NewAgeGlobalistAgenda_P1


                                                                  The New Age Globalist Agenda


                        The End of the Old Pieces Age  ......on with the New Alquarius Age

As we leave the age of Pisces and  enter the age of Aquarius, the elite plan to create  a completely new and  a different society in which only those  with a purpose to serve  the world state will be born.


End of the Age - New Age / End Times Theology

Sadly, Christians today are being indoctrinated with a constant stream of End Times Theology. The desired result is the neutralization of Christians to comply with the government as the great changes occur and stop them from taking action to resist those changes.

                                                                       
                                                         Business

                             "Competition is a sin."- John D. Rockefeller


                                                                  About The Globalist Agenda

Welcome to The Globalist Agenda. This site will give you an introduction to the elite's agenda, goals and the methods they have used in the past and are using to today to achieve their desired outcome of a one world government in private hands. Understanding the full context of the globalists' vision is beyond the scope of this site. However, it should give you a solid introductory level understanding of their horrifying vision for the world. You will learn who they are, their belief system, what their goal is and more importantly the means and methods they are using every day on the population and of course their ultimate aim, their utopian society and what is means for us the people.

The study of the elite is a far reaching and extensive exercise, one which many have spent entire lifetimes uncovering. As such, here we only hope to enable those who are new to the truth to move more quickly to an understanding of how we have been lied to and controlled our entire lives.

Of course, you must do your own research and verify what is said for yourself. It is the only way you will come to understand the truth. Toward that end, we have provided links and resources that you can use to explore each of the topics presented so you can gain the level of understanding required to see the globalists' vision for yourself.

And finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to those brave fellow truth seekers who have been working for decades to expose the elite's plans for the world and have made possible our understanding. Their books, presentations, audio talks, and films have blazed the way undaunted in the face of massive public ignorance. Thank you.

Who Are The Globalists?

Simply put, the globalist movement is an alliance based on self-interest of the private international financiers and the royal, dynastic and hereditary land owning families of Britain, Europe and America which over the years have intermarried to create a self regenerating power structure that through lies and deception seeks to control everything and everyone on earth. Through their control of the ability to create money, they are able to exercise control over all the power centers of society including the corporations, the media, culture creation, the educational system, the historical societies, the political system, the military, religion, foundations and other NGOs, medicine, and law. Over time they have extended their network of control to include elites from countries all over the world working towards the same end. Their structure has been illustrated in a variety of different ways by different researcher
                                 

                                 

                                                                         

                                                          



NewAgeGlobalistAgenda

End of the Age - New Age

As we leave the age of Pisces and  enter the age of Aquarius, the elite plan to create  a completely new and  a different society in which only those  with a purpose to serve  the world state will be born.


End of the Age - New Age / End Times Theology

Sadly, Christians today are being indoctrinated with a constant stream of End Times Theology. The desired result is the neutralization of Christians to comply with the government as the great changes occur and stop them from taking action to resist those changes.

Business

"Competition is a sin."

- John D. Rockefeller


“We shall have world government whether or not you like it, by conquest or consent.”
Statement by Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) member James Warburg to The Senate Foreign Relations Committee on February 17th, 1950


"In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill." - "The First Global Revolution", A Report by the Council of the Club of Rome by Alexander King and Bertrand Schneider 1991.

Have you ever thought something is wrong? Have you ever thought you were being lied to by your politicians, government, teachers? 

Have you ever thought you were being manipulated by the television? 

Have you ever wondered about how the world really works? 

Have you ever caught the media in a lie? Do you want to know how money really works? 

Have you ever wondered what the elite of this world believe and where they are taking us? 

Here you will have an opportunity to at least get a first glimpse at the true nature of the world and how we have been misled and deceived at every level. 

The information of this website is not the end all in the information you need to know 

about the New Age Globalist Agenda but  but it's a start.


About The Globalist Agenda

Welcome to The Globalist Agenda. This site will give you an introduction to the elite's agenda, goals and the methods they have used in the past and are using to today to achieve their desired outcome of a one world government in private hands. Understanding the full context of the globalists' vision is beyond the scope of this site. However, it should give you a solid introductory level understanding of their horrifying vision for the world. You will learn who they are, their belief system, what their goal is and more importantly the means and methods they are using every day on the population and of course their ultimate aim, their utopian society and what is means for us the people.

The study of the elite is a far reaching and extensive exercise, one which many have spent entire lifetimes uncovering. As such, here we only hope to enable those who are new to the truth to move more quickly to an understanding of how we have been lied to and controlled our entire lives.

Of course, you must do your own research and verify what is said for yourself. It is the only way you will come to understand the truth. Toward that end, we have provided links and resources that you can use to explore each of the topics presented so you can gain the level of understanding required to see the globalists' vision for yourself.

And finally, we owe a great debt of gratitude to those brave fellow truth seekers who have been working for decades to expose the elite's plans for the world and have made possible our understanding. Their books, presentations, audio talks, and films have blazed the way undaunted in the face of massive public ignorance. Thank you.



The Globalist Agenda represents a plan to bring all of Earth's inhabitants under the control of a single, global state. There is a small, but powerful group of individuals who are the architects and instigators behind the formation and implementation of this "New World Order". Using their influence through international organizations such as the IMF, World Bank, the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg Group, the United Nations, NATO, and hundreds of other non-governmental organizations, the objective of these internationalists is nothing less than the subjugation of everyone on the planet as servants to a one world government (servants means slaves). A government run by the same small group of elite that have ruled the masses for a very long time under various guises. These elite are the descendents of those that ruled for at least the past 2 centuries - kings and queens, bankers, robber barrons, priests, and assorted subservient oligarchs and media representatives. Their desire for a return to a one world feudal state should come as no surprise to anyone who has read a little history. It is their nature after all.

In the modern manifestation these people can be seen as kings and queens, international bankers, the military industrial complex and their servants - the corporate CEOs, scientists, professors, lawyers, heads of NGO's, politicians, and media leaders - all of whom the elite control partially or completely. Sad but true - you can buy or brainwash most national bankers, soldiers, beaurocrats, CEOs, scientists, lawyers, NGOs, politicians and journalists to say what you want them to say.

If you allow their plans to proceed, you will see how under the guise of keeping us all safe with anti-terrorist laws, the globalists will see all citizens gradually and incrementally lose their civil liberties preventing any dissent against either the government or the ruling elite who give the government their orders. 

The purpose of this website is to first provide a concise base of knowledge explaining the historical origins and mechanisms of the "one-world government" plan, and second, to provide avenues of resistance and methodologies for survival within the Chaos purposely imposed within this plot to enslave all of humanity.

"We are not going to achieve a new world order without paying for it in blood as well as in words and money."
- Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., in "Foreign Affairs", July/August 1995.
 

What would you do if you knew all the things we know, 

would you stand up for truth,or would you turn away too? 

And then what if you saw all of the things that's wrong 

would you stand tall and strong or 

would you turn and walk away?

Who Are The Globalists?

Simply put, the globalist movement is an alliance based on self-interest of the private international financiers and the royal, dynastic and hereditary land owning families of Britain, Europe and America which over the years have intermarried to create a self regenerating power structure that through lies and deception seeks to control everything and everyone on earth. Through their control of the ability to create money, they are able to exercise control over all the power centers of society including the corporations, the media, culture creation, the educational system, the historical societies, the political system, the military, religion, foundations and other NGOs, medicine, and law. Over time they have extended their network of control to include elites from countries all over the world working towards the same end.

 Their structure has been illustrated in a variety of different ways by different researchers.

                  

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But of course its never a simple matter. Many of those involved are not privy to the inner workings and aims of the core group, rather they think they have power but in reality only play their part as unwitting dupes to enact the real aims of the elites at the heart of the movement. Think of it as rings within rings within rings with only those at the very center understandings its true aims and intent.

Resistance

Non-compliance

In order to resist the coming totalitarian control grid, you must simply refuse to comply. Do not accept a national ID card/biometric ID based driver's licenses; refuse to take a vaccine of any kind regardless of the propaganda you are fed; refuse to eat genetically modified food; do not accept voluntary sterilization to save the planet; and above all do not accept the implantable microchip. And educate the very young of the dangers these things represent and to say no.

Activism

It is important that we all recognize that the controllers require our passive acceptance and compliance to their agenda. We have been indoctrinated to accept that we cannot effect change and have been disengaged from our true power. We are powerful and can make a difference and that is the truth. Any fear you have has been created by your indoctrination and by choosing to act you can break it and discover and power and freedom you didn't know was possible. Choose to act as a powerful and positive force and do whatever you can to influence others whether it is on the internet or most importantly in person. Take to the streets and educate the public; organize with others of like mind and become enriched and empowered by the experience; inform those around you; participate in any general strikes that arise; and participate in local demonstrations that counter the agenda of the elite as it presents itself on the multiple fronts discussed on this site. By acting you create the conditions by which we, the informed, caring and compassionate people of this world can defeat the social engineers and chart a new course in human history.

Education

Don't be afraid to speak out - your voice and your thoughts are your true power. Share information, article you've read and DVDs/films you watched with those around you. Video is now the primary method by which most people consume information. It is a powerful weapon in you arsenal so use it whenever possible to pursuade those around you.

Political Action

The opponents of freedom have been active for a very long time but it is not too late. We can still get involved and retake positions of political power in local, provincial and federal government. All it requires on the will to act and the determination to succeed.

Self Sufficiency / Independence

In the short term, we are facing the economic collapse/deliberate destruction of the US which will result in hardship and depression on a global scale. You must do everything in your power to counter this and survive and thrive in the coming hardships so the knowledge you possess will survive and our ultimate victory over the elite sociopathic control freaks assured. Plant gardens and grow your own food and encourage those around you to do the same; buy/store emergency food supplies; take protective measures to arm yourself in the event you need to act in self defense to safeguard yourself and your family; ensure you have adequate access to water; and buy physical gold and silver related assets to protect against the imminent hyperinflation planned by the bankers.

Spirituality

Trust your own intuition. Throw off the dogma given to you by organized religion and decide for yourself what is right and wrong - we all know it deep down. Take the best from Christianity, Islam, Judeaism and other faiths that provide a foundation of ethical and moral behaviour and reject the current culture of moral relativism which will inevitably lead us all to destruction.

Long time researcher into the globalists, their roots and agenda is
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 G. Edward Griffin. His presentation given at the University of Texas on April 29, 2008 titled "The Quigley Formula - A Conspiratorial View of History as Explained by the Conspirators Themselves" provides a valuable insight into the elite's plan for continued domination. This discussion is by no means the end all be all in understanding the elite but is a necessary and vital primer on the history and goals of the elite.

Of course, it is important to recognize that this conspiracy of the elite at war with the public is nothing new. In fact, it is thousands of years old. The elite have always sought to advance themselves and enslave the people whom they rule. Sadly, today is no different in that respect.

There are, however, a number of very important distinctions between now and then. First, they are much better organized today than they have been in the past as you shall discover. Second, they have and are using advanced psychological/propaganda techniques which they are applying through the mass media (culture creation - TV, radio, video games, music, fashion) and the educational system. Third, the elite now have an arsenal of technology far more advanced than they tell the general public that they are using covertly and will use more overtly in the future to attempt to ensure their dominance. And fourth and finally, given the psychological and technological means and methods at their disposal as they now seek their utopia which, if we don't stop them, will result in the complete enslavement of humanity over the coming decades once and for all (at least for those of us who unlike them have a conscience). If they are successful, there will be no turning back as they will eliminate those who do not serve them and the state and replace us with new improved genetically engineered servants.

To fully recognize who they are and what their goals are requires an extensive study of history and everyone is encourage to read their books and do your own research on all topics discussed. On this website we seek to expose them by referencing their own works and those of tireless researchers over the past several decades so that you might come to understand more fully the world in which you live and that you might come to break the conditioning provided by these social engineers and envision for yourself a very different possible world.


                                                                                               The End Game

The Globalist Agenda represents a plan to bring all of Earth's inhabitants under the control of a single, global state. There is a small, but powerful group of individuals who are the architects and instigators behind the formation and implementation of this "New World Order". Using their influence through international organizations such as the IMF, World Bank, the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg Group, the United Nations, NATO, and hundreds of other non-governmental organizations, the objective of these internationalists is nothing less than the subjugation of everyone on the planet as servants to a one world government (servants means slaves). A government run by the same small group of elite that have ruled the masses for a very long time under various guises. 


These elite are the descendents of those that ruled for at least the past 2 centuries - kings and queens, bankers, robber barrons, priests, and assorted subservient oligarchs and media representatives. Their desire for a return to a one world feudal state should come as no surprise to anyone who has read a little history. It is their nature after all.


In the modern manifestation these people can be seen as kings and queens, international bankers, the military industrial complex and their servants - the corporate CEOs, scientists, professors, lawyers, heads of NGO's, politicians, and media leaders - all of whom the elite control partially or completely. Sad but true - you can buy or brainwash most national bankers, soldiers, beaurocrats, CEOs, scientists, lawyers, NGOs, politicians and journalists to say what you want them to say.


If you allow their plans to proceed, you will see how under the guise of keeping us all safe with anti-terrorist laws, the globalists will see all citizens gradually and incrementally lose their civil liberties preventing any dissent against either the government or the ruling elite who give the government their orders. 


The purpose of this website is to first provide a concise base of knowledge explaining the historical origins and mechanisms of the "one-world government" plan, and second, to provide avenues of resistance and methodologies for survival within the Chaos purposely imposed within this plot to enslave all of humanity.

"We are not going to achieve a new world order without paying for it in blood as well as in words and money."
- Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., in "Foreign Affairs", July/August 1995.
 

What would you do if you knew all the things we know, would you stand up for truth, or would you turn away too? And then what if you saw all of the things that's wrong would you stand tall and strong or would you turn and walk away?


Corporate Control of Everything

Through control of the global multinational corporations, their public - private partnerships and interlocking corporate directorships, the elites seek ownership/control over everything that control every aspect of society - chiefly water, power and food.

Cartels / Monopoly

Money cartels, oil cartels, food cartels, water cartels. You name it, any key strategic resource required to control and dominate society, a cartel of wealthy elites are seeking to own all resources in every important sector of society.

Globalization of Poverty

In order to establish dominance over the entire planet and its populations, the elite must create a society of equally impoverished slaves. This necessitates the elimination of the middle class and the concentration of wealth in private hands. As such, the United States as the driving force of the world economy must be destroyed and all populations impoverished to bring about the global plantation.

Regional Harmonization

To facilitate global government and the dominance of global multinational corporations it is necessary to eliminate national boundaries and create the superstates of Europe, Africa, America. This will allow the corporations and their owners to further consolidate power and control of the masses while at the same time maximizing corporate profits.

Energy & Resources

"In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. In their totality and in their interactions these phenomena do constitute a common threat with demands the solidarity of all peoples. But in designating them as the enemy, we fall into the trap about which we have already warned namely mistaking systems for causes. All these dangers are caused by human intervention and it is only through changed attitudes and behaviour that they can be overcome. The real enemy, then, is humanity itself."

Club of Rome, The First Global Revolution, 1991

Energy

Energy is a primary mechanism of control. The population must remain dependent of oil so they can be controlled. We are fed a constant stream of lies about Peak Oil despite the fact that the world is in reality awash in oil. We are lied to about energy alternatives and have seen the suppression of super efficient and even free energy technologies.

Food and Water

As in any war on the public throughout history, the elite are now using the basics of survival - food and water, as weapons on the public. We are now seeing the widespread use of genetically modified crops and their clearly demonstrable harmful side effects. Further, we see the propagation of terminator seeds whereby the local population cannot store seeds for the coming year but rather are forced into dependence on the multinational food corporations like Monstanto and other big agro interests. Ultimately, as stated in the U.N. Agricultural Policy, all food will be controlled by the global government and each country will only receive enough food to support the approved level of population, which will of course be reduced over time.

Environmentalism

Unfortunately, the very real and pressing environmental concerns of the environmental movement have been hijacked by the elite to serve their own aims. The are now promoting global warming (recently rebranded as climate change since the earth really isn't warming) as a real threat not to solve any real environmental issues but rather to promote a global system of taxation and control.

Law

Contract/Equity Law

In order to understand the legal system we operate under, it is critical to understand that the current system operates under maritime admiralty law and as such is based solely upon contract/equity law. The power of contract is your road to freedom or your road to enslavement.

Ancient System of Pledging / Birth Certificates

Our parents/grandparents were misled into registering us at birth and in doing so, under the ancient system of pledging, made us slaves/collateral to the government/bankers. For example, on the back of most Canadian's birth certificate it says "Revenue Receipt No. A1234556 For Treasury Use Only". What this means is that you are property/chattel of the government and that a bond was created with your name or number on it that was pledged by the government to the bankers based in your future taxes as collateral on the debt. Thus, you are legally enslaved and property of a banker somewhere.

Social Insurance Number /Taxes

What you haven't been told is that at 18 years old you had an opportunity to legally opt out of the system. However, by applying for or continuing to use the Social Insurance Number, applied for on your behalf by your parents or relatives, you agreed to become a taxpayer and have duties and responsibilities as such. Had you chosen not to have a Social Insurance Number and use your lawful right to contract you would …would…  never had to pay taxes and been free to operate outside the jurisdiction of most statutes.

Common Law vs. Commercial/Admiralty Law (and Freeman-On-The-Land)

As demonstrated by numerous alternative lawful scholarly groups, we and our parents have been tricked/deceived into a system in which we have given up our god given natural rights as human beings. This has been done by the creation of artificial persons/corporations that were created by the government and have similar names to our true selves but which are in fact separate corporate entities. We were deceived into accepting these artificial persons as being one and the same as us, the human being, and in the process voluntarily, but out of ignorance, had our rights reduced to that of slaves. By accepting this corporate identity we have given up our common law rights and accepted commercial (i.e. admiralty) law.

Health/Medicine

Eugenics / Population Control as Dominant Ideologies

It is important to understand the the goals and beliefs of the eugenicists never went away. In fact, they have been conducting eugenics operations on the public in the west since world war II. Fluoride in the water, mercury in the vaccines and GMO crops all contribute to the creation of a sick, dumb and compliant population.

