Command in 1950. He went on to work with the CIA, and for nine years he served at the Pentagon as Briefing Officer for the Secretary of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Chief of Special Operations. IN 1973, he revealed in his book, The Secret Team, that the CIA was a tool for a 'high cabal' of industrialists and bankers - the Reptilian hybrids in other words. Proudly revealed the existence of the CIA Executive Action program, which specialized is removing foreign leaders 'unfriendly' to American ) Illuminati) interests. He said that this group was behind the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963 under the direction of its head, Edward Lansdale, who was in Dallas acting '.....like the orchestra leader, coordinating these things...'. Proudly, died of organ failure just three months before 9/11

    David Icke in his book The Global Conspiracy and how to end it states..

    " ..funny how those with knowledge that could expose the lies so often end up dead at the most convenient times..People like John O'Neil, who could have revealed how investigations into Bin Laden and terrorism had been  systematically before 9/11;

    David Kelly, the British weapons inspector who knew that the Blair Government was lying and sexing up claims about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq; and was starting to speak out over the lies and deceptions of the official story. John O'Neil was not alone in the FBI or CIA in facing opposition to terrorist investigations. American journalist, Greg Palast, produced a report on the subject for the BBC current affair programme, Newsnight, in which he received a phone call from a high-placed member of a US intelligence agency:

    "...He tells me that whiel there's always been constraints on investigating Saudis, under George Bush it's gotten much worse. After the (2000) elections, the agencies were told to 'back off' investigating the Bin Ladens and Saudi royals, and that angered agents..."

    The we have the very convenient death of News of the World journalist that was the whistleblower that started the Murdoch-News Corporation phone hacking-phone blinging and police bribery scandal..the day before the parliamentary inquiry was going to be help and made public world wide..

    Then we has the convenient death of INL News Investufgative report Nik Clay

    and the list just goes on and on.. 

    there is no doubt that Stephen Carew-Reid the founder of the INL News Group is on the hit list and they are just waiting for the right opportunity to make sure he dies...by one of their various methods....

    Exerts of John Wares News Review in the Sunday Telegraph Sunday 16th December 2012...
    John Ware helped put the killer of solicitor Pat Finucane behind bars. The Report into his death raised troubling questions that go to the heart of the UK government....he says..John Ware is also a BBC 'Panorama' reporter whose 2002 documentary "A License to Murder' disclosed the collusion of the UK security services in the murder of Patrick Finucane and other....
    "....According to a note-taker at the meeting with UK's prime minister David Cameron...when pressed by the family...Mr Cameron appeared to drop his guard when he said there were "people in buildings all around here (10 Downing Street) who won't let it happen"..
    If it is not clear who runs the country ( The UK)...the de Silva Review suggests it was not entirely clear then..."
    ".....given the fact that the governments went to great length to suppress the truth ...with the De Silva Review falling short of showing that the prime minister of the day authorised the killing of Finucane...it begs and important question about who runs the country ( The UK) :
    The "securocrats" - a Republican sobriquet for the British security and intelligence establishment - or elected the elected ministers and the Prime Minister?..."
    The Finucanes have been pushing  for a public inquiry for 23 year into the murder of lawyer Patrick Finucane at 7.30pm on Sunday February 12 1989, i the kitchen of Finucane's home, and watched by his wife and three young children, bullet after bullet was fired into his head and neck at a distance of eighteen inches. "It's not a place I care to go" says his eldest son Michael when asked to relive the moment...
    Seven weeks before Finucane was shot, MI5 received intelligence that UFF "military commanders" had discussed plans to kill the "shoot-to-kill solicitor in Armagh, and two other Belfast lawyers. Having painted Finucane s as IRA figure, MI5 should ensured he was warned. Yet there is no record of this being done... Not only had members of the RUC proposed the murder and passed information to his killers, the Special Branch had been informed that a "hit on a top IRA man" was imminent and did nothing to stop it. When the CID tried to identify the killers, there were obstructed by the Special Branch, who went on to recruit Barrett as an informant. Brian Nelson, a salaried agent for Military Intelligence, tasked by the Army to target "Provisional IRA activists", a job he relished, passed Finucane's photograph and address to Barrett. MI5, who had overarching responsibility for intelligence gathering in Northern Ireland, apparently felt the need for "republican players" to feel "as exposed as members of the security forces" to the "daily...threat of the assassin's bomb or bullet." .....given the fact that the governments went to great length to suppress the truth ...with the De Silva Review falling short of showing that the prime minister of the day authorised the killing of Finucane...it begs and important question about who runs the country ( The UK) :
    The "securocrats" - a Republican sobriquet for the British security and intelligence establishment - or elected the elected ministers and the Prime Minister?
    In 2001 Blair had promised a public inquiry into state collusion into the murder, should an independent review by the retired Canadian Judge, Peter Cory merit one.... In 2004, Mr Justice Cory so recommend... then the Blair government moved the goal posts by scrapping the 1921 Tribunals of Inquiry ( Evidence) Act and replacing it with the 2005 Inquiries Act, which allows ministers some control over the conduct of a public inquiry...
    In October 2011 the Finucanes were invited to Downing Street, thinking that the new Bristish Prime Minister might honour his predecessor's promise....
    According to a note-taker at the meeting with UK's prime minister David Cameron...when pressed by the family...Mr Cameron appeared to drop his guard when he said there were "people in buildings all around here (10 Downing Street) who won't let it happen"..
    If it is not clear who runs the country ( The UK)...the de Silva Review suggests it was not entirely clear then...
    Finucane was shot on February 12 1989. Five days later, a Northern Ireland Intelligence Report (NIIR) was complied, a regular form of briefing sent to ministers. At the time, ministers were being asked by the Irish Government about protection for other Republican lawyers.
    However ministers were left off the distribution list for the NIIR of February 17. Had they been included, they would have discovered that MI5 had known for seven weeks that Finucane was being targeted.
    Likewise, de Silva reveals that the defence secretary, Tom King, was never told that Military's Intelligence's key agent, Brian Nelson, who helped target Finucane, was engaged in conspiracies to murder Republicans. When King discovered that Nelson's intelligence was not being used to prevent UFF attacks, his request for an investigation as to why was ignored.
    This is real reason why de Silva finds "no over arching state conspiracy" to murder Pat Finicane. The problem was not that ministers were directing agents like Nelson, but that ministers had very little awareness of, or influence over, their actions.
    Ministers displayed a staggering lack of curiosity. In what I take to be a searing rebuke, de Silva says there was a "wilful and abject failure by successive governments" to run agents lawfully.
    For de Silva reveals that, while unsighted on the details of criminality that agents were engaged in, ministers did know that agents were generally operating without a legal framework and that there was a "chronic need for new guidelines"...
    Agent-running seems to have wallowed in this grey area until 2000, when the 1998 Human Rights Act came in. Why wasn't anything done until then?
    Perhaps it suited governments to maintain this grey area or, as de Silva puts it, "to facilitate political deniability rather than creating mechanisms for an appropriate level of political oversight"
    A British prime minister has now issued two public apologies in as many years for the conduct of the British securities services during the Trouble. Mr Cameron said he was "deeply sorry" to the Finucanes, just as, on publication of the Saville Report in 2010, he was "deeply sorry" for 13 innocent marches shot dead in Bloody Sunday in 1972....

