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A.Crowley: 33° Mason who knew about human sacrifice (4/11/2007)

33° Mason, Aleister Crowley would definitely get some votes in the "most wicked man who ever lived contest" and is the clear cut favorite for the title of "The Father of Modern Satanism". Crowley's wicked life and his intimate association with Freemasonry are both well known.

Crowley himself was terribly decadent. A happily heroin-addicted, bisexual Satan worshiper, he asked people to call him "The Beast 666." Crowley believed that he was literally the antimessiah of the apocalypse.

During the first World War, Crowley transferred his activities to America. The press proclaimed him "the wickedest man in the world." He also spent time in Italy, but was expelled because Italian authorities accused his disciples of sacrificing human infants in occult rituals. According to one source, Crowley resided in the Abbey of Thelema near Cefalu Sicily, and revived ancient Dionysian ceremonies. During a 1921 ritual, he induced a he-goat to copulate with his mistress, then slit the animal's throat at the moment of orgasm.

WAS ALEISTER CROWLEY JUST A 'CLOSET' FREEMASON?

 Read more about Aleister Crowly further below on this page

Exclusive Interview With Leo Zagami, Ex-Illuminatus, on Greg Szymanski's Radio Show

 Part One

Part Two

Please listen to:

The Entities - A Song from The Film The Great American Novel

Stuck In Babylon - ASong from The Film The Great American Novel

The Great American Novel=The Theme Song From The Film The Great American Novel

,Arctic Beacon -
(Posted here: Sunday, January 07, 2007)

Please listen to:
- Is the Illuminati's house of cards falling apart because of countries like Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea? Listen to Alex Jones interviewing Robert Gaylon Ross Sr., author of the famous "Who is Who of the Elite?" -
-
PrisonPlanetTv.com, Feb 06, 2006 -
(Posted here: Feb 13, 2006)

Jerry Pippin Interviews Mr. X
- Mr. X, shown in the photo with Jerry on the left, was very leery and worried about someone finding out his true identity as he arrived for the interview. We made some small talk and immediately started rolling tape. Over the years, I have found this was the best way to get the story. Do it fast, clean and simple with point blank questions. What I heard was stunning. -
-
JerryPippin.com -
(Posted here: Friday, May 26, 2006

Chemtrail Documentaries - Clouds of Death vs. Aerosol Crimes
[Video Evidence]
- The "Clouds of Death" documentary is an excellent piece of information, which is a mandatory watch for everyone who wants to know the truth about chemtrails. Please don't just skim through this article without either downloading or watching this 23+ minutes video (scroll down to the end of this article to do so). People NEED to know what is going on, because it is negatively affecting us all and slowly killing us. THIS IS DONE BY OUR OWN GOVERNMENT IN A SILENT WARFARE AGAINST ITS OWN POPULATION! Wes Penre -
- WorldWithoutParasites.com -
(Posted here: Wednesday, January 03, 2007)

Vaccination - The Hidden Truth
[Video: 01:30:30]
- This is the shocking but extremely informative video documentary "Vaccination - The Hidden Truth" (1998) where fifteen people, including Dr. Viera Scheibner (a PhD researcher), five medical doctors, and other researchers, reveal what is really going on in relation to illness and vaccines.
Ironically, the important facts come from the orthodox medicine's own peer-reviewed research. With so much government and medical promotion of vaccination for prevention of disease, the video is clearly devoted to presenting the other side of the issue that parents and others are not being told. -
- from vaccination.inoz.com, 1998 -
(Posted here: Saturday, September 08, 2007)

 

I AM AN ANIMAL - The Story of Ingrid Newkirk and PETA
- On the frontline on animal rights we have Ingrid Newkirk, founder and President of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals). Just like Sheehan, she is a brilliant strategist, fearless and driven when comes to protecting and fighting cruel and unethical behavior towards animals. Despite, or rather thanks to, her controversial methods of exposing those cruelties, she gets a lot of Media attention. -
- by Wes Penre, Nov 25, 2007 -
(Posted here: Sunday, November 25, 2007)

Antidepressants and School Shootings, Suicide, Addiction
[00:07:57]
- A shocking Compilation of Video clips showing negative side effects of Antidepressants. Suicide, homicide even to the point of school shootings. Best Case scenario you only experience Withdrawal and Addiction. My solution has not been medications/drugs but a company called Truehope: www.truehope.com-
- YouTube -
(Posted here: Wednesday, December 19, 2007)

An Evening with Lloyd Pie
Lecture on human origins and the Starchild Skull

[02:08:15]
- Lloyd is also the caretaker of the famous Starchild skull, and has written a new book about his eight years of struggle to get it scientifically tested to establish beyond dispute the precise genetic heritage of both of its parents. So far, extensive testing indicates that its mother was a normal human but its father was, in all probability, something other than entirely human. -
- LECTURE BY LLOYD PIE -
(Posted here: Monday, July 14, 2008)

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Elenin Comet Dwarf Star

Amy Winehouse Tragic Death

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Halcyon Daze No Exposed

Zara Phillips and Mike Tindal Tie the Knot

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THE PROPERTIES OF MONATOMIC GOLD

By Reg Presley





The former Troggs lead singer and now long-time researcher of the mysterious and unknown writes about the background to monatomic gold in his book, Wild Things They Don't Tell Us. This section is reproduced for you by kind permission of Blake Publishing.