Population Control Implementation (Hard Kill)

The overarching desire for population reduction has been implemented in two forms - hard kill and soft kill. The hard kill versions created in bioweapons research labs include AIDS, Ebola and SARS. These programs were designed for large scale population reduction.

Population Control Implementation (Slow Kill)

As Henry Kissinger said population reduction has different characteristics in different parts of the world. In west, the slow kill method has been implemented. This includes vaccines containing mercury and Simian 40 cancer viruses; fluoride in water supplies as used by Hitler and Stalin in their concentration camps; the introduction of the excitotoxin aspartame into the food supply; the presence of xeno-estrogen / bisphenol in plastics; the introduction of GMO crops and their well understood destructive side effects; the use of cell phones will result in brain cancer for millions in coming years as a result of the radiation; and the use of microwave ovens - which the Soviets banned in the 1970's due to the fact that they destroy the nutritive content of food. Further, the combined effects of these programs has manifested itself with a 75% reduction in the sperm counts in the western males according to the UN (ask yourself why aren't the alarm bells ringing and a crisis announced to the public) and an increase in the rates of cancer from 1 in 66 to 1 in 3 over the past 50 years.

Allopathic Medicine vs. Holistic / Natural Medicine

A critical aspect of control is the compliance and acceptance of the population of allopathic medicine and medical orthodoxy and its partner big pharma under which the population can be drugged. A critical part of this agenda is the suppression of alternative/herbal medicine and the advancement of Codex Alimentarius which severely restrict natural health products available to the public. Codex Alimentarius if implemented as scheduled by the end of 2009 could result in the deaths of billions of people from malnutrition and the diseases related to poor nutrition.

Persistent Contrails (aka Chemtrails)

While the true intent of the chemical spraying of the skies that has been going on full scale since the late 1990's is unknown, since the governments refuse to tell the public the true purpose, we do know that the chemicals being sprayed include aluminum, barium and cadmium, all of which have detrimental effects on the human immune system. Consequently, we could conclude they are softening the immune systems of the public for the upcoming pandemics which we are repeatedly told are inevitable (the spraying is fact but the purposes are speculative).

Philanthropy / Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) / " Think Tanks...

 we shall use our grant-making power so to alter life in the United States, that it can be comfortably merged with the Soviet Union."

- Rowan Gaither, President of the Ford Foundation speaking to Norman Dodd in his Congressional Special Committee to investigate tax-exempt foundations, 1954

Foundations as Methods of Control

One of the greatest tricks perpetrated on the public has been the turning the robber barons /elites into philanthropists. This great trick was accomplished by the mass media and various psychological techniques. Through these mechanisms they have managed to convince the public that they gave up their power in the interests of society, gave their money to foundations and other philanthropic organizations and faded into the pages of history. This is a lie. They still exist and exercise their power through their control on the monetary system and their control of the the foundations and their ability to fund their desired outcomes. The foundations (Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller, etc.) use their tax exempt status and great wealth to advance the elite's agenda for complete global domination.

Royal Institute of International Affairs / Council on Foreign Relations

In the modern era, the key institutions are the British Royal Institute of International Affairs and its similarly named counterparts in Commonwealth countries along with its branches in non-Commonwealth countries all called Council on Foreign Relations such as those in the US and India. Equally important to recognize is these institutions are subservient to the Round Table Groups. Historically, these groups were central in advancing the spread of the British Empire over the world and as such are central figures of control. However, they are now part of a larger and more extensive system of control.

Merger of Capitalism and Communism

As Norman Dodd discovered in the 1960's congressional investigations, the purpose of the "great foundations" was to merge capitalism and communism into a system of global control. The new system would be economically capitalist, and as such privately owned, and socially communist run by scientist and other experts as were the Soviet councils.

Hundreds of Think Tanks and other NGOs / Thousand Points of Light

As George Bush stated in his speech on September 11, 1990 and …. and … again September 11, 1991, there was an opportunity for a New World Order and it was being worked on by a thousand points of light. Highly masonic symbolism. What he was referring to was the myriad related and interlocked NGO's and think tanks like the Bilderberg Group, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission; environmental groups; and many others think tanks and NGOs created and funded by the elite to bring about their New World Order. As an example of the diffuse nature of these NGO's is the Club of Rome, a premier think tank which published the First Global Revolution in which they invented the global warming fraud.

Secret Societies and Occultism

"There is... an inner core of intimate associates who unquestionably knew that they were members of a group devoted to a common purpose and an outer circle of a larger number on whom the inner circle acted by personal persuasion, patronage distribution, and social pressure. It is probable that most members of the outer circle were not conscious that they were being used by a secret society."

- Professor Carroll Quigley, The Anglo-American Establishment

This is a controversial but critical aspect to understanding the elite's control of our society. Yes, there are secret societies operating and their have been for many decades if not hundreds of years who believe in ancient pagan and occult systems from which they believe they derive their power.

Illuminati - 1776

Adam Weishaupt is credited with the founding of the Illuminati secret society in Bavaria in 1776. This society was exposed and supposedly eliminated but the evidence shows that they continued on in other guises.

Cecil Rhodes

Cecil Rhodes stated that the he believed the British to be the finest civilization and wished to propagate the British system throughout the world. To this end, he used his substantial wealth to found a secret society based upon the Illuminati precisely for this purpose.

Alfred Milner and Milner's Kindergarten

As explained by Carroll Quigley in The Anglo-American Establishment and Tragedy and Hope, Alfred Milner took over from Cecile Rhodes in the goal to propagate the British system throughout the world and was instrumental in founding the Round Tables group. This group has been instrumental in creating the interlocking network on influence and control under which we live today. This group spawned the Royal Institute of International Affairs which operates in all Commonwealth Countries and the Council on Foreign Relations which operates in non-commonwealth countries like the United States.

Rings within Rings

Rings within Rings within Rings. The inner group which has no name are the controllers of the game and the ultimate holders of the real objectives of the group. The next level is the 2nd ring called the Society of the Elect. The 3rd ring is the Round Table Groups. At this point the group is still quite small and its important to understand that at each level these groups all think they are part of the inner circle. Next comes the 4th ring which includes but is not limited to the following groups the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), Trilateral Commission, Bilderberg Group, Skull & Bones, Bohemian Grove, Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO), high Freemasons, etc. There are many other groups and societies at this level including secret societies, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and others outside of governmental control or as George W. Bush phrased it "a thousand points of light".

Outer Rings

It is important to recognize that the outer rings are populated by for the most part unknowing dupes. The outer rings include non-governmental organizations (other than the founders) and their indoctrination and brainwashing from a young age is used to falsely assure them the cause they are involved in is a positive development for our society.

Freemasonry

Freemasonry deserves a special mention since it is practiced by the elites in every country, albeit in a different form from your local masonic lodge. The elite and powerful put the symbols of masonry everywhere throughout our society today.

The End Game

Elite's Utopia

The elite's utopia is not the Star Trek federation ideal but rather and complete controlled on dominated society consisting of the elite and their slaves.

Population Reduction to less than 1 Billion people

The elite firmly believe the earth is overpopulated and the population must by any and all means (war, starvation and pandemics included) be reduced to less than 1 billion people.

Post Industrial Feudalism

The elite believe that the current level of resource consumption is unsustainable in the long run and consequently the world must enter a post industrial society once again based on a form of scientific feudalism.

Implantable Microchips

As sociopathic control freaks, the elite want to create a completely controlled society of slaves that are implanted with microchips so they can track every move of the population and ultimately control every thought a person has. As an interim step, all products we purchase will include and RFID chip that can track and trace the location of all we own. Also, cash will be eliminated as a medium of exchange and replaced with cashless credit and all those who refuse to comply with the elite's dictates will simply have their cards turned off. Ultimately, those that are implanted will be able to be downloaded with new information/skills and reprogrammed for new tasks as the need requires and individual free thought will be impossible.

Purpose Made Humans

As their knowledge of genetic engineering advances, the intent is to create a slave class of purpose made humans to serve the elite. As part of the new society they seek to create, the elite seek to control reproduction in a scientific manner. Ultimately, they seek to control/restrict reproduction scientifically and create hermaphroditic slaves/beings who will be granted permission to reproduce and only be given that permission if they have proven their worth to the state.

Immortality

The elite are obsessed with death and the possibility of escaping it through science to achieve immortality. The tremendous amounts of money being pored into research in genetics and life extension reflects this. Of course, only those with tremendous wealth will be granted access to the technology necessary to live forever.

Transhumanism

As the elite's seek immortality, they foresee a possible future in which they merge with machines and the resulting "species" lives immortal lives and replaces all humans as we know them today.

End of the Age - New Age

As we leave the age of Pisces and enter the age of Aquarius, the elite plan to create a completely new and different society in which only those with a purpose to serve the world state will be born.



Resistance Non-compliance

In order to resist the coming totalitarian control grid, you must simply refuse to comply. Do not accept a national ID card/biometric ID based driver's licenses; refuse to take a vaccine of any kind regardless of the propaganda you are fed; refuse to eat genetically modified food; do not accept voluntary sterilization to save the planet; and above all do not accept the implantable microchip. And educate the very young of the dangers these things represent and to say no.

Activism

It is important that we all recognize that the controllers require our passive acceptance and compliance to their agenda. We have been indoctrinated to accept that we cannot effect change and have been disengaged from our true power. We are powerful and can make a difference and that is the truth. Any fear you have has been created by your indoctrination and by choosing to act you can break it and discover and power and freedom you didn't know was possible. Choose to act as a powerful and positive force and do whatever you can to influence others whether it is on the internet or most importantly in person. Take to the streets and educate the public; organize with others of like mind and become enriched and empowered by the experience; inform those around you; participate in any general strikes that arise; and participate in local demonstrations that counter the agenda of the elite as it presents itself on the multiple fronts discussed on this site. By acting you create the conditions by which we, the informed, caring and compassionate people of this world can defeat the social engineers and chart a new course in human history.

Education

Don't be afraid to speak out - your voice and your thoughts are your true power. Share information, article you've read and DVDs/films you watched with those around you. Video is now the primary method by which most people consume information. It is a powerful weapon in you arsenal so use it whenever possible to pursuade those around you.

Political Action

The opponents of freedom have been active for a very long time but it is not too late. We can still get involved and retake positions of political power in local, provincial and federal government. All it requires on the will to act and the determination to succeed.

Self Sufficiency / Independence

In the short term, we are facing the economic collapse/deliberate destruction of the US which will result in hardship and depression on a global scale. You must do everything in your power to counter this and survive and thrive in the coming hardships so the knowledge you possess will survive and our ultimate victory over the elite sociopathic control freaks assured. Plant gardens and grow your own food and encourage those around you to do the same; buy/store emergency food supplies; take protective measures to arm yourself in the event you need to act in self defense to safeguard yourself and your family; ensure you have adequate access to water; and buy physical gold and silver related assets to protect against the imminent hyperinflation planned by the bankers.

Spirituality

Trust your own intuition. Throw off the dogma given to you by organized religion and decide for yourself what is right and wrong - we all know it deep down. Take the best from Christianity, Islam, Judeaism and other faiths that provide a foundation of ethical and moral behaviour and reject the current culture of moral relativism which will inevitably lead us all to destruction.

Quotes

The modern banking system manufactures money out of nothing. The process is perhaps the most astounding piece of sleight of hand that was ever invented. Banking was conceived in iniquity and born in sin. Bankers own the earth. Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create money and control credit, and with the flick of a pen, they will create enough money to buy it back again. Take this great power away from the bankers and all the great fortunes like mine will disappear, and they ought to disappear, for this would be a better and happier world to live in. But if you want to continue the slaves of bankers and pay the cost of your own slavery, let them continue to create money and to control credit.”                 

Sir Josiah Stamp, Director and President of the Bank of England during the 1920's



Their Goals
"The New World Order, although it's not really, it's called the New World Order, it's an old, old idea of having a controlled and planned world society that really is a merger of two systems and that was the Soviet system and the Capitalist system. But out of it is to come an efficient planned society. In other words, eventually down the road everyone who's born will be born only if there is a function for them to serve, and that is the key word to serve - and that is to serve the world state. People have been categorized all through their lives from school onwards from generation after generation into a eugenics program where the elite have long ago decided on who were the junk genes - meaning the commoners at the bottom - will there be a future for them? Well, they don't need them so they are going to eradicate them under the guise of overpopulation. And interestingly enough, because they know most people live their whole lives without an original thought (they really don't - thoughts are downloaded into them, opinions are given to them - they adopt opinions), they must have the consent of the public for this agenda including, down the road very very soon in fact, voluntary sterilization to save poor old mother earth and bring the population down. And when you look at what's been taught scientifically, a scientific socialism you might say, what's being taught even in kindergarten onwards today, they're giving them up towards this world where you'll sacrifice yourself if need be for mother earth. It's a religion of sorts - it uses all of the techniques of religion because religion has worked so well in the past. Michael Gorbachev, who is part of this structure for a global society, said 'We are creating a new world religion and it will be based on a form of earth worship'. By that he meant you will literally live to serve mother earth. Of course Mother Earth has a new priesthood, there's always a priesthood, and you find its the experts, a scientific society, who already have declared they are too superior for the rest of us to be around and they have the natural right - they're the natural aristocracy as they call themselves - but in reality all scientists who depend on grants or funding from the wealthy, the already established wealthy elite, they're just the lackeys of those at the top. At the top of this system you have very old families who've held on and acquired more and more power down through many centuries and they've declared they're at the top of the Darwinian tree and beneath them you have the scientific society that makes the weapons for them, including weapons that will eventually control the mind, and they plan to run the whole world as a planned - not just a planned parenthood society - a planned society where every country which will be subservient to a global government."

- Alan Watt, CuttingThroughTheMatrix.com

New World Order

As we leave the age of Pisces and enter the age of Aquarius, the elite want to completely change and reorder society. They call it the "New World Order" and later rebranded it to "Globalisation" when the people started asking too many questions about what they meant by a New World Order. The characteristics of their new society are discussed in the sections below.

World Governance not World Government

It's important to understand that the elite do not want world government per se but rather a form of world governance in their personal control. A world government would imply some sort of input and opportunity for participation by the public. They have no intention of allowing this to happen. The United Nations as an unelected and as such unaccountable body has been established to serve this purpose.

Merger of Capitalism and Communism

In order to bring about global governance it is imperative that communism and capitalism be merged into a new system where economic control remains and is concentrated in private hands and social control is based on collectivism. As established by a U.S congressional investigation headed by Senator Norman Dodd into the great foundations back in the 1960's, this was in fact one of the main purposes for which the foundations were created.

Population Reduction

As stated in the section on beliefs, the elite are obsessed with over population and have written about it for centuries. Consequently, as written on the Georgia Guidestones, they want a global population of just 500 million. This means 6 billion people must die over the coming century starting in 2010.

Return to Feudalism

The elite believe that the world is simply consuming too many resources, resources that belong to them and their descendants and consequently, as outlined in the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and Agenda 21, we must return to a form of feudalism and into a post-industrial era.

Scientific Dictatorship

This new society will have different characteristics for different groups of people or classes, run in a scientific manner by a subservient group of technocratic scientific elite. In fact, today we already live in a form of scientific dictatorship where the majority of people are brainwashed from birth through the media and educational system. Ultimately, they want to develop purpose made, genetically engineered humans and only those with a purpose that serves the state will be allowed to be born and never able to understand the truth about the world in which they live.

Strategy

One very important aspect of world control is exactly how does one go about controlling and dominating a society, or for that matter the world as a whole. Anthony Sutton spelled it out quite well in his book "America's Secret Establishment". He exposed the fact that the global elite came to the correct conclusion that to control and manipulate a society for their benefit they need to control only a certain finite aspects of society. These are:

  • Education (how the population of the future will behave)
  • Money (the means of holding wealth and exchanging goods)
  • Law (the authority to enforce the will of the state, a world law and a world court is needed for a world state)
  • Politics (the direction of the State and Economy)
  • History (what people believed happened in the past)
  • Psychology (the means of controlling how people think)
  • Philanthropy (so that people think well of the controllers)
  • Medicine (the power over health, life and death)
  • Religion (people's spiritual beliefs)
  • Media (what people know and learn about current events)
  • Continuity (the power to appoint who follows in your footsteps)

What this amounts to is nothing less than infiltrating and controlling the power centers of a society. By placing their own people in key positions they could come to control and dominate a society completely and steer it in any direction they choose.

His observations are well made and reflected, and expanded upon slightly, in the categories on this site. Take a minute an think about it - what would you do if you wanted to gain control of an entire society?


The BCCI Affair

A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate
by Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown December 1992
102d Congress 2d Session Senate Print 102-140

http://www.newsfollowup.com/the_bcci_affair_report_to_the_committee_on_foreign_relations_john_kerry.htm

FAS Note: This December 1992 document is the penultimate draft of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee report on the BCCI Affair. After it was released by the Committee, Sen. Hank Brown, reportedly acting at the behest of Henry Kissinger, pressed for the deletion of a few passages, particularly in Chapter 20 on "BCCI and Kissinger Associates." As a result, the final hardcopy version of the report, as published by the Government Printing Office, differs slightly from the Committee's softcopy version presented below.--Steven Aftergood

and Thierry Meyssan article  and go to Alfred Hartmann http://www.newsfollowup.com/id/images_59/bcci_congressional_report_rothschild_kerry.jpg Banque de Commerce et Placements and Collateral Damage 9/11  and The Red Symphony(text) and Le Cercle

The BCCI Affair

A Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate
by
Senator John Kerry and Senator Hank Brown
December 1992
102d Congress 2d Session Senate Print 102-140

 

 

THE BCCI AFFAIR

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. BCCI CONSTITUTED INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRIME

ON A MASSIVE AND GLOBAL SCALE.

BCCI's unique criminal structure -- an elaborate corporate spider-web with BCCI's founder,

Agha Hasan Abedi and his assistant, Swaleh Naqvi, in the middle -- was an essential component

of its spectacular growth, and a guarantee of its eventual collapse.

The structure was conceived by Abedi and managed by Naqvi for the specific purpose of

evading regulation or control by governments.

It functioned to frustrate the full understanding of BCCI's operations by anyone.

Unlike any ordinary bank, BCCI was from its earliest days made up of multiplying layers of entities,

related to one another through an impenetrable series of holding companies, affiliates, subsidiaries,

banks-within-banks, insider dealings and nominee relationships.