    Please see: http://inlnews.com/WhoRunsTheUK_MI5_orThePM.php

    You all will understand more what is really happening here and what happened to Thomas Graham Allwood and why and who were really involved.... Kyle Montgomery did not kill Graham it was a well trained MI5-MI6-Mossass etc assassin... the arrest of Kyle Montgomery and the planned and organised very convenient conviction of Kyle Montgomery for only culpable homicide has been one big cover up and ruse to fool the public and the family and friends of Graham...

    As Leroy Fletcher Prouty states in his book The Secret Men

    http://www.inlnews.com/TheSecretTeamLeroyProuty.php
    THE SECRET TEAM by L. FLETCHER PROUTY Col., U.S. Air Force (Ret.)  and senior CIA employee
    "..no one has to direct an assassination - it happens.
    The active role is played secretly by permitting it to happen.
    This is the greatest single clue.
    Who has the power to call off or reduce the usual security precautions?..."

    David Icke in his book The Global Conspiracy and how to end it states..

    " ..funny how those with knowledge that could expose the lies so often end up dead at the most convenient times..
    People like John O'Neil, who could have revealed how investigations into Bin Laden and terrorism had been  systematically before 9/11;

    David Kelly, the British weapons inspector who knew that the Blair Government was
     lying and sexing up claims about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq;
    and was starting to speak out over the lies and deceptions of the official story.
    John O'Neil was not alone in the FBI or CIA in facing opposition to terrorist investigations.
    American journalist, Greg Palast, produced a report on the subject for the BBC current affair programme, Newsnight,
    in which he received a phone call from a high-placed member of a US intelligence agency:

    "...He tells me that while there's always been constraints on investigating Saudis, under George Bush it's gotten much worse.
    After the (2000) elections, the agencies were told to 'back off' investigating the Bin Ladens and Saudi royals, and that angered agents..."

    The we have the very convenient death of News of the World journalist that was the whistle blower
    that started the Murdoch-News Corporation phone hacking-phone blinging and police bribery scandal..
    the day before the parliamentary inquiry was going to be help and made public world wide..

    Then we has the convenient death of INL News Investigative report Nik Clay

    and the list just goes on and on..

    there is no doubt that Stephen Carew-Reid the founder of the INL News Group
     is on the hit list and they are just waiting for the right opportunity to make sure he dies...
    by one of their various methods....

    http://inlnews.com/WhoMurderedThomasAllwood.html

    Sean Hoare and 

    http://www.inlnews.com/WhyWasSeanHoareMurdered.html 

    Nik Clay 
    http://www.inlnews.com/WhyWasNickClayMurderedP1.html 





    http://www.inlnews.com/TheSecretTeamLeroyProuty.php
    THE SECRET TEAM by L. FLETCHER PROUTY Col., U.S. Air Force (Ret.)  and senior CIA employee

    AUTHOR'S NOTE: 1997
    Special Operations is a name given in most cases, but not always, to any clandestine, covert, undercover, or secret operations by the government or by someone, U.S. citizen or a foreign national . . . even in special cases a stateless professional, or U.S. or foreign activity or organization. It is usually secret and highly classified. It is to be differentiated from Secret intelligence and in a very parochial sense from Secret or Special Intelligence Operations.




    After I had given the manuscript of the original draft of this book to my editor at Prentice-Hall, in 1972; and had received the galley proof of the first edition back from him, he called me to suggest that I keep it in a safe place at all times. He told me that his home had been broken into the night before, and he suspected it was an attempt to steal his copy of that galley proof. He said, "They didn't get it. It was under the seat of the Volkswagon."

              A few days later a nationwide release by the well-known Washington columnist, Jack Anderson, appeared across the country, "Book Bares CIA's Dirty Tricks". In that column, Anderson reported that the CIA had contacted a well-known bookstore in Washington and asked one of the employees to see if he could get a copy of the galley from me, and agreed to pay him $500, if he did. I agreed to meet him at my home that evening.

              I suspected his call, but invited him anyway. In the meantime I set up a tape recorder in the umbrella stand near my front door and arranged for it to turn on when I switched on the overhead light on the front porch. With that arrangement, I recorded the whole visit including his final burst, "They promised me $500.00, if I got that galley proof." I took that tape to Anderson, and it was the basis of his March 6, 1973 column. The underground attack didn't quit there.

              After excellent early sales of The Secret Team during which Prentice-Hall printed three editions of the book, and it had received more than 100 favorable reviews, I was invited to meet Ian Ballantine, the founder of Ballantine Books. He told me that he liked the book and would publish 100,000 copies in paperback as soon as he could complete the deal with Prentice-Hall. Soon there were 100,000 paperbacks in bookstores all around the country.

              Then one day a business associate in Seattle called to tell me that the bookstore next to his office building had had a window full of books the day before, and none the day of his call. They claimed they had never had the book. I called other associates around the country. I got the same story from all over the country. The paperback had vanished. At the same time I learned that Mr. Ballantine had sold his company. I traveled to New York to visit the new "Ballantine Books" president. He professed to know nothing about me, and my book. That was the end of that surge of publication. For some unknown reason Prentice-Hall was out of my book also. It became an extinct species.

              Coincidental to that, I received a letter from a Member of Parliament in Canberra, Australia, who wrote that he had been in England recently visiting in the home of a friend who was a Member of the British Parliament. While there, he discovered The Secret Team on a coffee table and during odd hours had begun to read it.

              Upon return to Canberra he sent his clerk to get him a copy of the book. Not finding it in the stores, the clerk had gone to the Customs Office where he learned that 3,500 copies of The Secret Team had arrived, and on that same date had been purchased by a Colonel from the Royal Australian Army. The book was dead everywhere.

              The campaign to kill the book was nationwide and world-wide. It was removed from the Library of Congress and from College libraries as letters I received attested all too frequently.

              That was twenty years ago. Today I have been asked to rewrite the book and bring it up to date. Those who have the book speak highly of it, and those who do not have it have been asking for it. With that incentive, I have begun from page one to bring it up to date and to provide information that I have learned since my first manuscript.

              In the beginning, this book was based upon my unusual experience in the Pentagon during 1955-1964 and the concept of the book itself was the outgrowth of a series of luncheon conversations, 1969-1970, with my friends Bob Myers, Publisher of the New Republic, Charlie Peters, founder of The Washington Monthly, and Ben Schemmer, editor and publisher of the Armed Forces Journal, and Derek Shearer. They were all experienced in the ways and games played in Washington, and they tagged my stories those of a "Secret Team." This idea grew and was polished during many subsequent luncheons.

              After my retirement from the Air Force, 1964, I moved from an office in the Joint Chiefs of Staff area of the Pentagon to become Manager of the Branch Bank on the Concourse of that great building. This was an interesting move for many reasons, not the least of which was that it kept me in business and social contact with many of the men I had met and worked with during my nine years of Air Force duties in that building. It kept me up-to-date with the old "fun-and-games" gang.

              After graduating from the Graduate School of Banking, University of Wisconsin, I transfered to a bank in Washington where in the course of business I met Ben Schemmer. He needed a loan that would enable him to acquire the old Armed Forces Journal. During that business process I met two of Ben's friends Bob Myers and Charlie Peters. We spent many most enjoyable business luncheons together. This is where "The Secret Team" emerged from a pattern of ideas to a manuscript.

              As they heard my stories about my work with the CIA, and especially about the role of the military in support of the world-wide, clandestine operations of the CIA, they urged me to write about those fascinating nine years of a 23-year military career. During the Spring of 1970 I put an article together that we agreed to call "The Secret Team", and Charlie Peters published it in the May 1970 issue of The Washington Monthly.

              Before I had seen the published article myself, two editors of major publishers in New York called me and asked for appointments. I met with both, and agreed to accept the offer to write a book of the same name, and same concept of The Secret Team from Bram Cavin, Senior Editor with Prentice-Hall.

              After all but finishing the manuscript, with my inexperienced typing of some 440 pages, I sat down to a Sunday breakfast on June 13, 1971 and saw the headlines of theNew York Times with its publication of the "purloined" Pentagon Papers.[1] One of the first excerpts from those papers was a TOP SECRET document that I had worked on in late 1963. Then I found more of the same. With that, I knew that I could vastly improve what I had been writing by making use of that hoard of classified material that "Daniel Ellsberg had left on the doorstep of the Times," and other papers. Up until that time I had deliberately avoided the use of some of my old records and copies of highly classified documents. The publication of the Pentagon Papers changed all that. They were now in the public domain. I decided to call my editor and tell him what we had with the "Pentagon Papers" and to ask for more time to re-write my manuscript. He agreed without hesitation. From that time on I began my "Doctorate" course in, a) book publishing and, b) book annihilation.