By fracturing corporate structure, record keeping, regulatory review, and audits,

the complex BCCI family of entities created by Abedi was able to evade ordinary legal restrictions

on the movement of capital and goods as a matter of daily practice and routine.

In creating BCCI as a vehicle fundamentally free of government control,

Abedi developed in BCCI an ideal mechanism for facilitating illicit activity by others,

 including such activity by officials of many of the governments whose laws BCCI was breaking.

BCCI's criminality included fraud by BCCI and BCCI customers involving billions of dollars;

money laundering in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas;

BCCI's bribery of officials in most of those locations; support of terrorism, arms trafficking,

 and the sale of nuclear technologies; management of prostitution; the commission and

facilitation of income tax evasion, smuggling, and illegal immigration;

illicit purchases of banks and real estate; and a panoply of financial crimes limited

 only by the imagination of its officers and customers.

Among BCCI's principal mechanisms for committing crimes were its use of shell corporations

and bank confidentiality and secrecy havens; layering of its corporate structure;

its use of front-men and nominees, guarantees and buy-back arrangements;

back-to-back financial documentation among BCCI controlled entities,

kick-backs and bribes, the intimidation of witnesses,

and the retention of well-placed insiders to discourage governmental action.

2. BCCI SYSTEMATICALLY BRIBED WORLD LEADERS AND

POLITICAL FIGURES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

BCCI's systematically relied on relationships with, and as necessary, payments to,

prominent political figures in most of the 73 countries in which BCCI operated. BCCI records and

testimony from former BCCI officials together document BCCI's systematic securing of

Central Bank deposits of Third World countries; its provision of favors to political figures;

and its reliance on those figures to provide BCCI itself with favors in times of need.

These relationships were systematically turned to BCCI's use to generate cash needed to prop up its books.

BCCI would obtain an important figure's agreement to give BCCI deposits

from a country's Central Bank, exclusive handling of a country's use of U.S. commodity credits,

preferential treatment on the processing of money coming in and

out of the country where monetary controls were in place, the right to own a bank,

secretly if necessary, in countries where foreign banks were not legal, or

other questionable means of securing assets or profits.

In return, BCCI would pay bribes to the figure, or otherwise give him other things he

 wanted in a simple quid-pro-quo.

The result was that BCCI had relationships that ranged from the questionable, to the improper,

to the fully corrupt with officials from countries all over the world, including Argentina,

Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Colombia, the Congo, Ghana, Guatemala,

the Ivory Coast, India, Jamaica, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan,

Panama, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates,

the United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

3. BCCI DEVELOPED A STRATEGY TO INFILTRATE THE U.S. BANKING SYSTEM,

WHICH IT SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED, DESPITE REGULATORY BARRIERS

THAT WERE DESIGNED TO KEEP IT OUT.

In 1977, BCCI developed a plan to infiltrate the U.S. market through secretly purchasing

U.S. banks while opening branch offices of BCCI throughout the U.S.,

and eventually merging the institutions. BCCI had significant difficulties implementing

this strategy due to regulatory barriers in the United States designed to insure accountability.

Despite these barriers, which delayed BCCI's entry, BCCI was ultimately

successful in acquiring four banks, operating in seven states and the District of Colombia,

with no jurisdiction successfully preventing BCCI from infiltrating it.

The techniques used by BCCI in the United States had been previously perfected by BCCI,

 and were used in BCCI's acquisitions of banks in a number of Third World countries and in Europe.

These included purchasing banks through nominees, and arranging to have its

activities shielded by prestigious lawyers, accountants, and public relations firms on the one hand,

and politically-well connected agents on the other.

These techniques were essential to BCCI's success in the United States, because without them,

BCCI would have been stopped by regulators from gaining an interest in any U.S. bank.

As it was, regulatory suspicion towards BCCI required the bank to deceive regulators in

collusion with nominees including the heads of state of several foreign emirates,

key political and intelligence figures from the Middle East, and entities controlled

by the most important bank and banker in the Middle East.

Equally important to BCCI's successful secret acquisitions of U.S. banks in the face of

regulatory suspicion was its aggressive use of a series of prominent Americans,

beginning with Bert Lance, and continuing with former Defense Secretary Clark Clifford,

former U.S. Senator Stuart Symington, well-connected former federal bank regulators,

nd former and current local, state and federal legislators.

Wittingly or not, these individuals provided essential assistance to BCCI

 through lending their names and their reputations to BCCI at critical moments.

Thus, it was not merely BCCI's deceptions that permitted it to infiltrate the United States

and its banking system. Also essential were BCCI's use of political influence peddling

 and the revolving door in Washington.

4. THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT MISHANDLED ITS INVESTIGATION AND

PROSECUTION OF BCCI, AND ITS RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER GOVERNMENT

AGENCIES CONCERNING BCCI.

Federal prosecutors in Tampa handling the 1988 drug money laundering indictment of

BCCI failed to recognize the importance of information they received concerning BCCI's other crimes,

including its apparent secret ownership of First American. As a result, they failed adequately

to investigate these allegations themselves, or to refer this portion of the case to the FBI and

other agencies at the Justice Department who could have properly investigated the additional information.

The Justice Department, along with the U.S. Customs Service and Treasury Departments,

failed to provide adequate support and assistance to investigators and prosecutors working on

the case against BCCI in 1988 and 1989, contributing to conditions that ultimately caused

the chief undercover agent who handled the sting against BCCI to quit Customs entirely.

The January 1990 plea agreement between BCCI and the U.S. Attorney in Tampa kept BCCI alive,

and had the effect of discouraging BCCI's officials from telling the U.S.

what they knew about BCCI's larger criminality, including its ownership of First American and

other U.S. banks.

The Justice Department essentially stopped investigating BCCI following the plea agreement,

until press accounts, Federal Reserve action, and the New York District Attorney's investigation

in New York forced them into action in mid-1991.

Justice Department personnel in Washington lobbied state regulators to keep BCCI open

after the January 1990 plea agreement, following lobbying of them by former

Justice Department personnel now representing BCCI.

Relations between main Justice in Washington and the U.S. Attorney for Miami, Dexter Lehtinen,

broke down on BCCI-related prosecutions, and key actions on BCCI-related cases in Miami were,

as a result, delayed for months during 1991.

Justice Department personnel in Washington, Miami, and Tampa actively obstructed and

impeded Congressional attempts to investigate BCCI in 1990, and this practice continued

to some extent until William P. Barr became Attorney General in late October, 1991.

Justice Department personnel in Washington, Miami and Tampa obstructed and impeded

attempts by New York District Attorney Robert Morgenthau to obtain critical information

concerning BCCI in 1989, 1990, and 1991, and in one case, a federal prosecutor lied to

Morgenthau's office concerning the existence of such material. Important failures of

cooperation continued to take place until William P. Barr became Attorney General in late October, 1991.

Cooperation by the Justice Department with the Federal Reserve was very limited

until after BCCI's global closure on July 5, 1991.

Some public statements by the Justice Department concerning its handling of matters pertaining

to BCCI were more cleverly crafted than true.

5. NEW YORK DISTRICT ATTORNEY MORGENTHAU NOT ONLY BROKE

THE CASE ON BCCI, BUT INDIRECTLY BROUGHT ABOUT BCCI'S GLOBAL CLOSURE.

Acting on information provided him by the Subcommittee,

New York District Attorney Robert Morgenthau began an investigation in 1989 of BCCI

which materially contributed to the chain of events that resulted in BCCI's closure.

Questions asked by the District Attorney intensified the review of BCCI's activities by its auditors,

Price Waterhouse, in England, and gave life to a moribund Federal Reserve investigation

of BCCI's secret ownership of First American.

The District Attorney's criminal investigation was critical to stopping an intended reorganization

of BCCI worked out through an agreement among the Bank of England, the government of

Abu Dhabi, BCCI's auditors, Price Waterhouse, and BCCI itself, in which the nature and

extent of BCCI's criminality would be suppressed, while Abu Dhabi would commit

its financial resources to keep the bank going during a restructuring. By the late spring of 1991,

the key obstacle to a successful restructuring of BCCI bankrolled up Abu Dhabi was the possibility

that the District Attorney of New York would indict. Such an indictment would have inevitably

caused a swift and thoroughly justified an international run on BCCI by depositors all over the world.

Instead, it was a substantial factor in the decision of the Bank of England to take the information

it had received from Price Waterhouse and rely on it to close BCCI.

6. BCCI'S ACCOUNTANTS FAILED TO PROTECT BCCI'S INNOCENT DEPOSITORS

AND CREDITORS FROM THE CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PRACTICES AT THE BANK

OF WHICH THE AUDITORS WERE AWARE FOR YEARS.

BCCI's decision to divide its operations between two auditors, neither of whom had the right

to audit all BCCI operations, was a significant mechanism by which BCCI

was able to hide its frauds during its early years.

For more than a decade, neither of BCCI's auditors objected to this practice.

BCCI provided loans and financial benefits to some of its auditors, whose acceptance of

these benefits creates an appearance of impropriety, based on the possibility that such benefits

could in theory affect the independent judgment of the auditors involved.

These benefits included loans to two Price Waterhouse partnerships in the Caribbean.

In addition, there are serious questions concerning the acceptance of payments and possibly housing

from BCCI or its affiliates by Price Waterhouse partners in the Grand Caymans, and possible

acceptance of sexual favors provided by BCCI officials to certain persons affiliated with the firm.

Regardless of BCCI's attempts to hide its frauds from its outside auditors,

there were numerous warning bells visible to the auditors from the early years of the bank's activities,

and BCCI's auditors could have and should have done more to respond to them.

By the end of 1987, given Price Waterhouse (UK)'s knowledge about the inadequacies of

BCCI's records, it had ample reason to recognize that there could be no adequate basis

for certifying that it had examined BCCI's books and records and that its picture of those

records were indeed a "true and fair view" of BCCI's financial state of affairs.

The certifications by BCCI's auditors that its picture of BCCI's books were "true and fair" from

December 31, 1987 forward, had the consequence of assisting BCCI in misleading

depositors, regulators, investigators, and other financial institutions as to BCCI's true financial condition.

Prior to 1990, Price Waterhouse (UK) knew of gross irregularities in BCCI's handling of loans

to CCAH/First American and was told of violations of U.S. banking laws by BCCI and

its borrowers in connection with CCAH/First American, and failed to advise the partners

of its U.S. affiliate or any U.S. regulator.

There is no evidence that Price Waterhouse (UK) has to this day notified Price Waterhouse (US)

of the extent of the problems it found at BCCI, or of BCCI's secret ownership of CCAH/First American.

Given the lack of information provided Price Waterhouse (US) by its United Kingdom affiliate,

the U.S. firm performed its auditing of BCCI's U.S. branches in a manner that was professional

and diligent, albeit unilluminating concerning BCCI's true activities in the United States.

Price Waterhouse's certification of BCCI's books and records in April, 1990 was explicitly

conditioned by Price Waterhouse (UK) on the proposition that Abu Dhabi would

 bail BCCI out of its financial losses, and that the Bank of England, Abu Dhabi and

BCCI would work with the auditors to restructure the bank and avoid its collapse.

Price Waterhouse would not have made the certification but for the assurances

it received from the Bank of England that its continued certification of

BCCI's books was appropriate, and indeed, necessary for the bank's survival.

The April 1990 agreement among Price Waterhouse (UK), Abu Dhabi, BCCI,

and the Bank of England described above, resulted in Price Waterhouse (UK)

certifying the financial picture presented in its audit of BCCI as "true and fair,"

with a single footnote material to the huge losses still to be dealt with,

failed adequately to describe their serious nature.

As a consequence, the certification was materially misleading to anyone who relied

on it ignorant of the facts then mutually known to BCCI, Abu Dhabi,

Price Waterhouse and the Bank of England.

The decision by Abu Dhabi, Price Waterhouse (UK), BCCI and the Bank of England to

reorganize BCCI over the duration of 1990 and 1991, rather than to advise the public of

what they knew, caused substantial injury to innocent depositors and customers of BCCI

who continued to do business with an institution which each of the above parties knew

had engaged in fraud.

From at least April, 1990 through November, 1990, the Government of Abu Dhabi had

knowledge of BCCI's criminality and frauds which it apparently withheld from

BCCI's outside auditors, contributing to the delay in the ultimate closure of the bank,

and causing further injury to the bank's innocent depositors and customers.

7. THE CIA DEVELOPED IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON BCCI,

AND INADVERTENTLY FAILED TO PROVIDE IT TO THOSE WHO COULD USE IT.

THE CIA AND FORMER CIA OFFICIALS HAD A FAR WIDER RANGE OF

CONTACTS AND LINKS TO BCCI AND BCCI SHAREHOLDERS, OFFICERS,

AND CUSTOMERS, THAN HAS BEEN ACKNOWLEDGED BY THE CIA.

By early 1985, the CIA knew more about BCCI's goals and intentions concerning

the U.S. banking system than anyone else in government, and provided that information

to the U.S. Treasury and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency,

neither of whom had the responsibility for regulating the First American Bank that BCCI had taken over.

The CIA failed to provide the critical information it had gathered to the correct users of the information –

the Federal Reserve and the Justice Department.

After the CIA knew that BCCI was as an institution a fundamentally corrupt criminal enterprise,

it continued to use both BCCI and First American, BCCI's secretly held U.S. subsidiary,

for CIA operations.

While the reporting concerning BCCI by the CIA was in some respects impressive –

especially in its assembling of the essentials of BCCI's criminality,

its secret purchase of First American by 1985, and its extensive involvement in money laundering –

 there were also remarkable gaps in the CIA's reported knowledge about BCCI.

Former CIA officials, including former CIA director Richard Helms and the late William Casey;

former and current foreign intelligence officials, including Kamal Adham and Abdul Raouf Khalil;

and principal foreign agents of the U.S., such as Adnan Khashoggi and Manucher Ghorbanifar, float in

and out of BCCI at critical times in its history, and participate simultaneously in the making of

key episodes in U.S. foreign policy, ranging from the Camp David peace talks to the arming of

Iran as part of the Iran/Contra affair. Yet the CIA has continued to maintain that it has

no information regarding any involvement of these people, raising questions about

the quality of intelligence the CIA is receiving generally, or its candor with the Subcommittee.

The CIA's professions of total ignorance about their respective roles in BCCI

 are out of character with the Agency's early knowledge of many critical

aspects of the bank's operations, structure, personnel, and history.

The errors made by the CIA in connection with its handling of BCCI were complicated by its

handling of this Congressional investigation. Initial information that was provided by the CIA was untrue;

later information that was provided was incomplete; and the Agency resisted providing

a "full" account about its knowledge of BCCI until almost a year after the initial requests

for the information.

These experiences suggest caution in concluding that the information provided to date

 is full and complete. The relationships among former CIA personnel and

BCCI front men and nominees, including Kamal Adham, Abdul Khalil, and Mohammed Irvani,

requires further investigation.

8. THE FLAWED DECISIONS MADE BY REGULATORS IN THE US WHICH

ALLOWED BCCI TO SECRETLY ACQUIRE US BANKS WERE CAUSED

IN PART BY GAPS IN THE REGULATORY PROCESS AND IN PART BY BCCI'S

USE OF WELL-CONNECTED LAWYERS TO HELP THEM THROUGH THE PROCESS.

When the Federal Reserve approved the take-over of Financial General Bankshares

by CCAH in 1981, it had substantial circumstantial evidence before it to suggest that BCCI

was behind the bank's purchase. The Federal Reserve chose not to act on that evidence

because of the specific representations that were made to it by CCAH's shareholders and lawyers,

that BCCI was neither financing nor directing the take over. These representations were

untrue and the Federal Reserve would not have approved the CCAH application but

for the false statements made to it.

In approving the CCAH application, the Federal Reserve relied upon representations

from the Central Intelligence Agency, State Department, and other U.S. agencies that they

had no objections to or concerns about the Middle Eastern shareholders who were purporting

to purchase shares in the bank. The Federal Reserve also relied upon the reputation for integrity

of BCCI's lawyers, especially that of former Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford and f

ormer Federal Reserve counsel Baldwin Tuttle. Assurances provided the Federal Reserve

by the CIA and State Department, and by both attorneys, had a material impact on

the Federal Reserve's willingness to approve the CCAH application despite its concerns

about BCCI's possible involvement.

In 1981, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency had additional information,

from reports concerning BCCI's role in the Bank of America and the National Bank of Georgia,

concerning BCCI's possible use of nominee arrangements and alter egos to purchase banks

on its behalf in the United States, which it failed to pass on to the Federal Reserve.

This failure was inadvertent, not intentional.

In approving the CCAH application, the Federal Reserve permitted BCCI and its attorneys

to carve out a seeming loophole in the commitment that BCCI not be involved in financing

or controlling CCAH's activities.

This loophole permitted BCCI to act as an investment advisor and information

conduit to CCAH's shareholders.

The Federal Reserve's decision to accept this arrangement allowed BCCI and its attorneys

and agents to use these permitted activities as a cover for the true nature of BCCI's ownership

of CCAH and the First American Banks.

After approving the CCAH application in 1981, the Federal Reserve received few indicators

about BCCI's possible improper involvement in CCAH/First American.

 However, at several critical junctures, especially the purchase by First American of

the National Bank of Georgia from Ghaith Pharaon in 1986,

there were obvious warnings signs that could have been investigated and which were not, until late 1990.

As a foreign bank whose branches were chartered by state banking authorities,

BCCI largely escaped the Federal Reserve's scrutiny regarding its criminal activities

in the United States unrelated to its interest in CCAH/First American.

This gap in regulatory oversight has since been closed by the passage of the

Foreign Bank Supervision Enhancement Act of 1991.

The U.S. Treasury Department failed to provide the Federal Reserve with information

it received concerning BCCI's ownership of First American in 1985 and 1986 from the CIA.

However, IRS agents did provide important information to the Federal Reserve

on this issue in early 1989, which the Federal Reserve failed adequately to investigate at the time.

The FDIC approved Ghaith Pharaon's purchase of the Independence Bank in 1985

knowing him to be a shareholder of BCCI and knowing that he was placing

a senior BCCI officer in charge of the bank, and failed to confer with

the Federal Reserve or the OCC regarding their previous experiences with Pharaon and BCCI.