              As we see, by some time in 1975 The Secret Team was extinct; but unlike the dinosaur and others, it did not even leave its footprints in the sands of time. There may be some forty to fifty thousand copies on private book shelves. A letter from a professor informed me that his department had ordered more than forty of the books to be kept on the shelves of his university library for assignment purposes. At the start of the new school year his students reported that the books were not on the shelves and the registry cards were not in the master file. The librarians informed them that the book did not exist.

              With that letter in mind, I dropped into the Library of Congress to see if The Secret Team was on the shelves where I had seen it earlier. It was not, and it was not even in that library's master file. It is now an official non-book.

              I was a writer whose book had been cancelled by a major publisher and a major paperback publisher under the persuasive hand of the CIA. Now, after more than twenty years the flames of censorship still sweep across the land. Despite that, here we go again with a new revised edition of The Secret Team. 


    Any reader of the "Pentagon Papers" should be warned that although they were commissioned on June 17, 1967, by the Secretary of Defense as "the history of United States involvement in Vietnam from World War II [Sept 2, 1945] to the present" [1968], they are unreliable, inaccurate and marred by serious omissions. They are a contrived history, at best, even though they were written by a selected Task Force under Pentagon leadership.
    ike it or not, we now live in a new age of "One World." This is the age of global companies, of global communications and transport, of global food supply and finance and...just around the corner...global accommodation of political systems. In this sense, there are no home markets, no isolated markets and no markets outside the global network. It is time to face the fact that true national sovereignty no longer exists. We live in a world of big business, big lawyers, big bankers, even bigger moneymen and big politicians. It is the world of "The Secret Team."

              In such a world, the Secret Team is a dominant power. It is neither military nor police. It is covert, and the best (or worst) of both. It gets the job done whether it has political authorization and direction, or not. It is independent. It is lawless.

              This book is about the real CIA and its allies around the world. It is based upon personal experience generally derived from work in the Pentagon from 1955 to 1964. At retirement, I was Chief of Special Operations (clandestine activities) with the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. These duties involved the military support of the clandestine activities of the CIA and were performed under the provisions of National Security Council Directive No. 5412/2.

              Since this book was first published in 1973, we have witnessed the unauthorized release of the "Pentagon Papers," "Watergate" and the resignation of President Nixon, the run-away activities of the "Vietnam War", the "Arab Oil Embargo" that led to the greatest financial heist in history, and the blatantly unlawful "Iran-Contra" affair. All of these were brought about and master-minded by a renegade "Secret Team" that operated secretly, without Presidential direction; without National Security Council approval -- so they say; and, generally, without Congressional knowledge. This trend increases. Its scope expands...even today.

              I was the first author to point out that the CIA's most important "Cover Story is that of an "Intelligence" agency. Of course the CIA does make use of "intelligence" and "intelligence gathering", but that is largely a front for its primary interest, "Fun and Games." The CIA is the center of a vast mechanism that specializes in Covert Operations...or as Allen Dulles used to call it, "Peacetime Operations". In this sense, the CIA is the willing tool of a higher level Secret Team, or High Cabal, that usually includes representatives of the CIA and other instrumentalities of the government, certain cells of the business and professional world and, almost always, foreign participation. It is this Secret Team, its allies, and its method of operation that are the principal subjects of this book.

              It must be made clear that at the heart of Covert Operations is the denial by the "operator," i.e. the U.S. Government, of the existence of national sovereignty. The Covert operator can, and does, make the world his playground...including the U.S.A.

              Today, early 1990, the most important events of this century are taking place with the ending of the "Cold War" era, and the beginning of the new age of "One World" under the control of businessmen and their lawyers, rather than the threat of military power. This scenario for change has been brought about by a series of Secret Team operations skillfully orchestrated while the contrived hostilities of the Cold War were at their zenith.

              Chief among these, yet quite unnoticed, President Nixon and his Secretary of the Treasury, George Schultz, established a Russian/American organization called the "USA-USSR Trade and Economic Council," in 1972. Its objective was to bring about a union of the Fortune 500 Chief Executive Officers of this country, among others, such as the hierarchy of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This important relationship, sponsored by David Rockefeller of Chase Manhattan Bank and his associates, continued through the Carter years. The bilateral activity increased significantly during the Reagan/Shultz years of the Eighties despite such "Evil Empire" tantrums as the Korean Airlines Boeing 747 Flight 007 "shootdown" in 1983.

              It is this "US-TEC" organization, with its counterpart bilateral agreements among other nations and the USSR, that has brought about the massive Communist world changes.

              The Cold War has been the most expensive war in history. R. Buckminister Fuller has written in Grunch of Giants:

              We can very properly call World War I the million dollar war and World War II the billion dollar war and World War III (Cold War) the trillion dollar war.

              The power structure that kept the Cold War at that level of intensity has been driven by the Secret Team and its multinational covert operations, to wit:

              This is the fundamental game of the Secret Team. They have this power because they control secrecy and secret intelligence and because they have the ability to take advantage of the most modern communications system in the world, of global transportation systems, of quantities of weapons of all kinds, of a world-wide U.S. military supporting base structure. They can use the finest intelligence system in the world, and most importantly, they are able to operate under the canopy of an ever-present "enemy" called "Communism". And then, to top all of this, there is the fact that the CIA has assumed the right to generate and direct secret operations.