Once the Federal Reserve commenced a formal investigation of BCCI

and First American on January 3, 1991, its investigation of BCCI and First American

was aggressive and diligent. Its decisions to force BCCI out of the United States and

to divest itself of First American were prompt. The charges it brought against

the parties involved with BCCI in violating federal banking standards

were fully justified by the record.

Its investigations have over the past year contributed substantially to public understanding

 to date of what took place.

Even after the Federal Reserve understood the nature and scope of BCCI's frauds,

it did not seek to have BCCI closed globally.

This position was in some measure the consequence of the Federal Reserve's

need to secure the cooperation of BCCI's majority shareholders, the government

and royal family of Abu Dhabi, in providing some $190 million to prop up First American Bank

and prevent an embarrassing collapse.

However, Federal Reserve investigators did actively work in the spring of 1991

to have BCCI's top management removed.

In investigating BCCI, the Federal Reserve's efforts were hampered by examples

of lack of cooperation by foreign governments, including most significantly

the Serious Fraud Office in the United Kingdom and, since the closure of BCCI on July 5, 1991,

the government of Abu Dhabi.

U.S. regulatory handling of the U.S. banks secretly owned by BCCI

was hampered by lack of coordination among the regulators,

which included the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and the OCC,

highlighting the need for further integration of these separate banking regulatory agencies

on supervision and enforcement.

9. THE BANK OF ENGLAND'S REGULATION OF BCCI WAS WHOLLY INADEQUATE

TO PROTECT BCCI'S DEPOSITORS AND CREDITORS,

AND THE BANK OF ENGLAND WITHHELD INFORMATION

ABOUT BCCI'S FRAUDS FROM PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE FOR FIFTEEN MONTHS

BEFORE CLOSING THE BANK.

The Bank of England had deep concerns about BCCI from the late 1970s on,

and undertook several steps to slow BCCI's expansion in the United Kingdom.

In 1988 and 1989, the Bank of England learned of BCCI's involvement

in the financing of terrorism and in drug money laundering, and undertook additional,

but limited supervision of BCCI in response to receiving this information.

In the spring of 1990, Price Waterhouse advised the Bank of England that there

were substantial loan losses at BCCI, numerous poor banking practices,

and evidence of fraud, which together had created a massive hole in BCCI's books.

The Bank of England's response to the information was not to close BCCI down,

but to find ways to prop up BCCI and prevent its collapse.

This meant, among other things, keeping secret the very serious nature of

 BCCI's problems from its creditors and one million depositors.

In April, 1990, the Bank of England reached an agreement with BCCI, Abu Dhabi,

 and Price Waterhouse to keep BCCI from collapsing. Under the agreement,

Abu Dhabi agreed to guarantee BCCI's losses and Price Waterhouse agreed to certify BCCI's books.

As a consequence, innocent depositors and creditors who did business with BCCI following

that date were deceived into believing that BCCI's financial problems were not as serious as each of these parties already knew them to be.

From April, 1990, the Bank of England relied on British bank secrecy and confidentiality laws

 to reduce the risk of BCCI's collapse if word of its improprieties leaked out.

As a consequence, innocent depositors and creditors who did business with BCCI following

that date were denied vital information, in the possession of the regulators, auditors, officers, and shareholders of BCCI, that could have protected them against their losses.

In order to prevent risk to its restructuring plan for BCCI and a possible run on BCCI,

the Bank of England withheld important information from the Federal Reserve in the spring

of 1990 about the size and scope of BCCI's lending on CCAH/First American shares,

despite the Federal Reserve's requests for such information.

This action by the Bank of England delayed the opening of a full investigation

by the Federal Reserve for approximately eight months.

Despite its knowledge of some of BCCI's past frauds, and its own understanding that

consolidation into a single entity is essential for regulating a bank, in late 1990 and

early 1991 the Bank of England tentatively agreed with BCCI and its Abu Dhabi owners to

permit BCCI to restructure as three "separate" institutions, based in London, Abu Dhabi and Hong Kong.

This tentative decision demonstrated extraordinarily poor judgment on the part of the Bank of England.

This decision was reversed abruptly when the Bank of England suddenly decided to close

BCCI instead in late June, 1991.

The decision by the Bank of England in April 1990 to permit BCCI to move its headquarters,

officers, and records out of British jurisdiction to Abu Dhabi has had profound negative

consequences for investigations of BCCI around the world. As a result of this decision,

essential records and witnesses regarding what took place were removed from the control

of the British government, and placed under the control of the government of Abu Dhabi,

which has to date withheld them from criminal investigators in the U.S. and U.K.

This decision constituted a costly, and likely irretrievable, error on the part of the Bank of England.

10. CLARK CLIFFORD AND ROBERT ALTMAN PARTICIPATED IN

IMPROPRIETIES WITH BCCI IN THE UNITED STATES.

Regardless of whether Clifford and Altman were deceived by BCCI in some respects,

both men participated in some BCCI's deceptions in the United States.

Beginning in late 1977, Clifford and Altman assisted BCCI in purchasing a U.S. bank,

Financial General Bankshares, with the participation of nominees, and understood

BCCI's central involvement in directing and controlling the transaction.

In the years that followed, they made business decisions regarding acquisitions

for First American that were motivated by BCCI's goals, rather than by the business

needs of First American itself; and represented as their own to regulators decisions

that had been made by Abedi and BCCI on fundamental matters concerning First American,

including the purchase by First American of the National Bank of Georgia and

 First American's decision to purchase branches in New York City.

Clifford and Altman concealed their own financing of shares of First American by BCCI

from First American's other directors and from U.S. regulators, withheld critical

information that they possessed from regulators in an effort to keep the truth about

BCCI's ownership of First American secret, and deceived regulators and the Congress

concerning their own knowledge of and personal involvement in BCCI's illegalities in the United States.

11. ABU DHABI'S INVOLVEMENT IN BCCI'S AFFAIRS WAS FAR MORE

CENTRAL THAN IT HAS ACKNOWLEDGED, INVOLVING IN SOME CASES

NOMINEE RELATIONS AND NO-RISK TRANSACTIONS THAT ABU DHABI IS

TODAY COVERING-UP THROUGH HIDING WITNESSES AND DOCUMENTS

FROM U.S. INVESTIGATORS.

Members of Abu Dhabi's ruling family appear to have contributed no more than $500,000 to

BCCI's capitalization prior to April 1990, despite being the record owner of almost one-quarter

of the bank's total shares. An unknown but substantial percentage of the shares acquired

by Abu Dhabi overall in BCCI appear to have been acquired on a risk-free basis –

either with guaranteed rates of return, buy-back arrangements, or both.

The interest held in BCCI by the Abu Dhabi ruling family, like the interests held by the rulers of the three other gulf sheikdoms in the United Arab Emirates who owned shares of BCCI, materially aided and abetted Abedi and BCCI in projecting the illusion that BCCI was backed by, and capitalized by, Abu Dhabi's wealth. Investments made in BCCI by the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority appear to have been genuine, although possibly guaranteed by BCCI with buy-back or other no-risk arrangements.

Shares in Financial General Bankshares held by members of the Abu Dhabi royal family in late 1977 and early 1978 appear to have been nominee arrangements, adopted by Abu Dhabi as a convenience to BCCI and Abedi, under arrangements in which Abu Dhabi was to be without risk, and BCCI was to guarantee the purchase through a commitment to buy-back the stock at an agreed upon price.

Abu Dhabi's representative to BCCI's board of directors, Ghanim al Mazrui, received unorthodox financial benefits from BCCI in no-risk stock deals which may have compromised his ability to exercise independent judgment concerning BCCI's actions; confirmed at least one fraudulent transaction involving Abu Dhabi; and engaged in other improprieties pertaining to BCCI; but remains today in place at the apex of Abu Dhabi's committee designated to respond to BCCI's collapse.

In April, 1990, Abu Dhabi was told in detail about BCCI's fraud by top BCCI officials, and failed to advise BCCI's external auditors of what it had learned. Between April, 1990 and November, 1990, Abu Dhabi and BCCI together kept some information concerning BCCI's frauds hidden from the auditors.

From April, 1990 through July 5, 1991, Abu Dhabi tried to save BCCI through a massive restructuring. As part of the restructuring process, Abu Dhabi agreed to take responsibility for BCCI's losses, Price Waterhouse agreed to certify BCCI's books for another year, and Abu Dhabi, Price Waterhouse, the Bank of England, and BCCI agreed to keep all information concerning BCCI's frauds and other problems secret from BCCI's one million depositors, as well as from U.S. regulators and law enforcement, to prevent a run on the bank.

After the Federal Reserve was advised by the New York District Attorney of possible nominee arrangements involving BCCI and First American, Abu Dhabi, in an apparent effort to gain the Federal Reserve's acquiescence in BCCI's proposed restructuring, provided limited cooperation to the Federal Reserve, including access to selected documents. The cooperation did not extend to permitting the Federal Reserve open access to all BCCI documents, or substantive communication with key BCCI officials held in Abu Dhabi, such as BCCI's former president, Swaleh Naqvi. That access ended with the closure of BCCI July 5, 1991.

From November, 1990 through the present, Abu Dhabi has failed to provide documents and witnesses to U.S. law enforcement authorities and to the Congress, despite repeated commitments to do so. Instead, it has actively prevented U.S. investigators from having access to vital information necessary to investigate BCCI's global wrongdoing.

The proposed agreement between Abu Dhabi and BCCI's liquidators to settle their claims against one another contains provisions which could have the consequence of permitting Abu Dhabi to cover up any wrongdoing it may have had in connection with BCCI.

There is some evidence that the Sheikh Zayed may have had a political agenda in agreeing to the involvement of members of the Abu Dhabi royal family and its investment authority in purchasing shares of Financial General Bankshares, then of CCAH/First American. This evidence is offset, in part, by testimony that Abu Dhabi share purchases in the U.S. bank were done at Abedi's request and did not represent an actual investment by Abu Dhabi until much later.

12. BCCI MADE EXTENSIVE USE OF THE REVOLVING DOOR AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE PEDDLING IN THE UNITED STATES TO ACCOMPLISH ITS GOALS.

BCCI's political connections in Washington had a material impact on its ability to accomplish its goals in the United States. In hiring lawyers, lobbyists and public relations firms in the United States to help it deal with its problems vis a vis the government, BCCI pursued a strategy that it had practiced successfully around the world: the hiring of former government officials.

BCCI's and its shareholders' cadre of professional help in Washington D.C. included, at various times, a former Secretary of Defense (Clark Clifford), former Senators and Congressmen (John Culver, Mike Barnes), former federal prosecutors (Larry Wechsler, Raymond Banoun, and Larry Barcella, a former State Department Official (William Rogers), a former White House aide (Ed Rogers), a current Presidential campaign deputy director (James Lake), and former Federal Reserve Attorneys (Baldwin Tuttle, Jerry Hawke, and Michael Bradfield). In addition, BCCI solicited the help of Henry Kissinger, who chose not to do business with BCCI but made a referral of BCCI to his own lawyers.

At several key points in BCCI's activities in the U.S., the political influence and personal contacts of those it hired had an impact in helping BCCI accomplish its goals, including in connection with the 1981 CCAH acquisition of FGB and the handling and aftermath of BCCI's plea agreement in Tampa in 1990.

The political connections of BCCI's U.S. lawyers and lobbyists were critical to impeding Congressional and law enforcement investigations from 1988 through 1991, through a variety of techniques that included impugning the motives and integrity of investigators and journalists, withholding subpoenaed documents, and lobbying on capital hill to protect BCCI's reputation and discourage efforts to close the bank down in the United States.

13. BCCI'S PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRM SMEARED PEOPLE WHO WERE TELLING THE TRUTH AS PART OF ITS WORK FOR BCCI.

When Hill and Knowlton accepted BCCI's account in October, 1988, its partners knew of BCCI's reputation as a "sleazy" bank, but took the account anyway. In 1988 and 1989, Hill and Knowlton assisted BCCI with an aggressive public relations campaign designed to demonstrate that BCCI was not a criminal enterprise, and to put the best face possible on the Tampa drug money laundering indictments. In so doing, it disseminated materials unjustifiably and unfairly discrediting persons and publications who were telling the truth about BCCI's criminality.

Important information provided by Hill and Knowlton to Capitol Hill and provided by First American to regulators concerning the relationship between BCCI and First American in April, 1990 was false. The misleading material represented the position of BCCI, First American, Clifford and Altman concerning the relationship, and was contrary to the truth known by BCCI, Clifford and Altman.

Hill and Knowlton's representation of BCCI was within the norms and standards of the public relations industry, but raises larger questions as to the relationship of those norms and standards to the public interest.

14. BCCI ACTIVELY SOLICITED THE FRIENDSHIPS OF MAJOR U.S. POLITICAL FIGURES, AND MADE PAYMENTS TO THESE POLITICAL FIGURES, WHICH IN SOME CASES MAY HAVE BEEN IMPROPER.

Beginning with Bert Lance in 1977, whose debts BCCI paid off with a $3.5 million loan, BCCI, BCCI nominees, and top officials of BCCI systematically developed friendships and relationships with important U.S political figures. While those which are publicly known include former president Jimmy Carter, Jesse Jackson, and Andrew Young, the Subcommittee has received information suggesting that BCCI's network extended to other U.S. political figures. The payments made by BCCI to Andrew Young while he was a public official were at best unusual, and by all appearances, improper.

15. BCCI'S COMMODITIES AFFILIATE, CAPCOM, ENGAGED IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF LARGELY ANONYMOUS TRADING IN THE US WHICH INCLUDED A VERY SUBSTANTIAL LEVEL OF MONEY LAUNDERING, WHILE CAPCOM SIMULTANEOUSLY DEVELOPED SIGNIFICANT TIES TO IMPORTANT U.S. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY EXECUTIVES AND FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE FIGURES.

BCCI's commodities affiliate, Capcom, based in Chicago, London and Cairo, was principally staffed by former BCCI bankers, capitalized by BCCI and BCCI customers, and owned by BCCI, BCCI shareholders, and front-men. Capcom employed many of the same practices as BCCI, especially the use of nominees and front companies to disguise ownership and the movement of money. Four U.S. citizens -- none of whom had any experience or expertise in the commodities markets -- played important and varied roles as Capcom front men in the United States.

While investigation information concerning Capcom is incomplete, its activities appear to have included misappropriation of BCCI assets; the laundering of billions of dollars from the Middle East to the US and other parts of the world; and the siphoning of assets from BCCI to create a safe haven for them outside of the official BCCI empire.

Capcom's majority shareholders, Kamal Adham and A.R. Khalil, were both former senior Saudi government officials and successively acted as Saudi Arabia's principal liaisons to the Central Intelligence Agency during the 1970's and 1980's.

Its U.S. front men included Robert Magness, the CEO of the largest U.S. cable telecommunications company, TCI; a vice-President of TCI, Larry Romrell; and two other Americans, Kerry Fox and Robert Powell, with long-standing business interests in the Middle East. Magness, Romrell and Fox received loans from BCCI for real estate ventures in the U.S., and Magness and Romrell discussed numerous business ventures between BCCI and TCI, some of which involved the possible purchase of U.S. telecommunications stock and substantial lending by BCCI.

Commodities regulators with the responsibility for investigating Capcom showed little interest in conducting a thorough investigation of its activities, and in 1989 allowed Capcom to avoid such an investigation through agreeing to cease doing business in the United States.

The Subcommittee could not determine whether BCCI, Capcom, or their shareholders or agents actually acquired equity interests in the U.S. cable industry and believes further investigation of matters pertaining to Capcom is essential.

16. INVESTIGATIONS OF BCCI TO DATE REMAIN INCOMPLETE, AND MANY LEADS CANNOT BE FOLLOWED UP, AS THE RESULT OF DOCUMENTS BEING WITHHELD FROM US INVESTIGATORS BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, AND DOCUMENTS AND WITNESSES BEING WITHHELD FROM US INVESTIGATORS BY THE GOVERNMENT OF ABU DHABI.

Many of the specific criminal transactions engaged in by BCCI's customers remain hidden from investigation as the result of bank secrecy laws in many jurisdictions, British national security laws, and the holding of key witnesses and documents by the Government of Abu Dhabi. Documents pertaining to BCCI's use to finance terrorism, to assist the builders of a Pakistani nuclear bomb, to finance Iranian arms deals, and related matters have been sealed in the United Kingdom by British intelligence and remain unavailable to U.S. investigators. Many other basic matters pertaining to BCCI's criminality, including any list that may exist of BCCI's political payoffs and bribes, remain sequestered in Abu Dhabi and unavailable to U.S. investigators.

Many investigative leads remain to be explored, but cannot be answered with devoting substantial additional sources that to date no agency of government has been in a position to provide.

Unanswered questions include, but are not limited to, the relationship between BCCI and the Banco Nazionale del Lavoro; the alleged relationship between the late CIA director William Casey and BCCI; the extent of BCCI's involvement in Pakistan's nuclear program; BCCI's manipulation of commodities and securities markets in Europe and Canada; BCCI's activities in India, including its relationship with the business empire of the Hinduja family; BCCI's relationships with convicted Iraqi arms dealer Sarkis Sarkenalian, Syrian drug trafficker, terrorist, and arms trafficker Monzer Al-Kassar, and other major arms dealers; the use of BCCI by central figures in the alleged "October Surprise," BCCI's activities with the Central Bank of Syria and with the Foreign Trade Mission of the Soviet Union in London; its involvement with foreign intelligence agencies; the financial dealingst of BCCI directors with Charles Keating and several Keating affiliates and front-companies, including the possibility that BCCI related entities may have laundered funds for Keating to move them outside the United States; BCCI's financing of commodities and other business dealings of international criminal financier Marc Rich; the nature, extent and meaning of the ownership of other major U.S. financial institutions by Middle Eastern political figures; the nature, extent, and meaning of real estate and financial investments in the United States by major shareholders of BCCI; the sale of BCCI affiliate Banque de Commerce et Placement in Geneva, to the Cukorova Group of Turkey, which owned an entity involved in the BNL Iraqi arms sales, among others.

The withholding of documents and witnesses from U.S. investigators by the Government of Abu Dhabi threatens vital U.S. foreign policy, anti-narcotics and money laundering, and law enforcement interests, and should not be tolerated.