    --L. Fletcher Prouty 
    Alexandria,
    VA 1990


    'War Is A Racket'

    War is just a racket. A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of people.

    http://www.twf.org/News/Y2001/0911-Racket.html










    September 11, 2001 - The Wisdom Fund

    Excerpt from a speech delivered in 1933 by General Smedley Darlington Butler, USMC. General Butler was the recipient of two Congressional Medals of Honor -- the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces. He is one of only 19 recipients of two Medals of Honor, and one of only three to be awarded a Marine Corps Brevet Medal and a Medal of Honor, and the only person to be awarded a Marine Corps Brevet Medal and a Medal of Honor for two different actions.

    War is just a racket. A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of people.

    War is just a racket. A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of people. Only a small inside group knows what it is about. It is conducted for the benefit of the very few at the expense of the masses. . . .



     Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting




                                                                                                   
                                     Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

    Kathy O'Brien, a CIA Mind Controlled subject and Mark Phillips her deprogrammer the authors of Trance-Formation of America are questioning whether the Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting in Connecticut, USA  was another CIA-MI5-MI6-Mossad-FSB (former KGB) MKULTRA and Project monarch Operation...

    Trance Formation of America: The True Life Story of a CIA Mind Control Slave

    Mark Phillips , Cathy O'Brien

    Newtown gunman kills 20 children in elementary school shooting
    Newtown gunman kills 20 children in elementary school shooting
    Connecticut police say unidentified gunman killed 26 people and himself in one of America's worst ever mass shootings
    Newtown gunman kills 20 children in elementary school shooting
    28 dead including 20 children, gunman in Newtown shooting
    Staff reports Friday, December 14, 2012
    Newtown Massacre: Teacher Kept Kids Calm
    By LAUREN EFFRON and NIKKI BATTISTE | Good Morning America 
    Good Morning America - Newtown Massacre: Teacher Kept Kids Calm (ABC News)
    There was so much gunfire rocking the Sandy Hook Elementary school that one teacher doubted that she and her young students, locked in a bathroom, were going to survive.
    A third grade student said the kids were so scared she thought she was going to throw up. Another said he hid in a closet.
    The gunfire erupted during first grade teacher Kaitlin Roig's morning meeting with her 14 students, what she called "a happy, amazing part of the day."
    That day quickly turned into a nightmare.
    "Suddenly, I heard rapid fire... like an assault weapon. I knew something was wrong," Roig, 29, told "World News" anchor Diane Sawyer.
    "It was horrific," she said. "I didn't think we were going to live."
    Alexis Wasik, an 8-year-old third grader, was startled when she heard someone rapidly firing off rounds inside another classroom. At first, she didn't know what was going on, but then she began to hear the sirens wail.
    "We heard an ambulance and police officer come and everyone was a little scared crying and I felt actually a little sick and like I was going to throw up," she said. "Kids were crying, not really like screaming, but they were all huddling together. They felt so sick."
    It was 9:41 a.m. when the first 911 call came into Connecticut State Police that multiple students at Sandy Hook Elementary School were locked in a classroom with a gunman. Adam Lanza killed 20 students and six adults at the school.
    When the shooting began, Roig said she quickly got up and closed her classroom door and ushered the children, all aged 6 and 7, into the class bathroom. She helped some climb onto the toilet so they could all fit. Roig said she then pushed a wheeled storage 
    unit in front of the door.
    "We all got in there. I locked us in," she said. "I don't know if [the gunman] came in the room... I just told them we have to be absolutely quiet."
    "If they started crying, I would take their face and tell them, 'It's going to be OK,'" Roig continued. "I wanted that to be the last thing they heard, not the gunfire in the hall."
    Roig said she just tried to stay strong for her students, but she didn't think they would make it out of the classroom alive.
    "I thought we were all going to die," she said through tears. "I told the kids I love them and I was so happy they were my students... I said anyone who believed in the power of the prayer, we need to pray and those who don't believe in prayer" think happy thoughts.
    Throughout the ordeal, Roig said her students were being very good and she tried to remain positive for them.
    "They asked, 'Can we go see if anyone is out there... I just want Christmas... I don't want to die, I just want to have Christmas," she said.
    The gunfire didn't last very long, Roig said, but even when it stopped, she refused to take the kids out of the bathroom. When she heard knocking on the door a little while later, she said heard voices saying they were police officers, but she refused to open the door. Scared it was the gunman trying to lure them out, Roig told them to slide their badges under the bathroom door to prove their identities.
    "I didn't believe them," she said. "I told them if they were cops, they could get the key... They did and then unlocked the bathroom."
    Students who spoke to ABC News Radio told more stories of teachers who protected them during the shooting rampage. One 9-year-old boy said his class heard "a lot of bangs" and at first they thought a custodian had "knocked stuff down." Then they heard screaming.
    "Police came in, said like 'Is he in here?' Then he ran out and then our teacher, somebody, yelled, 'get to a safe place.' So we went to the closet in the gym," the boy said. "The police were like knocking on the door and they're like 'we're evacuating people, we're evacuating people,' so we ran out."
    After the police got Roig and her class out of their room, she said she and the children were taken to the nearby fire station, which had been set up as a staging area for parents to come pick up their kids.
    That fire house, where Christmas wreaths and poinsettias are for sale, has been turned into a place of grief where frantic parents were either reuniting with their children or learning that their children are dead, or were still waiting for word.
    Children stared wide-eyed as they watched state police troopers in body armor, holding raised rifles, quickly rush to secure the scene at their school. Parents said they had never been so panicked. One father, hoping to preserve a semblance of innocence, shielded his son's eyes with his forearm.
    Wasik's mother said she found out about a shooting through the school's alert system, which sent her a message about a lockdown, and is still in disbelief.
    "It just doesn't seem real," she said. "It feels like a nightmare. You drop your kids at school, hugs and kisses, have a good day, I'll see you later and see you at the end of the day and you never know.. in 20 minutes from now what's going to happen. And you count your blessing everyday for what you have"