SUMMARY OF LEGISLATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS 1. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT THE UNITED STATES DEVELOP A MORE AGGRESSIVE AND COORDINATED APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRIME, AND TO MOVE FURTHER AGAINST FOREIGN PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIAL LAWS THAT PROTECT CRIMINALS.

2. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT RECONSIDER THE POLICIES AND PRACTICES THAT LED TO ITS INEFFECTIVENESS IN INVESTIGATING AND PROSECUTING BCCI, AND IMPAIRED ITS ABILITY TO COOPERATE WITH OTHER INVESTIGATIONS OF BCCI BEING CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE, NEW YORK DISTRICT ATTORNEY, AND THE SENATE.

3. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY AND STATE DEPARTMENT UPGRADE THE TRACKING OF FOREIGN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND ACTIVITIES, AND THE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION CONCERNING SUCH INSTITUTIONS.

4. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT THE CONGRESS CONSIDER WHETHER ADDITIONAL OVERSIGHT MECHANISMS ARE NECESSARY TO ENSURE THE CIA'S ACCOUNTABILITY ON THE PROVISION OF INFORMATION.

5. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT FEDERAL AGENCIES IMPOSE NEW REQUIREMENTS ON FOREIGN AUDITORS TO PROTECT U.S. INTERESTS IN ANY CASE IN WHICH ANY SUCH AGENCY IS RELYING ON AN AUDIT CERTIFIED BY A FOREIGN AUDITOR. AT MINIMUM, THIS SHOULD REQUIRE FOREIGN AUDITORS WHOSE CERTIFICATIONS ARE USED BY INSTITUTIONS DOING BUSINESS IN THE U.S. AGREE TO SUBMIT THEMSELVES TO U.S. LAWS.

6. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT THE PRESIDENT AND THE SECRETARY OF STATE ADVISE THE GOVERNMENT OF ABU DHABI THAT ITS WITHHOLDING OF DOCUMENTS AND WITNESSES PERTAINING TO BCCI FROM U.S. FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATORS, THE FEDERAL RESERVE, THE NEW YORK DISTRICT ATTORNEY AND THE CONGRESS THREATENS VITAL U.S. INTERESTS AND WILL NOT BE TOLERATED.

7. FURTHER ATTENTION NEEDS TO BE GIVEN TO THE PROBLEM OF THE REVOLVING DOOR IN WASHINGTON, AND THE IMPACT ON THE REGULATORY PROCESS AND ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OF POLITICAL INFLUENCE IN WASHINGTON. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THE CONSIDERATION OF LEGISLATING A FEDERAL STATUTORY CODE OF CONDUCT FOR ATTORNEYS WHO PRACTICE BEFORE FEDERAL AGENCIES.

8. THE SELF-REGULATION OF THE U.S COMMODITIES MARKETS BY THE COMMODITIES FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION, THE CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE, AND THE CHICAGO MERCANTILE EXCHANGE IS INADEQUATE TO PROTECT THOSE MARKETS AGAINST MONEY LAUNDERING INVOLVING TRADES

FROM ABROAD. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT THE EXCHANGES MAKE MONEY LAUNDERING ILLEGAL, AND DEMAND THAT THIS REQUIREMENT BE ACCEPTED BY FOREIGN COMMODITIES EXCHANGES WITH WHOM THEY DO BUSINESS, AS A CONDITION OF ACCESS TO US EXCHANGES.

9. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT FURTHER STEPS BE TAKEN TO INSURE ADEQUATE ACCOUNTABILITY OF FOREIGN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS DOING BUSINESS IN THE UNITED STATES, INCLUDING REQUIRING FOREIGN BANKS FORM SEPARATELY CAPITALIZED HOLDING COMPANIES IN THE UNITED STATES AS A CONDITION OF LICENSE AND THE CONSIDERATION BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE OF ESTABLISHMENT A MINIMUM STANDARD FOR CONSOLIDATED REGULATION THAT EXCLUDES BANK REGULATORY HAVENS.

10. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT FOREIGN INVESTORS WHO PURCHASE SUBSTANTIAL SHARES OF U.S. BUSINESSES BE REQUIRED TO APPEAR PERSONALLY IN THE UNITED STATES AS INSURANCE THAT THE FOREIGN INVESTOR IS NOT ACTING AS A NOMINEE FOR SOMEONE ELSE.

11. TURF WARS CONTINUE TO SEVERELY DAMAGE THE ABILITY OF LAW-ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN THE UNITED STATES TO DO THEIR JOB. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMITTEE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS WHOSE JOB IT IS TO CONDUCT OVERSIGHT OF, PREVENT, AND RESPOND TO FAILURES OF COOPERATION IN LAW ENFORCEMENT.

12. THE SUBCOMMITTEE RECOMMENDS THAT A STATUTORY MECHANISM FOR THE RECEIPT BY CONGRESS OF FOREIGN FINANCIAL INFORMATION BE ESTABLISHED.

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Introduction and Summary of Investigation BCCI cannot be taken as an isolated example of a rogue bank, but a case study of the vulnerability of the world to international crime on a global scope that is beyond the current ability of governments to control. Its multi-billion dollar collapse is merely the latest in a series of international financial scandals that have bedeviled international banking this century. Its techniques and its associations with government officials, intelligence agencies, and arms traffickers, were neither new nor unique.

For example, as far back as the 1920's, the International Match Corp bilked shareholders and lenders out of some $500 million through switching company assets and liabilities among a series of shell entities, creating fictional assets when existing ones were adequate, and through transferring funds from the United States offshore. All the while, its chairman, Ivan Kreuger, maintained friendships with numerous world leaders including then U.S. President Herbert Hoover, in a manner reminiscent of BCCI's founder Agha Hasan Abedi's relationships wit President Carter a half a century later.

During the 1960's, the Channel Islands off the coast of England became the host to a series of post-off box banks, including the infamous Bank of Sark, whose facilities including a room over a pub, a desk and a telephone. That headquarters proved adequate to enable the swindlers who established the bank to use it to sell some $100 million in fraudulent checks and letters of credit on the phantom bank before their criminality was discovered.

In the same period, Bernie Cornfeld, chairman of the Investors Overseas Service (IOS), which sold "The Fund of Funds," and fugitive financier Robert Vesco, siphoned off hundreds of millions of dollars from investors in the mutual fund that at its height had $3 billion in assets under its management. In doing so, it moved funds held at Credit Suisse to a small bank which IOS itself owned based in Luxembourg, from which the funds disappeared. Again, this technique anticipated the methods used by BCCI to shift assets from legitimate institutions to its own, and then to engage in wire transfers sufficient to make them impossible to track.

Similar techniques were used by Italian financier Michele Sindona in connection with his management of Banco Ambrosiano in Italy; and by former CIA agent Michael Hand in the drug money laundering Nugan Hand Bank in Australia during the late 1970's and early 1980's. The latter institution had numerous ties to U.S. intelligence and military personnel which have never been explained.

Thus, the rise and fall of BCCI is not an isolated phenomenon, but a recurrent problem that has grown along with the growth in the international financial community itself. Given the extraordinary magnitude of international financial transactions -- which amount to some $4 trillion per day moving through the New York clearance system alone -- the opportunities for fraud are huge, the rewards great, and the systems put in place to protect against them, far from adequate, as this report demonstrates in some detail.

The scope and variety of BCCI's criminality, and the issues raised by that criminality, are immense, and beyond the scope of any single investigation or report. This report, the product of some four years of investigation by the Subcommittee, while extensive, can merely provide a basic guideline to the fundamental facts and issued raised by the BCCI affair.

The Subcommittee investigation of BCCI began in February, 1988, early in the second year of a two-year investigation of the relationship between drug trafficking to U.S. foreign policy and law enforcement that had been authorized by the full Committee. During a hearing on General Noriega's drug trafficking and money laundering, BCCI was identified as facilitating Noriega's criminal activity. In March, 1988, the Foreign Relations Committee authorized the issuance of subpoenas to BCCI and those at the bank involved in handling Noriega's assets, and the accounts of others in Panama and Colombia. Service of those subpoenas was delayed, at the request of the Justice Department and U.S. Customs Service, due to concern that its service could interfere with an ongoing sting operation of BCCI in Tampa, Operation C-Chase. By the time the Subcommittee secured the permission of federal authorities to move forward with service of the subpoena, in late July 1988, the Subcommittee had completed the public hearings in connection with its investigative mandate, and was proceeding to complete its final report, with no further investigative efforts planned.

However, service of the subpoena set into motion a series of contacts during the late summer and early fall involving the Subcommittee, BCCI officials, and BCCI's attorneys, including Clark Clifford and Robert Altman. During those contacts, BCCI officials advised Subcommittee counsel Jack Blum that in their view, BCCI and its attorneys were obstructing the Subcommittee's efforts to investigate the bank. The Subcommittee conducted a deposition of one key BCCI official, Amjad Awan, shortly before his arrest in the Customs' sting, and deposed a second, former BCCI officer following the sting, during the final days of the authorization given the Subcommittee by the Foreign Relations Committee. Thus, as the two-year investigation of the Subcommittee authorized by the Foreign Relations Committee ended, investigating BCCI remained a major piece of unfinished Subcommittee business.

In the spring of 1989, Senator Kerry, chairman of the Subcommittee, authorized Blum as he was leaving the Subcommittee, to provide the information he had developed to the Justice Department. After the Justice Department, in Blum's view, had failed to follow up on the information provided, he took the same information to New York District Attorney Robert Morgenthau, who shortly commenced his investigation of BCCI, based in substantial part on the leads provided him by Blum and the Subcommittee.

In the meantime, Senator Kerry asked two members of his personal staff to continue the investigation from within his personal office until such time as further authorization might be granted from the Foreign Relations Committee, or another Committee of formal jurisdiction for a committee investigation.

During 1989 and 1990, staff in Senator Kerry's office had numerous contacts with BCCI's attorneys, certain BCCI customers, and, in a truncated fashion, with BCCI officials, in an attempt to determine whether allegations concerning BCCI's secret ownership of First American Bankshares were correct, and as part of an effort to identify the extent and nature of BCCI's support of drug money laundering.

In January, 1990, when the Justice Department entered into a plea agreement with BCCI, Senator Kerry criticized the plea agreement for permitting BCCI to avoid trial, and the $14 million fine as insufficient punishment for an institution which had a corporate policy of laundering drug money. At the same time, the Subcommittee published a report on drug money laundering which focused in part on further questions concerning BCCI, including BCCI's alleged secret ownership of First American.

During the spring and summer of 1990, the Senator Kerry's staff conducted further investigative efforts concerning BCCI, met with BCCI's and First American's attorneys on several occasions attempting to obtain BCCI documents. In July, 1990, Senator Kerry, in his capacity as chairman of the Subcommittee, scheduled hearings on BCCI which were postponed after BCCI's attorneys and the Justice Department advised staff that each of the requested witnesses, including BCCI attorney and First American President Robert Altman, would decline the Subcommittee's request to testify.

After efforts to obtain authorization for the investigation within the Banking Committee failed, Senator Kerry decided in early 1991 to formalize the personal staff investigation within the Subcommittee and to seek formal authorization for an investigation from the Foreign Relations Committee, which was granted on May 23, 1991, without dissent. Together with this authorization, the Foreign Relations Committee authorized the issuance of a subpoena to BCCI for records pertaining to its dealings with foreign officials of a number of countries, arms dealers, and focusing on its secret ownership of U.S. financial institutions. At this time, Senator Kerry was joined in further investigative efforts by his ranking member, Senator Brown.

While the Foreign Relations Committee provided consistent support for the Subcommittee's efforts through 1991 and 1992, staffing resources for the investigation remained limited, amounting to two attorneys, with no budget for travel. The lack of resources particularly hampered efforts to investigate matters pertaining to BCCI's activities outside the United States.

Authority for subpoenas and writs were granted by the Committee to the Subcommittee on May 23, 1991, November 27, 1991, February 29, 1992, June 4, 1992. In all, the Subcommittee conducted thirteen days of public hearings, on August 1, 2, 8, October 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, and November 21, 1991; February 19, March 18, May 14, and July 30, 1992; one day of closed hearings, on October 31, 1991 and staffed an additional day of hearings in the Senate Banking Subcommittee on Consumer and Regulatory Affairs on May 23, 1991.

Both by subpoena and by request, documents were received from many institutions, agencies and individuals, including BCCI itself; many of BCCI's attorneys and law firms; many former BCCI officials; representatives of BCCI's creditors and depositors; Price Waterhouse, BCCI's accountants; Clark Clifford and Robert Altman; the First American Bank; the Federal Reserve, Office of Thrift Supervision, Resolution Trust Corporation, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Majority Shareholders of BCCI (Abu Dhabi), the Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S. Customs Service, the State Department; the Department of Agriculture; former federal prosecutors and investigators; and many others.

In addition, the Subcommittee has been vitally assisted by certain BCCI insiders who, while still working at BCCI during the period of its operation, became sufficiently angered and disgusted by what they had observed that they contacted the Subcommittee and agreed to provide the Subcommittee with information on an ongoing basis. These insiders helped the Subcommittee to document improprieties involving BCCI's attorneys, senior officers, and shareholders, as well as, certain failures to act on information by federal law enforcement.

Many matters remain to be investigated, and these are outlined in the Executive Summary and in the final chapter on conclusions and legislative recommendations.

What is absolutely clear is that the United States needs to exercise far more leadership in helping develop a system for monitoring and regulating the movement of funds across international borders to replace the current, inadequate, patchwork system that BCCI, with all of its faults, so aptly took advantage of to defraud over one million depositors and thousands of creditors from countries all over the world.

Equally important is for the United States to give renewed attention to the difficulty of monitoring the actual circumstances and intentions, of foreign investors seeking to acquire U.S. institutions. As the BCCI case demonstrates, such investments pose special difficulties for both investigation and prosecution should something go wrong.

Finally, influence peddling, the revolving door, and the willingness of well-placed and prominent people in Washington to provide services to whoever wants in the door and is willing to pay ones fees is a phenomenon that poses very substantial dangers for our system of government. As the BCCI case suggests, higher standards of conduct by the private sector in Washington that lives alongside of government is an essential part of making it possible for government to work. The lack of those standards was a significant factor in BCCI's success in committing crimes, and the government's failures in doing anything them.

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THE ORIGIN AND EARLY YEARS OF BCCI BCCI's conception, growth, collapse, and criminality are inextricably linked with the personality of its founder, Agha Hasan Abedi, who in turn was a product of the unique conditions of Muslim India in the final period of British rule prior to partition, and the first years after partition.

These were years of fundamental change in the region, involving the creation of an entire new ruling class in both Hindu and Moslem India to replace the departing British foreign service. While the period created special opportunities for a newly-emerging professional class in both countries, Abedi and many of the others who later became prominent in Pakistani banking made up a special class. In India, they had grown up as members of a minority, of ineradicably lower status than similarly educated Hindus, despite their university educations. Following partition, these Indian Moslems migrated northward to the new Muslim state of Pakistan, but remained forever regarded as outsiders by the natives. Accordingly, as they settled in the newly-developing cities, such as Karachi and Lahore, they formed a clannish class of Muslim professionals who kept themselves apart from other Pakistanis.

Abedi himself was especially suited to succeed in the post-colonial environment, given his family's experience in northern Indian in Mahmudabad, where his father had served the Rajah. At the Rajah's court, Abedi was exposed to great wealth, and to the concept that access to it could be had for anyone who managed to make himself indispensable to the person who controlled such wealth. Abedi also learned that the previously immutable laws of the British colonial power could be changed, at whim, by the new Indian and Pakistani rulers that followed, and that as often as not, legal obstacles to any goal could be eliminated if they interfered with the plans of a sufficiently important political figure. These were lessons which Abedi applied throughout his career as a banker, and at the core of BCCI's unique history.

A history of BCCI, prepared in 1982 by Khusro Karamat Elley, a key figure in BCCI's secret management of First American, provides a rosy, public-relations view of Abedi's career to the founding of BCCI a decade earlier.

The story begins in the early forties, when the Habib family of India set up a Bank in Bombay, India. They started hiring young graduates as trainee officers and among the first was a young and warm hearted individual named Agha Hasan Abedi. In 1947, when Pakistan was formed, the Habibs [as Moslems] moved their bank to Pakistan.

The Habibs ran the bank like a family business. All decisions were centralized with family members and working hours were long and hard. Agha Hasan Abedi rose very rapidly but soon found the atmosphere to be too restrictive for the great number of ideas welling up inside him. In 1958 he left Habib Bank and was able to get together Investors to form a new bank to be known as United Bank. The Central Bank in Pakistan gave the license and was quite happy with Mr. Abedi's statements that he wanted to make this the largest bank in Pakistan. They however did find it disturbing when he described to them in great detail how high the salaries of the employees of this bank would be, what would be the quality of the offices and the extent of the mechanization that he would go into. Within ten years, United Bank became the second largest bank in Pakistan and all that Mr. Abedi envisioned, relating to the facilities, the staff, and relating to the high quality of appearance of the offices, and to the modern outlook of the Bank, had been achieved. Additionally, the Bank had opened branches overseas in quite a few countries including the Middle East. The Bank was already poised to become the largest bank in Pakistan but political conditions were making it apparent to Mr. Abedi that Pakistan could probably not form the basis for an operation of the size which he and his team were capable of.(1)

This internal BCCI history focuses on key elements of BCCI's operation already present in the Habib and United Banks: a close knit family structure for management, high salaries and benefits to motivate employees, unusually luxurious offices for the purpose of impressing customers, aggressive expansion, beginning with the Middle East, and Abedi's refusal to live within the constraints of governments.

Press accounts of Abedi's life from the 1970's and 1980's typically note Abedi's wish for his success to be seen as a Pakistani version of a Horatio Alger story: success in the material world as being merely the logical reward for piety, hard work, sobriety, discipline, and loyalty. Internal BCCI documents make clear Abedi's ability to motivate his employees to work exceptionally hard. Yet in this, Abedi approach was little different from other successful super-salesmen. What distinguished Abedi's method as a banker was his focused attention on cultivating individuals of wealth, deemed "high net worths," at BCCI, and those who controlled wealth, such as Pakistani government officials.(2)

Abedi's Charisma By all accounts -- ranging from statements made by Bert Lance to Jimmy Carter to the Pakistani bankers who went to work for him at BCCI -- Agha Hasan Abedi was a man of extraordinary personal charisma. That charisma was the glue which held BCCI together. Its absence following Abedi's stroke in early 1989, which led to Carter arranging an emergency heart transplant for him, had a substantial impact on BCCI's ability to survive the drug money laundering indictments in Tampa and the banks subsequent misfortunes.