                                                                                                       
       Project MKUltra


    Project MKUltra is the code name for a covert research operation experimenting in the behavioral engineering of humans (mind control) through the CIA's Scientific Intelligence Division. The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967 and "officially halted" in 1973.[1] The program engaged in many illegal activities;[2][3][4] in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.[5][6][7][8] MKUltra involved the use of many methodologies to manipulate people's individual mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosissensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, as well as various forms of torture.[9]

    The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies.[10] The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement.[11] MKUltra was allocated 6 percent of total CIA funds.[12]

    Project MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the U.S. Congress, and a Gerald Fordcommission to investigate CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA DirectorRichard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of documents that survived Helms' destruction order.[13]

    In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project MKUltra, which led to Senate hearings later that same year.[6] In July 2001 some surviving information regarding MKUltra was officially declassified.

    Background

    Precursor experiments

    A precursor of the MKUltra program began in 1945 when the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct responsibility for Operation Paperclip. The program recruited former Nazi scientists, some of whom studied torture and brainwashing, and several who had been identified and prosecuted as war criminals during the Nuremberg Trials.[14][15]

    Several secret U.S. government projects grew out of Operation Paperclip. These projects included Project CHATTER (established 1947), and Project BLUEBIRD (established 1950), which was renamed Project ARTICHOKE in 1951. Their purpose was to study mind controlinterrogationbehavior modification and related topics.

    MKUltra

    The project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical Services Staff, followed by the word Ultra (which had previously been used to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence). Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA.

    Headed by Sidney Gottlieb, the MKUltra project was started on the order of CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13, 1953.[16] Its remit was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc, largely in response to alleged SovietChinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea.[17] The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques,[18] and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent.[19] In some cases, academic researchers being funded through grants from CIA front organizations were unaware that their work was being used for these purposes.[20]

    In 1964, the project was renamed MKSEARCH. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Another MKUltra effort, Subproject 54, was the Navy's top secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory, however the program was never carried out.[21]

    Because most MKUltra records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs.[22] A member of the CIA claims that not all of the records/chemicals were destroyed. Some were smuggled out and kept in private properties and organizations.[23]
    The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when America had lost its nuclear monopoly, and fear of Communism was at its height.[24] James Jesus Angleton, head of CIA counter-intelligence, believed that the organization had been penetrated by a mole at the highest levels.[24]

    Goals

    The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining methods of influencing and controlling the mind, and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation.[25][26]

    Some historians have asserted that creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through "mind control" techniques was a goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects.[27] Alfred McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs, so that the public would not look at the primary goal of the research, which was developing effective methods of torture and interrogation. Such authors cite as one example that the CIA's KUBARK interrogation manual refers to "studies at McGill University", and that most of the techniques recommended in KUBARK are exactly those that researcher Donald Ewen Cameron used on his test subjects (sensory deprivation, drugs, isolation, etc.).[25]

    One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort; this document refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:[28]

    1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.
    2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.
    3. Materials which will cause the victim to age faster/slower in maturity.
    4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
    5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.
    6. Materials will cause temporary/permanent brain damage and loss of memory.
    7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".
    8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.
    9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.
    10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.
    11. Substances which will produce a chemical that can cause blisters.
    12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
    13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
    14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
    15. Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
    16. A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
    17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.

    Experiments

    CIA documents suggest that "chemical, biological and radiological" means were investigated for the purpose of mind control as part of MKUltra.[29] A secretive arrangement granted the MKUltra program a percentage of the CIA budget. The MKUltra director was granted six percent of the CIA operating budget in 1953, without oversight or accounting.[30] An estimated $10 million USD ($80 million adjusted for inflation) or more was spent.[31]

    Drugs

    LSD

    Early CIA efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MKUltra's programs. Technical Services Staff officials understood that LSD distorted a person's sense of reality, and they felt compelled to learn whether it could alter someone's basic loyalties.[32] The CIA wanted to know if they could make Russian spies defect against their will and whether the Russians could do the same to their own operatives.[32]

    Once Project MKUltra officially got underway in April, 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts and prostitutes, "people who could not fight back", as one agency officer put it.[33] In one case LSD was administered to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days.[33] LSD was also administered to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would irresistibly bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject's mind clean and program him or her as "a robot agent".[34]

    In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels in San Francisco, California to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study.[35] In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. The subjects were told that their "trips" would be extended indefinitely if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people being interrogated this way were CIA employees, U. S. military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this.[34] Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin.[11]

    The office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MKUltra, had other ideas: he thought it could be used in covert operations. Since its effects were temporary, he believed it could be given to high officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in "normal" settings without warning. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. As the experimentation progressed, a point was reached where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Adverse reactions often occurred, for example an operative who had received the drug in his morning coffee, became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car that passed him. Incidents like that reaffirmed that LSD is a dangerous weapon but that only made them more enthusiastic. The experiments continued even after Dr. Frank Olson, an army scientist who had not taken LSD before, went into deep depression after a surprise trip and later fell from a thirteenth story window (it is unclear whether he committed suicide or was murdered before being thrown out of the window).[36]

    Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme experiments. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentuckywere given LSD for 77 consecutive days.[37]

    LSD was eventually dismissed by MKUltra's researchers as too unpredictable in its results.[38] They had given up on the notion that LSD was "the secret that was going to unlock the universe" but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal. However, by 1962, the CIA and the army had developed a series of superhallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold greater promise as a mind control weapon. This resulted in the withdrawal of support for many academics and private researchers and LSD research became less of a priority altogether.[36]


    1953 experiment record

    Other drugs

    Another technique investigated was connecting a barbiturate IV into one arm and an amphetamine IV into the other.[39] The barbiturates were released into the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. The person would then begin babbling incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers.

    Other experiments involved drugs such as temazepam (used under code name MKSEARCH), heroinmorphineMDMAmescalinepsilocybinscopolaminemarijuanaalcohol,sodium pentothal, and ergine (in Subproject 22).[40]

    Hypnosis

    Declassified MKUltra documents indicate hypnosis was studied in the early 1950s. Experimental goals included: the creation of "hypnotically induced anxieties," "hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter," studying hypnosis and polygraph examinations, "hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall complex arrangements of physical objects," and studying "relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis."[41] Experiments were conducted with drug induced hypnosis and with anterograde and retrograde amnesia while under the influence of such drugs.

    Canadian experiments

    he experiments were exported to Canada when the CIA recruited Scottish psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the "psychic driving" concept, which the CIA found particularly interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany, New York to Montreal every week to work at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKUltra experiments there. In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions.[42] His treatments resulted in victims'incontinenceamnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents.[43] His work was inspired and paralleled by the British psychiatrist William Sargant at St Thomas' Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Surrey, who was also involved in the Intelligence Services and who experimented extensively on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.[44]

    It was during this era that Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations. Cameron had also been a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal in 1946–47.[45]

    Naomi Klein argues in her book The Shock Doctrine that Cameron's research and his contribution to the MKUltra project was actually not about mind control and brainwashing, but about designing "a scientifically based system for extracting information from 'resistant sources.' In other words, torture." Citing Alfred W. McCoy, Klein further writes that "Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Dr. Cameron's experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb's earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA's two-stage psychological torture method."[46]

    Donald Ewen Cameron c.1967

    Revelation

    Frank Church headed the Church Committee, an investigation into the practices of the US intelligence agencies.

    In 1973, with the government-wide panic caused by Watergate, the CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed.[47] Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MKUltra impossible. A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms' purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial record building and were discovered following aFOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977.[6]

    In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military.

    In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MKUltra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973.[48] However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MKUltra.[10]

    The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects". The committee noted that the "experiments sponsored by these researchers ... call into question the decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments."

    Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject" and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation.

    In 1977, during a hearing held by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, to look further into MKUltra, Admiral Stansfield Turner, then Director of Central Intelligence, revealed that the CIA had found a set of records, consisting of about 20,000 pages,[citation needed]that had survived the 1973 destruction orders because they had been stored at a records center not usually used for such documents.[48] These files dealt with the financing of MKUltra projects and contained few project details, however much more was learned from them than from the Inspector General's 1963 report.

    On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:

    The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[49]

    In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but perhaps even more shockingly, the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims. None of Dr. Cameron's personal records of his involvement with MKUltra survive, since his family destroyed them after his death from a heart attack while mountain climbing in 1967.[50]

    1977 United States Senate report on MKUltra

    In 1977, during a hearing held by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, to look further into MKUltra, Admiral Stansfield Turner, then Director of Central Intelligence, revealed that the CIA had found a set of records, consisting of about 20,000 pages,[citation needed]that had survived the 1973 destruction orders because they had been stored at a records center not usually used for such documents.[48] These files dealt with the financing of MKUltra projects and contained few project details, however much more was learned from them than from the Inspector General's 1963 report.

    On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:

    The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[49]

    In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but perhaps even more shockingly, the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims. None of Dr. Cameron's personal records of his involvement with MKUltra survive, since his family destroyed them after his death from a heart attack while mountain climbing in 1967.[50]

    1984 U.S. General Accounting Office report

    The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1984, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.

    The quote from the study:[51]

    Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKUltra program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects

    Deaths

    Given the CIA's purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments, and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MKUltra experiments, including deaths, will never be known.[22][28][51][52]

    Several known deaths have been associated with Project MKUltra, most notably that of Frank Olson. Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weaponsresearcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in November, 1953, as part of a CIA experiment and died under suspicious circumstances a week later. A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson claimed to have been asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel room when Olson exited the window and fell thirteen stories to his death. In 1953, Olson's death was described as a suicide that had occurred during a severe psychotic episode. The CIA's own internal investigation concluded that the head of MK ULTRA, CIA chemist Sidney Gottlieb, had conducted the LSD experiment with Olson's prior knowledge, although neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account Olson's already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might have been exacerbated by the LSD.[53]