According to former BCCI chief financial officer Massihur Rahman, who worked alongside Abedi for nearly two decades, Abedi was a man whose personality dominated all those around him, who could simultaneously turn great personal powers to good and to evil.

I remember looking into his eyes and seeing God and the Devil balanced equally in them. He was already an older man when he began BCCI, and he was determined to not to waste time in taking his vision and turning it into something very big.(3)

Abedi asked the total devotion of everyone around him. Should one of his employees decide to abandon an Abedi project, he took it personally, as if it reflected badly on Abedi himself, and would focus every attention in an effort to persuade the employee to change his mind.

For example, when BCCI officer Abdur Sakhia received two offers from other banks and decided to leave BCCI, Abedi refused to accept the situation:

I said I have to leave. They said you can do what you want, but please stay we wont let you go. I said, Mr. Abedi you are making things very difficult. I have two offers, one from Citicorp and one from BOP Canada. He started crying. It was absolutely heartbreaking. We used to sit in 15,000 square feet of open space. Mr. Abedi is at the head of the room and he started crying. We are people from the East, we are not trained to handle things like that. I said Mr. Abedi, my fate is in your hands, you can do with me what you like.(4)

Abedi As Pakistani Political Paymaster Abedi's earliest successes were largely the result of his having recognized the importance in Pakistan of providing payoffs or other under-the-table services to Pakistani officials, especially the leadership of any current governing party. For example, when the United Bank was formed in 1959, Abedi appointed as chairman of its board I. I. Chundrigar, the former Prime Minister of Pakistan, who was a close confidante of Pakistani's then current prime minister, Ayub Khan. Abedi maintained close ties to Khan's government, later hiring General Khan's minister of information to become the "publisher" of a BCCI promotional magazine, "South."(5) When the Pakistani military government was replaced following the debacle that resulted in the severance of East Pakistan into Bangladesh, Abedi became just as cozy with Pakistani "socialist" Ali Bhutto, Khan's ideological opposite. When Bhutto was overthrown in 1978 in a military coup, Abedi swiftly changed allegiances again to Bhutto's successor, Islamic "puritan" General Zia.(6) Zia later executed Bhutto for financial crimes, in which Abedi, among others, was clearly involved, while forming close ties to Abedi, on whose financial skills he increasingly relied.

Abedi's personal involvement in Bhutto's "crimes" was described officially in a White Paper issued by the Government of Pakistan in July, 1978 on "The Conduct of the General Elections in March 1977." In a section analyzing the illegal funding of campaign activities for the PPP, the party of Bhutto, the White Paper describes how "the other large source of funds was the money brought in by Agha Hasan Abdi [sic]" amounting to "two or three crores of rupees." A later reference to Abedi in the White Paper describes his "travels . . . loaded as he used to be with bagfuls of money."(7)

Abedi also sought out key pillars of the Pakistani private sector, securing the Saigol family as a key client of Abedi's in three successive banks -- Habib, United, and then BCCI. The Saigol group was one of the major industrial and trade groups in Pakistan by the mid-1950's, with its initial fortune made in textiles, and as close to "old wealth" as existed at the time within Pakistan's commercial class. Abedi first secured the Saigol account while at Habib, and took the account with him when he left to form United Bank, making the Saigol's United's principal shareholders. At the time, some in Pakistani's commercial community wondered how Abedi had managed to take the important Saigol relationship from the Habib Bank. Thirty years later, Price Waterhouse was to detail the reason -- Abedi's willingness to reschedule millions in loans to the Saigols whenever they found it inconvenient to repay them.(8)

Through these and similar relationships, Abedi built the United Bank into the second largest bank in Pakistan, complete with a protocol department responsible for taking care of the personal needs of VIPs. As founder, president and Chairman of United, Abedi was already a great success in Pakistani terms. But Abedi himself felt this was insufficient to meet his ambitions. And so Abedi increasingly began to focus on "high net worth individuals" outside Pakistan to liberate him from the inherent limitations of being nothing more than a very big fish in a Pakistan which Abedi viewed as too small to accommodate his vision.

Impact of Nationalization By the early 1970's, there was an ongoing tension between Abedi's ambition to move beyond Pakistan, and that of the Pakistani government to keep Pakistani institutions generally and Abedi's bank specifically under its control. From the time he took power, Pakistani Prime Minister Ali Bhutto, typifying the socialist cast of much of the former colonial world in this period, was threatening to nationalize the banks, as he already had nationalized other sectors. Accordingly, Abedi began moving forward with the initial steps to form BCCI as a Pakistani-managed bank outside of Pakistan. When Bhutto in turn learned about Abedi's attempt to circumvent his new socialist order, he not only went ahead with plans for nationalizing the United Bank, but promptly placed Abedi under house arrest.(9)

While under house arrest, Abedi further developed his scheme for his new institution. Unlike United Bank, it would operate in a manner to defy the ability of the Pakistani government, or any other, to impede any objective it might seek. It would be the first global, international, and indeed, trans-national bank, and something more: a charity, a foundation, a shipping empire, an insurer, a brokerage firm, a commodities exchange, a publishing house, a world-class hospital for the rich, a real estate empire, an employee cooperative, an Islamic investment bank, and a Third World powerhouse.(10)

As a politicized, post-colonial Pakistani, Abedi frequently articulated the goal of achieving equality of status with the financial institutions of the former colonial powers. During the colonial period, millions of Indian and Pakistani expatriates had fanned out across British possessions to become the commercial class in many of them. But they had not yet developed their own financial institutions, and had still to rely on European financial institutions to do business, institutions whose attitude towards them ranged from ignorance to neglect to contempt. A bank of their own would treat them better, be able to do far more to help them, and make itself great at the same time.

As Abedi explained while under house arrest to Massihur Rahman, who later became his chief financial officer at BCCI:

Up to that stage in the early 1970's there were mostly national banks and savings banks. The few banks which are international are indeed the colonial banks from Britain, France, Germany, and lately from America. So they were normally not international, they were really national banks, big national banks of countries which were international in network only. So he felt that if a genuinely global bank would be started bridging all the Third World countries and also bridging the first world, there would be a unique banking structure which could be very, very useful socially and also very profitable.(11)

The nationalization of Pakistani banking which provided the impetus for BCCI also insured that BCCI would retain the Saigol relationship, as a substantial portion of their businesses were also nationalized by Bhutto in 1972. Nationalization also provided other Pakistani businessmen with powerful motivation to find a bank that could not be controlled by the Pakistani government. The most important of these proved to be the Gokal brothers, Pakistanis who became in the 1970's, through BCCI lending, owners of the largest shipping empire in the world, with a business that ultimately included commodity trading, general trading, manufacturing, financial services, and real estate.(12) In addition to freeing them from the threat of Pakistani appropriation, BCCI provided both the Saigols and the Gokals one key service from BCCI that no other bank could provide -- the freedom to defer repayment of past loans and to borrow new money at will. Moreover, both clients received a special privilege similar to that afforded BCCI's own officers: when something went wrong and they lost money, BCCI would help them cover it up. This was a matter not just of loyalty to ones intimate business associates -- it was also a matter of sound business practice, as recognizing losses on the loans would have hurt BCCI's balance sheets.(13)

Critical Elements of BCCI's Creation Abedi needed five things to create BCCI. First, a bank secrecy and confidentiality haven, which he found first in Luxembourg, and then in Grand Caymans. Second, a source of capital, $2.5 million, which Abedi ultimately obtained from Bank of America, supplemented by another $500,000 from Sheikh Zayed of Abu Dhabi. Third, a source of initial assets, $100 million, of which at least half were provided as deposits by Sheikh Zayed. Fourth, a group of like-minded Pakistanis to operate the bank. These were now widely available as a result of Bhutto's nationalization of their banks. Lastly, credibility in the international community, through a relationship with an established Western financial institution which would provide prestige to BCCI, but not interfere with its unique approach to banking. This too was provided by Bank of America during BCCI's formative years.(14)

The most critical of these five elements was the relationship between BCCI and Abu Dhabi.

Abedi and Sheikh Zayed of Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi is the largest and wealthiest member of the United Arab Emirates, an oil-rich federation of sheikhdoms with a combined population of under 1.5 million, bordering on Saudi Arabia and Oman, with one of the world's highest standards of living as a result of oil wealth. Like all of the Gulf sheikdoms, Abu Dhabi is unusual among modern states in that its ruler, and the ruling family, owns all the land and natural resources of the country in fee simple absolute, with no distinctions being made among the wealth of the ruler, his family, and the nation itself. As lawyers for Abu Dhabi have described it:

By tradition and historical background of the Trucial States, the ruler of an Emirate owns all of the land of his State. However, he allots land to his subjects individually for their use. Similarly, all the natural resources of the States are also regarded as the personal property of the ruler and his heirs who enjoy complete authority to utilize them as they consdier fit.(15)

As early as 1967 Abedi's high net worth customers included the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan, and his family. The illiterate Sheikh, a formerly impoverished desert Bedouin, was the recently installed head of a newly wealthy oil state who owed his power to a British coup against his brother in 1966. The brother had been deposed for having been unwilling to spend Abu Dhabi oil revenues for any purpose, including easing conditions for members of the British foreign service posted there.

After installing Sheikh Zayed, British officialdom had failed to pay attention to his desire to be taken seriously as an important world political leader. By contrast, Abedi viewed Sheikh Zayed to be a potentially important resource. By one account, the relationship began when Abedi made the decision to fly to Abu Dhabi in 1966 to solicit the right of the United Bank to take deposits from the thousands of Pakistani workers assisting in its modernization. Travelling with one assistant and bringing an oriental rug as a gesture of goodwill, Abedi secured Sheikh Zayed's permission for the United Bank to open a branch in Abu Dhabi.(16) By a second account, Abedi beat out the Habib Bank for taking care of arrangements for Sheikh Zayed's first bustard hunting and falconry vacation in Pakistan, personally waiting patiently outside the Pakistani government guest house while the Sheikh napped, and securing the right to handle the Sheikh's logistics when he awoke.(17)

By 1967, what had begun with Abedi handling the Sheikh's falconry and bustard-hunting trips in Pakistan, and the finances of Pakistani workers in Abu Dhabi, wound up with Abedi running the Sheikh's financial life. As far as Pakistani bankers observing the relationship were concerned, Abedi coordinated everything for Sheikh Zayed, from the building of the Sheikh's palaces in Pakistan, the furnishing of his villas in Morocco and Spain, his medical appointments, to the digging of wells for his homes in the desert.(18) As BCCI officer Abdur Sakhia put it,

Digging a well or two was a minor cost of doing business. Abedi's philosophy was to appeal to every sector. If you were religious people he would help you pray.(19)

From the point of view of BCCI, Sheikh Zayed and his family were ill-equipped to handle the demands of the modern world, and in the early days, dependent on Abedi and Abedi's bank for their every need. Even in the late 1970's, Sheikh Zayed, whose personal tastes were quite simple, would on trips abroad routinely write checks for $100,000 or $200,000 at a time for members of his retinue to spend as they liked, written on the back of a matchbook or a piece of toilet paper. This practice continued until BCCI officers provided the Sheikh with a gold checkbook and insisted that drafts be written on it.(20) As Akbar Bilgrami described his experiences with Zayed:

He would pray or listen to the news. He had a court jester-type person who made him laugh and told him poetry. He was a simple man, simple but shrewd. On a trip to spain which lasted two weeks, his retinue spent $20 million, but he only spend $400 on himself the entire trip for two dogs whose price he negotiated down from $1,000.

He was a simple man who did not spend a lot of money on himself. It is part of Arab culture. The Sheikh is a sort of farther figure. It is hard for him to say no to people, especially because he knows that everybody knows that he has the money. He would carry about a briefcase filled with expensive watches, Cartiers, Rolexes.(21)

Among BCCI officers it was believed that the United Arab Emirates itself owed its creation to Abedi, who came up with the idea as a means of reducing instability among the gulf emirates and increasing the stature of Sheikh Zayed.(22) As Sakhia recalled:

Abedi created the UAE. He planted the idea of the UAE as a federation to Sheikh Zayed. These people had no standing anywhere in the world. They were smugglers and tribesmen. When Sheik Zayed would come for months in Pakistan, not even a policeman would give him any attention. Yet two months after meeting Abedi, Sheikh Zayed finally gets a state visit to Islamabad and meets the President of Pakistan which then became the first country to give him any status. The first embassy of UAE was opened in Pakistan and the second in London, and both were staffed by Abedi's appointments.(23)

In time, Sheikh Zayed would unburden himself to Abedi, and tell Abedi that he felt ignored by westerners, a sentiment he later repeated to Bert Lance, as Lance recalled to Senate investigators, and in testimony on October 24, 1991.

I remember a long conversation I had with Sheikh Zayed at his palace outside of Islamabad. There were three of us there: Bert Lance, Abedi, and Sheikh Zayed. The Sheikh was unhappy that the US hadn't paid any attention to him. The US Ambassador hadn't focused on him. . . He was being reated in a manner that really wasn't befitting the strategic importance or the fiscal importance of the UAE. [Zayed was] concerned about the discrimination as it related to the UAE vis-a-vis other Arab countries . . . receiving more attention and more concern than the UAE was.(24)

It is absolutely clear from BCCI documents that Abedi's relationship with the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi and the Al Nahayan family was the foundation of the establishment of the bank without which BCCI never could have come into existence. Throughout the first critical decade of BCCI's eighteen year existence, as much as 50% of BCCI's overall assets were from Abu Dhabi and the Al Nayhan family, who were earning about $750 million a year in oil revenues in the early 1970's, an amount that rose to nearly $10 billion a year by the end of the decade. Until the formation of a separate affiliate, the Bank of Credit and Commerce Emirates (BCCE), BCCI functioned as the official bank for the Gulf emirates, and handled a substantial portion of Abu Dhabi's oil revenues. And yet from the beginning, there was an oddity about this central relationship: at no time while Abedi was in charge of BCCI did Abu Dhabi hold more than a small share of BCCI's recorded shares. Abu Dhabi appears not to have capitalized BCCI, but instead to have insisted on guaranteed rates of return for the use of its money.

As Akbar Bilgrami, who handled Sheikh Zayed's personal finances in the late 1970's at BCCI, has described it, BCCI provided Zayed with great benefits for what appeared at the time to be very little risk. Zayed deposited substantial funds, amounting to billions of dollars, in BCCI, receiving a guaranteed rate of return on these deposits -- sometimes as high as 1.5 percent over LIBOR, a standard European funds rate. In return for a relationship that was costing him little and indeed, making him profits, Sheikh Zayed received the prestige and benefits of having people all over the world believe it was his bank, without his own funds being at risk.(25) Thus, rather than being a major investor in fact in BCCI, in the early years, Abu Dhabi only agreed to place extremely large sums of money as deposits at the bank, which BCCI used in lieu of capital.

An eyewitness to BCCI's creation described Abedi's elation after Sheikh Zayed agreed to back his new bank in a scene that took place in late 1972, in the late evening, in the living room of a Pakistani banker in Abu Dhabi. Abedi addressed the Pakistanis present in the following terms:

It is truly the grace of God that the prayers of all the U.B.L. [United Bank of Pakistan] employees who had to flee Bangladesh and who had been kept on the U.B.L. payroll by us, have been provided a source of livelihood by God. The Sheikhs have been kind enough to give me their trust and support the new bank that we are creating for these employees.(26)

Abedi used the expression "rizq," or "providence" to describe the deal he had consummated with Sheikh Zayed. But there would have been a number of compelling reasons for Sheikh Zayed to respond to Abedi's offer. Sheikh Zayed was financially unsophisticated and in need of assistance from someone he could trust to handle his finances in a manner that would meet his personal, cultural and political needs. These included the need for secrecy as to the location and size of his wealth, given the political instability within the region; the need to adhere to Islamic law, through structuring transactions so that they could be profitable and safe without the payment of interest in violation of that law. There was, moreover, no one within Abu Dhabi who the Sheikh could trust to provide the adequate secrecy. Indeed, apart from Abedi, Sheikh Zayed may well have known no one inside or outside Abu Dhabi with the apparent sophistication to handle finances of the magnitude that were being generated by the petrodollars. In any case, Abedi had already been attending to all of the Sheikh's personal needs in Pakistan for five years, thereby demonstrating his ability to make the relationship worry-free for the Sheikh.

Abol Helmy, an Iranian BCCI officer, described the relationship as a logical outgrowth of the post-colonial period in the Third World:

The British ruled India, Pakistan, and the Arab countries. Traditionally, the Indians and then the Pakistanis because of the Moslem thread that linked them became the civil servants for the British working in the Gulf. It was a continuation of the policies of the Empire.(27)

As a result of the Abedi-Zayed agreement, Abedi now had essentially unlimited resources to create BCCI. He could now act simultaneously as manager of billions of Sheikh Zayed's personal wealth, as banker to the United Arab Emirates of which Sheikh Zayed was chief of state, and as chairman of a new bank that had guaranteed assets of hundreds of millions of dollars from its inception.(28) Moreover, Sheikh Zayed was accustomed to the use of nominees, as nominee purchases were frequently employed whenever he wished to buy anything to avoid the price increasing if the Sheikh's name had been mentioned as part of the negotiations.(29)

One consequence of this arrangement, however, was that Abedi's success was overly dependent on his relationship with Abu Dhabi and its assets. He was managing the Sheikh's resources, he had use of them, and if he did not meet the Sheikh's needs, he could lose everything. Recognizing this dependence, Abedi made it a practice to insure that BCCI would provide whatever the Sheikh required, whenever the Sheikh or his family wanted it. As BCCI records demonstrate, payments, often characterized as loans, were made to members of the Abu Dhabi royal family on an as-needed basis by BCCI, without any regard as to whether these same resources were also being committed elsewhere. With Abedi relying on the Sheikh's resources to finance his rapid expansion, BCCI's finances quickly became so intermingled with the finances of Abu Dhabi that it was difficult even for BCCI insiders to determine where one left off and the other began.