    The Olson family disputes the official version of events. They maintain that Frank Olson was murdered because, especially in the aftermath of his LSD experience, he had become a security risk who might divulge state secrets associated with highly classified CIA programs, many of which he had direct personal knowledge.[54][dead link] A few days before his death, Frank Olson quit his position as acting chief of the Special Operations Division at Detrick, Maryland (later Fort Detrick) because of a severe moral crisis concerning the nature of his biological weapons research. Among Olson's concerns were the development of assassination materials used by the CIA, the CIA's use of biological warfare materials in covert operations, experimentation with biological weapons in populated areas, collaboration with former Nazi scientists under Operation Paperclip, LSD mind-control research, the use of biological weapons (including anthrax) during the Korean War, and the use of psychoactive drugs during "terminal" interrogations under a program code-named Project ARTICHOKE.[55] Later forensic evidence conflicted with the official version of events; when Olson's body was exhumed in 1994, cranial injuries indicated that Olson had been knocked unconscious before he exited the window.[53] The medical examiner termed Olson's death a "homicide".[56] In 1975, Olson's family received a $750,000 settlement from the U.S. government and formal apologies from President Gerald Ford and CIA Director William Colby, though their apologies were limited to informed consent issues concerning Olson's ingestion of LSD.[52][57] On 28 November 2012, the Olson family filed suit against the U.S. federal government for the wrongful death of Frank Olson.[58]

    In his 2009 book, A Terrible Mistake, researcher H. P. Albarelli Jr. concurs with the Olson family and concludes that Frank Olson was murdered because a personal crisis of conscience made it likely he would divulge state secrets concerning several CIA programs, chief among them Project ARTICHOKE and an MKDELTA project code-named Project SPAN. Albarelli presents considerable evidence in support of his theory that Project SPAN involved the contamination of food supplies and the aerosolized spraying of a potent LSD mixture in the village of Pont-Saint-Esprit, France in August, 1951. The Pont-Saint-Esprit incident resulted in mass psychosis, 32 commitments to mental institutions, and at least seven deaths. In his work as acting chief of the Special Operations Division, Olson was involved in the development of aerosolized delivery systems; he had been present at Pont-Saint-Esprit in August, 1951; and several months before resigning his position he had witnessed a terminal interrogation conducted in Germany under Project ARTICHOKE. Other researchers have reached conclusions similar to Albarelli's, including John Grant Fuller, author of The Day of Saint Anthony's Fire, a landmark book that originally cited ergot poisoning as responsible for the events at Pont-Saint-Esprit.[52][59]

    On April 26, 1976, the Church Committee of the United States Senate issued a report, "Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operation with Respect to Intelligence Activities",[60] In Book I, Chapter XVII, p 389 this report states:

    LSD was one of the materials tested in the MKUltra program. The final phase of LSD testing involved surreptitious administration to unwitting non-volunteer subjects in normal life settings by undercover officers of the Bureau of Narcotics acting for the CIA.
    A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKUltra materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions. Because MKUltra records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MKUltra materials by the CIA overseas; it has been determined that the use of these materials abroad began in 1953, and possibly as early as 1950.[61][62][63][64][65]
    Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKUltra/MKDelta materials were also used for harassment, discrediting, or disabling purposes.[61][62][63][64][65]

    Another known victim of Project MKUltra was Harold Blauer, a professional tennis player in New York City, who died in January, 1953 as a result of a secret Army experiment involving MDA.[66]

    Legal issues involving informed consent

    The revelations about the CIA and the Army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting experiments without informed consent. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress. Frank Olson's family received $750,000 by a special act of Congress, and both President Ford and CIA director William Colbymet with Olson's family to publicly apologize.

    Previously, the CIA and the Army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of Army drug experimentation, James Stanley, an Army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit. The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under a legal doctrine—known as the Feres doctrine, after a 1950 Supreme Court case, Feres v. United States—that prohibits members of the Armed Forces from suing the government for any harms that were inflicted "incident to service."

    In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed this defense in a 5–4 decision that dismissed Stanley's case: United States v. Stanley.[67] The majority argued that "a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters." In dissent, Justice William Brennan argued that the need to preserve military discipline should not protect the government from liability and punishment for serious violations of constitutional rights:

    The medical trials at Nuremberg in 1947 deeply impressed upon the world that experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects... . [I]n defiance of this principle, military intelligence officials ... began surreptitiously testing chemical and biological materials, including LSD.

    Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing a separate dissent, stated:

    No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the 'voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential ... to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.' If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.

    This is the only Supreme Court case to address the application of the Nuremberg Code to experimentation sponsored by the U.S. government. Although the suit was unsuccessful, dissenting opinions put the Army—and by association the entire government—on notice that use of individuals without their consent is unacceptable. The limited application of the Nuremberg Code in U.S. courts does not detract from the power of the principles it espouses, especially in light of stories of failure to follow these principles that appeared in the media and professional literature during the 1960s and 1970s and the policies eventually adopted in the mid-1970s.

    In another law suit, Wayne Ritchie, a former United States Marshal, after hearing about the project's existence in 1990, alleged the CIA laced his food or drink with LSD at a 1957 Christmas party which resulted in his attempting to commit a robbery at a bar and his subsequent arrest. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel found Ritchie could not prove he was one of the victims of MKUltra or that LSD caused his robbery attempt and dismissed the case in 2007.[68]

    Extent of participation

    Forty-four American colleges or universities, 15 research foundations or chemical or pharmaceutical companies and the like including Sandoz (now Novartis) and Eli Lilly and Company, 12 hospitals or clinics (in addition to those associated with universities), and three prisons are known to have participated in MKUltra.[69][70]
    The author Ken Kesey was a willing participant in the LSD experiments.

    Notable subjects