BCCI's Protocol Department By all accounts, Abedi flattered Zayed, and to ensure that no detail of his needs would be neglected, established a large protocol department, first at the United Bank and later at BCCI.

The most detailed account of the protocol department's activities provided publicly to date has been that of Nazir Chinoy, who as a branch manager of BCCI in Pakistan had substantial direct contact with the head of BCCI's protocol department, Sani Ahmad, and had first-hand knowledge of the protocol department's finances.

According to Chinoy, upon his arrival at BCCI-Pakistan in 1978, the protocol department employed about 120 people, whose job was "to establish and further the rapport with the sheiks of and ruling families of Dubai and Abu Dhabi." The protocol department was financed by BCCI, and had nothing to do directly with the bank. Instead, it was handled as an adjunct to special activities of Abedi, managed by Ahmad under Abedi's direction, and housed in Karachi in a separate building opposite Mr. Abedi's house.(30) From 1978 through 1982, the period Chinoy was at BCCI-Pakistan, the protocol department principally functioned as the administrative wing of the Abu Dhabi royal family for their foreign travel.

The rulers and their families would come very frequently. Ninety-percent of the time, the guests were from Abu Dhabi and Dubai; occasionally, Oman, and the other emirates. They would come for shooting at the Game Reserves. There was one particular cashier called Ibrahim. Sani would call me and tell me to make Ibrahim available. He would take 5 million in huge notes of rupees. At that time about $400,000. In Pakistan that is a hell of a lot of cash money. It would be carried out in steel trunks. We would be given money from the rulers account in Abu Dhabi in US Dollars.(31)

As of 1978, the expenses of the protocol department were about 300,000 rupees a month -- about $600,000 a year, rising to $2.5 million a year by the early 1980's, and as much as $10 million a year at the height of BCCI's success. The protocol department was not responsible for financing its own operations. Its expenses were instead paid by the Pakistani branch of BCCI each month after it received a statement from BCCI protocol chief Sani Ahmad describing his expenditures. These expenditures were always paid by the BCCI branch, even though often, the bankers were unable to determine the nature of the expenses or the reasons for the expenditures.

According to Chinoy:

Sani would tell me that I need one million rupees today and we would give him the moneys and the branch would pay the money. What it was paid for we would have no idea I did not want to get involved in this either and he would report to Mr. Abedi and I would tell Abedi what money had been given to Sani Ahmed. Abedi would never initial or sign [any of the documents], but he looked at and approved everything.(32)

Each hunting trip's expenses would amount to several million dollars, requiring a special exemption from the State Bank of Pakistan to permit the funds to be debited from BCCI's protocol department. This exemption was granted by the State Bank after arguments by Abedi that Pakistan needed to maintain BCCI's relationship with Abu Dhabi as a means of improving its overall balance of payments.(33)

By the late 1970s, BCCI's protocol department handled all affairs for the 18-20 palaces BCCI maintained for the ruler of Abu Dhabi in Pakistan, all under the direct control of Sani Ahmed. In return, money was sent each month from BCCI Abu Dhabi to Pakistan to pay for the gardeners, telephones, and maintenance of houses.

The protocol department also established a special relationship with Pakistani Customs airport authorities so that members of Arab royal families would receive VIP treatment that avoided the usual delays associated with entering Pakistan.

Along with the construction of palaces and vacation homes, BCCI handled private matters for the visiting Al-Nahayans, including the procurement of Pakistani prostitutes for the male members of the family. These were typically teenage girls, known as "singing and dancing girls," and selected, outfitted and trained by a woman named Begim Hashari Rahim, who later was promoted to the official position of Interior Decorator to the Royal Family of Abu Dhabi.(34)

As head of the protocol department before becoming head of BCCI's Washington, D.C. representative office, Sani Ahmad had a unique role at BCCI and special relationship with Abedi. He was treated with deference by other BCCI officers, who did not consider him to be a banker, but a fixer. As Chinoy recalled:

Sani was the trusted man for things no one else was supposed to know. We were the technocrats. Sani Ahmed would handle the things we wouldn't, like get girls. If anyone paid anyone any money [as a bribe], Sani would have been the one to do it.(35)

Bank of America Ironically, although Abedi now had a large source of assets for BCCI, the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi could not provide him with credibility in the west. Abedi's first choice for a prestigious western partner, American Express, insisted on having a major say in BCCI's management, which Abedi would not tolerate.(36) Abedi's search for a more compliant partner brought him to Bank of America, which in 1972 was one of the most aggressive of U.S. international banks, with a presence in Iran already and in Pakistan. For BCCI, a relationship with Bank of America would provide recognition in the west and access to the Bank of America's global network for correspondent banking. For the Bank of America, BCCI provided a potentially lucrative entry to Arab oil wealth, at a tiny capitalization cost of just $2.5 million.(37) Following what Abedi referred to as "an historic lunch" in San Francisco, Bank of America agreed to provide the money and to be a passive partner in BCCI, permitting Abedi to run the operation as he pleased.(38) As Abedi told a British magazine, Euromoney, in the summer of 1978:

Bank of America agreed to become a shareholder, but we made it a condition that we would establish the management style.(39)

With only $3 million in total capital, Abedi kept BCCI's initial overhead down through promising the central Pakistani recruits to his team that they were members of a family, employed for life, whose future prosperity was being built collectively. He made the founder group shareholders of BCCI and put them to work in a tiny office in Abu Dhabi sharing what Massihur Rahman later described as "mess-type flats."(40) Working conditions in Abu Dhabi, and at BCCI in the early days, were extremely primitive, but more easily accepted by the Pakistani bankers than they would be by western ones.(41)

Simultaneously, Abedi relied upon senior Bank of America officials to sit on BCCI's board of directors, to recruit additional bankers for BCCI, and to approve all major loans by the bank. Among the key figures retained by Abedi as directors from Bank of America were Yves Lamarche, who had previously managed Bank of America operations in the Middle East, J.D. Van Oenen, a European Bank of America official, and P.C. Twitchen, formerly, Vice President of Bank of America. Another prominent Bank of America figure, Roy Carlson, who was based in Iran, later became President of National Bank of Georgia at a time when it became secretly owned by BCCI.

Ownership of BCCI Although Abu Dhabi had a key interest in BCCI from its creation, in accord with Abu Dhabi's failure to provide the initial funds for capitalization, BCCI's early stock recordations did not show Abu Dhabi as the actual owner of the bank. A snapshot of BCCI shares from Bank of America files as of September 30, 1977 described BCCI's majority owner as ICIC, at 50.1 percent; its most important minority owner as Bank of America, at 30 percent; and its largest Arab owner as Majid Al-Futaim of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates at just 4 percent, with the members of the family of Abu Dhabi owning just 3.4 percent all told.(42)

This list indicated that the Pakistanis actually owned BCCI at a time when to the outside world, the bank was ostensibly owned by oil-rich Middle Eastern Arabs, including the ruling families of Bahrain, Sharjah, Dubai, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, as well as that of Abu Dhabi.(43)

That picture was complicated still further, however, by the fact that ICIC was not the owner of record of any of its shares of BCCI on the share register of BCCI in Luxembourg. Instead, several of the shareholders on the register were acting as nominees for BCCI, according to the Bank of America records. Moreover, some of the subsidiaries owned by BCCI also relied on nominees, and by the late 1970's, ICIC was the record controller of as much of 70 percent of BCCI all told.(44) Yet even at the time, BCCI officers were told by Abedi that ICIC really owned only about 30 percent of BCCI.(45)

A further difficulty in interpreting the issue of ownership was that ICIC continuously was borrowing very substantial amounts from BCCI with inadequate documentation, with the result that for all practical purposes, BCCI was repeatedly buying itself, and using various nominees along the way to hide this fact.

Looking to BCCI's capitalization was of little help in determining its ownership, either. Apart from the tiny, real capital of $2.5 million placed in BCCI by the Bank of America, and an additional $500,000 acknowledged by Abu Dhabi, there remains no evidence of other substantial cash infusions in the bank in the early years, suggesting that from the beginning, Abedi and Sheikh Zayed had agreed to provide BCCI only the assets of Sheikh Zayed as a depositor, rather than his capital as an investor. This pattern, in which Abedi asked for little in the way of cash on the line from potential "investors," would be repeated in other cases, except that often, a shareholder would contribute merely the prestige of his name and aura of wealth, rather than deposits or any actual financial contribution.

The Early Use of Front-Men As a privately held company, BCCI was obliged to no one to provide detailed information about shareholders. BCCI made it a practice never to reveal exactly who owned how much of the bank. However, in direct contradiction to BCCI's obsessive secrecy about the actual facts of its ownership, Abedi heavily publicized the fact that most of the most important royal families of the oil-rich states of the Middle East were "shareholders" from the first in BCCI, and therefore were ostensibly backing the bank with their fabulous petrowealth.

What the outside world did not know is that in every case -- with the possible exception of Zayed's and Abu Dhabi's acknowledged holdings in BCCI -- these backers had been provided hold harmless agreements by BCCI, providing them guarantees against loss, and that the interest in BCCI held by these royal families had been essentially provided to them by Abedi as a "gift," accompanied by generous terms on lending and other BCCI services.

Just as BCCI's board of directors would later contemptuously be referred to as "RAF," for "rent-a-face," by BCCI insiders, Abedi had essentially rented the names of many of the Arab world's most prominent oil-rich monarchs. Instead of the public image of their backing BCCI with their money, BCCI was paying them for the illusion that they were behind the bank.

BCCI's glossy promotional materials were characteristically

misleading on the issue of its initial capitalization. In describing its history in a mid-1980's Group Profile made available to the public, BCCI wrote:

The BCC Group was originally conceived as an international banking organization backed by Middle Eastern investors to provide commercial banking services world-wide . . . Its initial paid up capital of $2.5 million wa subscribed by Bank of America (25% later increased to 30%) and the balance by investors from the Middle East (emphasis added).(46)

The deliberate vagueness of the phrase "the balance" underscores the lack of any substantial additional initial capital in BCCI beyond that provided by Bank of America. The $500,000 investment acknowledged by Abu Dhabi to the Subcommittee for the first time on May 14, 1992 would have been considered surprisingly tiny had it been revealed in 1972.

Some hint of how Abedi approached the capitalization problem is found in Abedi's motivational rhetoric, in which he constantly talked of BCCI as something that could be created out of pure willpower. "Western Banks concentrate on the visible, whereas we stress the invisible," Abedi told a British journalist in 1978.(47) Such a statement could be taken as many did take it, as mystical gobbledygook. But it well described Abedi's technique for building a banking empire -- building something out of nothing by relying on something invisible but powerful: images of wealth. These images, from BCCI's fancy buildings to the photographs of Abedi posing with its fabulously wealthy Middle Eastern "shareholders," provided as much power for Abedi as the real money would have done, so long as everyone believed it was there. It was far easier to ask a Middle Eastern potentate for his name than for his money, and as far as Abedi was concerned, the results were the same.

Although ICIC "owned" 70 percent of BCCI in 1980 upon Bank of America's withdrawal, ICIC mysteriously became a minority owner of BCCI by the end of the decade. As of December 31, 1989, ICIC held less than 11 percent of BCCI, with Abu Dhabi becoming the principal shareholder, holding over 35 percent, including shares owned by various members of the Al-Nahyan family and the Abu Dhabi investment authority.(48)

Yet the actual picture as to BCCI's ownership even then remains clouded. Several of the larger shareholders registered at that date, including Wabel Pharaon with 11.55 percent, Mohammed Hammoud, with 3.44 percent, Abdul Raouf Khalil, the Saudi government's intelligence liaison to the United States and other foreign governments, with 3.08 percent, and Kamal Adham, Khalil's predecessor as Saudi intelligence chief, with 2.94 percent, were acting as BCCI's nominees for ownership of its own shares, through guarantees that prevented them from being at risk. Moreover, Price Waterhouse could at the time find no evidence of the bank's actual contact with Khalil, its supposed "shareholder," for a number of years, although there were numerous transactions in his name undertaken in that period.(49)

A year later, following the disclosure of massive losses at BCCI as a result of Price Waterhouse reports to the Board of Directors, the Abu Dhabi royal family had took full legal title of BCCI, increasing its share to over 78 percent of all BCCI shares, with the new shares obtained entirely from those formerly held by the nominees.(50)

Given the many mysteries about BCCI's shareholding from its creation and the fact that critical records remain missing, it remains difficult to determine retrospectively whether or not Abu Dhabi had the ability at all times to do what it ultimately did in 1990 -- obtain direct and complete formal control of the majority of BCCI shares.

BCCI's Rapid Expansion Throughout the 1970's, BCCI expanded rapidly, with Abedi adding new corporate members to the BCCI family by the month. Initially, BCCI was incorporated in one location only, Luxembourg. Two years later, a holding company was created, BCCI Holdings, with the bank underneath it BCC S.A., split into two parts, BCCI S.A., with head offices in Luxembourg, and BCCI Overseas, with head offices in Grand Cayman. Luxembourg was used mostly for BCCI's European and Middle East locations, and the Grand Caymans mostly for Third World Countries.(51)

This structure was intentionally further complicated by the establishment of a series of additional entities, used as "parallel banks" by BCCI as needed for financial manipulations. These parallel entities included the Kuwait International Finance Company (KIFCO), in which BCCI ostensibly had only a minority interest; a Swiss bank, Bank de Commerce et Placements SA (BCP), in which BCCI also ostensibly had only a minority interest; the National Bank of Oman, again with BCCI formally holding only a minority interest; a 100% owned finance subsidiary, Credit & Finance Corporation Ltd,; and the series of entities based in the Grand Caymans and collectively known as "ICIC," which became the principal "bank within a bank" at BCCI. In the cases in which BCCI's official interest was minority, its apparent lack of control was the consequence of local regulations prohibiting a foreign bank from owning a majority share. Each time, BCCI found ways to evade the regulations through the use of front-men or nominees, and wound up being able to direct the operations of these institutions as if they were wholly-owned subsidiaries.

BCCI's aggressive drive for expansion was necessitated by a financial strategy that pursued asset growth, rather than profitability, as the key to success. This approach was a necessity because of the underlying lack of working capital and BCCI's high-start up costs. The idea was that through rapid growth, BCCI would eventually fill the holes in its capital through commissions on its frenzy of activity. In the meantime, growth could disguise temporary operating losses through creative bookkeeping. In fact, the growth did not end the losses, but exacerbated the underlying capital problem, because BCCI needed to increase its retained capital in order to show an adequate cushion for its billions in new assets. The solution to this problem, like all others, for Abedi, was relentless growth.

To implement this approach, BCCI officers were directed to focus their attention on individuals and entities who controlled large sums of cash: people like central bank officials, heads of state, "high net worth individuals," and black marketeers, and offer them terms significantly better than the terms offered by competing banks, or services, such as kick-backs and freedom from documentation, that the competition was unwilling to provide. As a marketing document from BCCI in the United States, prepared during the mid-1980's, advises BCCI officers, they should vigilantly look for "client relationships which are considered special for . . . reasons such as confidentiality, high sensitivity, requirement of special attention and service, large size deposit, business or profit, complexity of business, etc.," which would receive specialized attention from BCCI higher-ups.(52)

BCCI's trans-national character continued to be a critical ingredient of its marketing. As BCCI historian K.K. Elley noted in 1982, BCCI because "serves no country of individual. . . No customer need fear that their assets will be frozen because their country is having a difference with the country of BCCI's origin."(53)

Fueled in part by infusions of petrodollar deposits from Gulf State rulers during the hey-day of the OPEC years, BCCI's early growth was exponential, especially in the United Arab Emirates, the Sultanate of Oman, Yemen, and Bahrain, as the following profile of the first five-years of BCCI's performance demonstrates.

Year # Branches # Countries Assets Growth

1973 19 5 $200 m --

1974 27 7 610 m 204%

1975 64 13 1.2 b 98%

1976 108 21 1.6 b 37%

1977 146 43 2.2 b 33%

After consolidating its position in the Middle East, BCCI identified Africa as the next area for growth. A number of African countries possessed many of the traits that BCCI had learned to exploit in the Middle East -- autocratic rulers who controlled much of the wealth of their nations, primitive working conditions for bankers which discouraged westerners, and non-western attitudes towards the payment of gratuities as a cost of doing business.

African expansion began in Egypt, Sudan, Mauritius and Seychelles, and extended by 1979 into Kenya, Swaziland, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Typically, BCCI operated in these countries in a corrupt environment marked by cash bribes, kickbacks to senior central bank officials of the nation involved, and special arrangements with the heads of state.(54) As a consequence of its willingness to do things that most westerns banks were not, BCCI soon became the largest foreign bank operating in Africa.

The third phase of BCCI's growth targeted Asia, and included the acquisition of the Hong Kong Metropolitan bank from the Swiss Bank Corporation. This branch of BCCI later became the vehicle for handling very large transactions by the Chinese government, whose business Abedi secured through a mixture of public charitable activities and private kick-backs.(55) Simultaneously, BCCI decided to expand into the Americas, opening offices in Canada, branches in the United States, and in Venezuela, Columbia, Panama, and Jamaica. By the mid-1980s, BCCI's empire extended to banks or branches in 73 countries, and assets totalling about $22 billion.

BCCI's amazing rate of growth continued in good years and bad, without regard to macro-economic conditions. For example, in Hong Kong during the 1983-1984 period, BCCI prospered while other foreign banks were forced to retrench because of economic downturn. This phenomenon was repeated in the United Arab Emirates during a slump that began around 1983 because of the fall in oil prices; and in Nigeria in the late 1980's -- a time when other foreign banks withdrew from operations there. As BCCI officer Nazir Chinoy later explained, in the case of Nigeria, at least, this result was because BCCI was willing to bribe officials and assist them in handling their payments in a manner that the competition, hemmed in by auditors and lawyers, could not meet.(56)

Abedi's Mysticism As Component of BCCI Strategy While engaging in corporate legerdemain as a means for hiding what he was doing, Abedi developed a peculiar mystic philosophy for BCCI, which was shared with BCCI's recruits in annual means as part of motivating them to give their "all" to BCCI's expansion. Many of BCCI's more senior officials viewed Abedi's philosophical musings as boring and unintelligible material which had to be endured.(57) At annual meetings of BCCI officials, Abedi would often speak about his philosophy for hours at a time. However, Abedi's stature at BCCI was such that no one ever challenged him, and instead, younger officers seeking to rise in the ranks would parrot Abedi's philosophy and describe how it had changed their lives.(58)

Abedi's philosophy was an often obscure mix of Islamic mysticism focusing on the links between the individual, the family, and the universe; and self-help sales motivational pitches. For example, in describing BCCI's decentralized and obscurantist structure in philosophical terms, Abedi wrote:

Our restructuring and reorganization has its own meaning that emerges out of our own needs, our own purpose and our quality and quantity of human resource that we from time to time become. We accept the truth that each one of us is different and like every human being each one of us is inadequate, but unlike others we genuinely accept each other and we have a tremendous urge and desire to constantly move towards adequacy. . . [T]he quality of relationships . . . is the essence of an organization. It is the shining truth. It is the truth that every individual member of the family must unveil in his feelings -- in his psyche. It must spark like a brilliant star in his heart.(59)

Abedi described the key functions of BCCI's support centers to BCCI officers under their jurisdiction as "keep their energy flow," and "becoming an agent of change," including "extricating the Managers and the staff from the malady of containment and psychological lethargy and inertia wherever it has set in."(60)

In an earlier management meeting in New York in 1983, on memo paper featuring a sepia-toned highlight of the hand of God touching the hand of Adam in Michelangelo's Creation from the Sistine Chapel, Abedi explained that BCCI's spiritual aspect was much more important to its success than its material aspects.

We must learn to "feel" that BCCI is this Power and not merely a group of branches, a set of facts and figures. Since, BCC is a power, a spirit, a Desire - it is all encompassing and enfolding - it relates itself to cosmic power and wisdom, which is the will of God. . . . OUR MAJOR FUNCTION: To have a desire, Improve its volume and quality, Make others have such a Desire, Merge this in the pool of corporate Desire, Make the purpose of this Desire our major purpose, Make it BCC identity.(61)

Abedi then asked the key pertinent question: "IS BCC A DESIRE, OR IS BCC A BANK?"(62)

While on one level these philosophic discussions appear far removed from the practical elements of banking, in fact there was an important link between the philosophy and BCCI's strategy of asset growth. The philosophy, obscure as it was, described the importance of relentless, ceaseless activity as a means of growth, and of the need to remove "obstacles" to the growth, regardless of the source. Junior officers were encouraged to keep things moving and not to worry much about rules. Senior managers were advised to encourage junior officers to experiment, and to help them circumvent even the rather relaxed procedures that applied to doing business at BCCI. As Abedi told forty-five of his managers in 1985:

If our colleagues who represent young energy and young hope do not live up to our standards in the task they perform, how do we deal with them? Our response could either encourage them to flow and in time enable them to come closer to the desired standards or may stifle and discourage them early on in their careers, thereby diminishing any chance of them improving and performance towards excellence. Do not nip the flower in the bud. . . give them room to breathe. (63)

Under Abedi's guidance, BCCI officers learned that they would be rewarded for any technique that allowed them to acquire customers and assets, and would not be punished by the bank even for engaging in unorthodox or illegal banking practices. In the words of BCCI official Akbar Bilgrami:

Abedi had a saying to younger employees, that if a banker cannot make money for himself, he cannot make money for the bank. It was an invitation to enrich yourself, that I never felt comfortable with.(64)

When a BCCI banker was caught by local regulations, he would not be punished, but simply transferred from the location or from BCCI to another entity controlled by the bank, often with a bonus payment.(65) By contrast, if an officer refused to facilitate an obviously illegal transaction, BCCI's senior officials would simply go around him, and his career would suffer accordingly.(66)

Abedi made use of mysticism as a motivational technique even on the most mundane of banking matters. When BCCI developed Travellers Cheques in 1986 as a new product, Abedi convened a conference of BCCI employees to announce that these cheques were "a profitful instrument of relationship." Abedi announced that "travellers cheques add a new dimension to my personality. They are a means of making a profit and at the same time a means of fulfilling my aspirations. There is great happiness in selling the largest possible volume of travellers cheques."(67)

Compartmentalization As a technique for insuring security and control, Abedi adopted a strategy taken from intelligence operations. He compartmentalized information about BCCI. Compartmentalization insured that even within the bank, officers in one operation would have little to no information about the nature of the activities of an officer in another area. Not only was information about BCCI's activities closely held, but even senior officials were discouraged by Abedi from asking questions. As Massihur Rahman testified:

I was very uncomfortable because in [previous bank jobs], I could go across the board and go to any division and see any of the operation. But here I could see these Chinese walls were getting very, very watertight and we were always taught about humility and ego and anything that was slightly out of context was considered just an ego trip.(68)

Instead of having vice presidencies, the bank had 50 senior executives and 198 managers, with only two people considered to be higher up than all others: Abedi and his chief assistant, Swaleh Naqvi. As Rahman described it:

There was Mr. Abedi at the very top, there was Mr. Naqvi who was like a chief operating officer, who converted . . . Mr. Abedi's ideas and things into practical shapes. And then there was a big gap between these two and the other executives who were all called general managers. All of us were called general managers. . . You couldn't be senior to anybody else, you're all the same pay, the same benefits.(69)

Consequence of BCCI Structure and Philosophy on Audits Abedi's unique approach to banking had the effect of removing most checks and balances on BCCI. Other senior officers did not have a complete picture of BCCI's operations. The board of directors learned little beyond what Abedi and Naqvi told them. And outsiders, including BCCI's auditors, could be easily manipulated.

This manipulation was facilitated by Abedi's decision to divide its annual audits between two of the then "Big Eight" accounting firms -- Ernst & Whinney and Price Waterhouse, with Ernst & Whinney taking responsibility over only the holding company and BCCI Luxembourg, and Price Waterhouse taking responsibility over only BCCI Overseas in the Grand Cayman, a state of affairs which ended with Ernst & Whinney's withdrawal in 1986, and Price Waterhouse gaining responsibility for a consolidated audit of all BCCI activities in 1987. Even then, however, Price Waterhouse was not in the position to review BCCI's overall picture due to the exclusion from its audit work of a number of BCCI affiliates, some secretly owned, including ICIC, KIFCO, and BCP. Moreover, as late as 1990, key documents involving guarantees against loss by BCCI to principal shareholders, held in the Grand Caymans and in Abu Dhabi, do not appear to have been made available to auditors.

Obstacles In the United Kingdom Some of the same factors that made BCCI's growth possible also inhibited it from further expansion. Its rapid expansion had prompted intense speculation in the United Kingdom, which was interfering with BCCI's ability to obtain a full banking license from the Bank of England, as Abedi implicitly acknowledged in a 1978 interview.

The Bank of England probably hasn't given permission because of the atmosphere surrounding the BCCI and the propaganda that has been spread about us. . . It is not only the Bank of England that is against us, but the Club.(70)

The hostility to BCCI in the United Kingdom, which was the headquarters for BCCI's operations, was all too reminiscent to Abedi of the conditions that had lead to the demise of the United Bank in Pakistan. Abedi needed to move outside the reach of the United Kingdom. An obvious solution was to find a new home for BCCI in the United States.

Unfortunately, the relationship with Bank of America had become an obstacle to such a move for BCCI. Rather than see BCCI expand into its home base, Bank of America was increasingly uncomfortable with its partner. Despite its initial agreement to let BCCI be BCCI, Abedi's original U.S. partner, Bank of America, had found itself bewildered by many BCCI practices from the beginning. An internal "family history" of BCCI, written as a case study by one of BCCI's key officers in the United States, Khusro Karamat Elley on October 27, 1982, provides a sanitized version, from BCCI's point of view, of what went wrong between BCCI and Bank of America:

The Bank of America found on their hands an affiliate which had already become one of their largest and in which they had no management control. They were also being required to contribute every year to the increase of capital in order to maintain their portion of the shareholding. Perhaps most importantly they had also arrived at the conclusion that the Middle East had become far too important not to have a direct presence.(71)

In fact, by 1976, Bank of America had already stopped contributing to new infusions of capital for BCCI, reducing its share from 30 percent to 24 percent. By the spring of 1976, extensive discussions within Bank of America about BCCI's unusual practices had resulted in a series of memos being created and circulated among senior officials at the bank. Two of these memoranda, introduced as exhibits in the 1978 litigation over the FGB takeover, make explicit the profound disquiet at Bank of America over BCCI's handling of its Arab clients and its management style.

The first memo, written May 10, 1976 from Bank of America Executive Vice President Alvin C. Rice to Scudden Hersman, Jr., a senior vice president, noted the concerns that some in Bank of America had expressed about BCCI's unusual attention to meeting the personal needs of leading political figures, especially in the Middle East, but stated that no bookkeeping entries demonstrating abuses had been found. Rice warned, however, that the overall relationship between Bank of America and BCCI was a difficult one:

We are just not operating on the basis of mutual trust and cooperation that make the whole effort and exercise worthwhile. Substantial profits usually have a way of curing problems but this case is an exception. If we can't make some major breakthroughs in the near future, we will have to consider alternatives such as divestiture.(72)

In the second memo, written following a meeting between Rice and Abedi, Rice described how he and Abedi had discussed the problem of BCCI officials withholding information from Bank of America officials. Abedi attributed this to cultural differences:

According to Abedi, frank criticism "American style" is something Pakistanis are not accustomed to. Criticism is taken as a personal affront and for this reason, sometimes BCCI officers have not wanted to disclose fully operating procedures that they knew would not meet BofA's quality standards.(73)

Later, Rice would tell journalists that the fundamental problem he encountered with BCCI was that BCCI thought nothing of bribery, and believed that even obstacles with regulators could be fixed through "baksheesh."(74)

These concerns simmered for another year at Bank of America. But by the fall of 1977, disapproving questions from an auditor from the U.S. Comptroller of the Currency in London responsible for reviewing Bank of America's overseas holdings, intensified Bank of America's concerns. These concerns had already been acknowledged privately in other Bank of America internal memoranda about BCCI: its overly-cozy relationship with its shareholders, its practice of providing shareholders with unusual banking services, Bank of America's inability to penetrate BCCI's banking practices, and BCCI's hostility to Bank of America inquiries about those practices.

By February, 1978 the OCC auditor had concluded that Bank of America was substantially at risk from

BCCI.(75) But by then, divestiture of BCCI by Bank of America was in the interests of both banks.

BCCI needed to sever its relationship with Bank of America to provide itself with additional options

in connection with its ongoing attempt to buy Financial General Bankshares. Bank of America

needed to reduce what might soon become an actual liability on its books.

Accordingly, Bank of America had begun to implement a rapid divestment agreement with

 BCCI through the purchase of the Bank of America shares by BCCI's bank-within-a-bank, ICIC, described by the Bank of America in a January 30, 1978 press release merely as "one of the other major BCCI shareholders." In announcing the sale of its stake in BCCI, Bank of America emphasized that "the close co-operation that has developed between the two banks will be maintained."(76) Over the following decade, Bank of America would in fact maintain correspondent banking relationships with BCCI, continually seek additional business from BCCI, collude in at least one of BCCI's purchases of foreign banks through nominees in South America, and earn a great deal of money from the relationship until BCCI's closure.(77)

  1. "Growth of International Banking: Case Study of Bank of Credit and Commerce Intl,
  2. Khruso Karamat Elley, October 27, 1982, Senate Document 385.
  3. See e.g. "The Mysteries Behind Abedi's Bank," Euromoney July 1978; S. Hrg. 102-350 Pt. 3,
  4. pp. 305-310; "The man who adds a touch of mysticism to banking,"
  5. Financial Times, May 17, 1978; S. Hrg. 102-350 Pt. 3, pp. 303-304.

3. Staff interview, Rahman, August 7, 1991.

4. Staff interview, Sakhia, October 7, 1991.

5. Testimony of Rahman, S. Hrg. 102-350 Pt. 1, p. 540.

6. Former BCCI Pakistan branch chief Nazir Chinoy provided detailed information

about the Zia-Abedi relationship in a series of interviews with Senate staff from March 9-16, 1992;

see also check to General Zia from BCCI-UAE, May 25, 1985, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 2 p. 511.

7. White Paper on the General Elections, Government of Pakistan, July 1978,

S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 3, pp. 314-317.

8. See Price Waterhouse reports to BCCI on "Problem Loans," February 14, 1990,

in S. Hrg. 103-350, Pt. 1, pp. 359-360 and BCCI Task Force Report on Saigols, id, pp. 437-438.

9. Massihur Rahman, S. Hrg. 102-350, Part One, p. 489.

10. Id.

11. Id. at 490-491.

12. BCCI Task Force Report on Selected International Loans,

S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 1 p. 417, testimony of Rahman, Id. pp. 532-533.

13. Id at 455-456.

14. See testimony of Rahman, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 1, pp. 489-491; Financial Times, May 17, 1978,

"The man who adds mysticism to banking," S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 3, pp. 303-304;

"The mysteries behind Abedi's bank, Euromoney, July 1978.

15. Letter from Baldwin Tuttle to Lloyd W. Nostian, Jr., Federal Reserve Richmond, November 5, 1980.

16. "BCCI Founder: These Things Happen," Najam Sethi, Wall Street Journal, July 29, 1991.

17. See e.g. Bankrupt, The BCCI Fraud, Kochan & Whittington, p. 23.

18. Staff interviews with Massihur Rahman, August 7, 1991; Abdur Sakhia, October 9, 1991;

Nazir Chinoy, March 9-16, 1991.

19. Id.

20. Akbar Bilgrami, Staff interview, July 13, 1992.

21. Staff interview, Bilgrami, July 13, 1992.

22. Id.

23. Staff interview, Abdur Sakhia, October 7, 1991.

24. Staff interview, Lance, October, 1991; testimony of Lance, S. Hrg. 102-350 pp 20-21.

25. Bilgrami, staff interviews, July 13-14, 1992.

26. Transcribed verbatim statement of BCCI insider, April 8, 1991.

27. Staff interview, Abol Helmy, January 13, 1991.

28. Id.

29. Staff interview, Akbar Bilgrami, July 13, 1992.

30. Staff interviews, Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992.

31. Id.

32. Staff interviews, Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992.

33. Id.

34. Testimony, Nazir Chinoy, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations,

March 18, 1992, p. 26.

35. Id.

36. Euromoney July 1978, S. Hrg. 102-350 Pt. 3, pp. 305-310.

37. Growth of International Banking, Case Study of Bank of Credit and Commerce Intl,

Khruso Karamat Elley, October 27, 1982; BCCI internal document, Senate investigation.

38. Id.

39. The Mysteries Behind Abedi's Bank, Euromoney, July 1978; S. Hrg. 103-350, Pt. 3, pp. 305-310.

40. Testimony of Rahman, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 1, p. 491.

41. Growth of International Banking, Case Study of Bank of Credit and Commerce Intl, Khruso Karamat Elley, October 27, 1982; BCCI internal document, Senate investigation.

42. Exhibit I, OCC Report of Joseph Vaez to Robert Bench, February 15, 1978.

43. See e.g. Euromoney July 1978 chart, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 3, p. 306.

44. Exhibit II, OCC Report of Joseph Vaez to Robert Bench, February 15, 1978.

45. Staff interview, Sakhia, October 7, 1991.

46. BCC Group Profile, undated, 1985.

47. Financial Times, May 17, 1978, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 3, p. 303.

48. BCC Holdings (Luxembourg) S.A., List of Shareholders as On 15.10.1990, Senate Document 300.

49. BCCI documents from Abu Dhabi, Grand Caymans, Panama, showing Khalil transactions;

Price Waterhouse, Report to Board of Directors of BCCI, February 18, 1989,

S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 1, pp. ___.

50. BCCI Holdings (Luxembourg) S.A>, List of Shareholders as on 31.12.89, Senate Document 298.

51. Testimony of Rahman, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 1 p. 491.

52. "Client Contact and Relationship Programme," BCCI internal document from

Agha Hasan Abedi to U.S. employees, October 9, 1985, Senate document.

53. "Growth of International Banking: Case Study of Bank of Credit and Commerce Intl,

Khruso Karamat Elley, October 27, 1982, Senate Document 385.

54. Staff interviews, Nazir Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992.

55. Confidential source, Senate investigation, March, 1991.

56. Staff interview, Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992.

57. Interview, Nazir Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992.

58. Staff interviews, various BCCI officers; various Senate BCCI documents.

59. "Context and Rationale," Statement of Agha Hasan Abedi to BCCI officials,

undated, Senate BCCI Document 1269.

60. Id.

61. BCCI document, Summary of the Management Meeting, New York, 12.2.83 p. 7.

62. Id.

63. Note of Meeting with the President on 17.1.85 at 5pm, Senate BCCI document.

64. Bilgrami, staff interview, July 13, 1992.

65. Testimony of Rahman, S. Hrg. 102-350, Pt. 1, p. 513.

66. Staff interview, Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992; staff interview. Sakhia, October 7, 1991.

67. Abedi, BCCI International, internal publication of BCCI, May 1986, Number 35, p. 12.

68. Id. at 495.

69. Id. at 497.

70. Abedi, quoted in Euromoney, July 1978, in S. Hrg. 1

03-350 Pt. 3, p. 308.

71. Growth of International Banking, Case Study of Bank of Credit and Commerce Intl,

 Khruso Karamat Elley, October 27, 1982; BCCI internal document, Senate investigation.

72. Bank of America Memo, Rice to Mersman, May 10, 1976, Lamarche Dep Exhibit No 6,

August 11, 1978, FGB litigation.

73. Bank of America Memorandum for the Files, May 26, 1976,

Lamarche Deposition Exhibit 7, August 14, 1978, FGB Litigation.

74. London Telegraph Magazine, November 10, 1991, No Questions Asked, p. 12.

75. Office of Comptroller of the Currency Report of Joseph Vaez, February 15, 1978,

memo to Robert R. Bench from J.E. Vaez, National Bank Examiner London regarding

BCCI Holdings (Luxembourg).

76. Id.

77. Staff interviews, Sakhia, October 7, 1991; Chinoy, March 9-16, 1992.




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