For an Adobe PDF Version - Click Here

I must have been a teacher's nightmare when I was at school. When other children were satisfied with the teacher's answer, I was the one who asked, 'Why?' and wasn't always satisfied with the answer I got. This did not stop when I left school – it got worse. Teachers' replies were generally the stock answers that they had received when they were at school. Things change, and I, for one, needed up-to-the-minute, well-thought- out answers.

The problem is that when you leave school the first of your adult problems surfaces, the business of earning a living. That nasty five-letter word that you never really place any importance on at school rears its ugly head - money. Having to earn money puts an immediate brake on real learning, because we're forced into concentrating on learning our job so that we can feed ourselves and get from one end of the week to the other.

That, for most people, is the way it stays for the rest of their lives. Unless of course you become older, with more time on your hands, or you become a millionaire, or both. You have no time to think about the fringe elements of life or to trace them to any decent conclusions. The powers that be probably like it that way no time to question anything. 

It has been said for years that money is the root of all evil, and that's right. If it weren't for money there would be no drug problems. If people were not earning money from selling it, they would not push it. That in turn would free up our police force, because crime connected to drugs would cease. In fact, you would have no new addictions.

It might be a good idea, right now, if those in power made centres all over the country and supplied drugs for free. This would stop pushers immediately, which would prevent young people and even children getting hooked - so your six-year-old need never come into contact with drugs. For those already hooked it's too late. Let's try to save the innocent. Even judges have said this would be a good idea, so why hasn't this implemented? The only conclusion you can draw is that people in high places would cease to make money from it.

If the government really wanted to free up the roads to stop the pollution that traffic causes, they should never have privatised the railways. If everyone in the country paid than the cost of a TV licence the railway could be run for and if the railway was free, more people would use it instead of their cars.

But no, what will happen is one of two things. The government will either do as the continentals have build toll booths, which will cost billions, or they will put petrol up so high that it makes the railways look cheap. Neither of these will stop pollution. It'll just mean the government will be able to thieve more money from us when we travel. And pollution will carry on getting worse.

What happened to the billions of taxpayers' money that was used to drill for the then promised oil bonanza from the North Sea? We didn't see oil prices drop! In fact we've only seen them rise. The price of oil in England is almost the highest in the world. Why? By now you're probably thinking that this is a party political broadcast on behalf of the They Screw You Out Of Everything Party. All I ask is for your patience. It all has relevance to the wider picture.

We humans, for example, have always been told that gold is a precious metal and we never question it. Why? It is not precious. It is in everything. It's even in seawater. Governments use gold to underpin their currency. Why? Startling new evidence is slowly coming to the fore that could stand the world on its head.

In the early 1900s an archaeologist called William Flinders Petrie climbed Mount Horeb in Iraq and discovered what was first thought to be a temple. Now it is believed it was where the large-scale smelting of a particular metal took place - that metal being gold. Also found at this site was a large amount of a strange white powder.

The site was thought to be at least 6-8,000 years old. Now it may be that we haven't heard about this because it doesn't fit in with the consensus of archaeologists on when man could melt certain metals. However, it is more likely to be because of the way it was smelted. Gold melts at 1063°C. But it appears that at Mount Horeb they used heat close to the temperature of the Sun's surface - which is approximately 6,000 degrees C.

To get those kinds of temperatures 8,000 years ago was a feat in itself. But this next piece of information is mind-boggling. They were not content just to melt the gold, they went one step further and almost vapourised it. I'll explain. Today if we want to analyse a metal to find out what it consists of, it is burnt at a temperature close to that of the Sun for a period of 15 to 20 seconds. In that 20 seconds, a chart will tell the scientist exactly what elements the metal consists of. At least, that's what most scientists think.

However, buried in red tape, and only just coming to light, is the work of a Russian scientist, who asked; 'Why burn for only 15 to 20 seconds?' He then set up apparatus to burn for much longer periods. Nothing happened at 20 seconds, 30 seconds, 40 seconds, 50, 60, or 69 but at 70 seconds, the apparatus then registered elements from the palladium group - platinum and other precious metals - all from an ordinary piece of iron.

Although amazing in itself, the really incredible thing is what happens to the metal, especially when gold is melted this way. At a 70-second burn there is suddenly a bright light, like a thousand flash bulbs going off, and all that is left behind in the crucible is a white powder. The gold vanishes. Another amazing thing is that the crucible has very little weight and so does the powder. If you then take the powder out of crucible, the weight returns to the crucible. Now I'm scientist, but that sure sounds like what is known as 'super-conductivity' to me.

So, why did a race of people 8,000 years ago need super conductivity? What did they need the white powder for? If a heavy stone crucible loses its weight with this white powder in it, could you put this powder on large stones and move them to build large structures with ease, perhaps while building pyramids? Pyramids are by their very name 'fire begotten'; derived from the Latin word pyre meaning fire. To find out the answer to this question, it's perhaps better to tell you about the civilisation responsible.

It has always been assumed that the Sumerians were the first civilisation on Earth. However, since the dig at Mount Horeb by Petrie, it appears they were not. Found at the site were thousands of what looked like earthenware rolling-pins with writings around their circumferences. The writing was like no other known to man, and has taken many years to decipher.

The stories they tell are chilling but also exciting. The one thing about finding pottery scrolls is that you have the master dye, unlike books, which could be changed over the years. All that was needed was for them to roll the scroll onto wet clay then decipher what they saw.

The civilisation called itself the Anunnaki. They were as civilised as we are. They had schools, lawyers, books and fashion shows. The scrolls told the story of a whole civilisation, and its way of life. The civilisation spoke of making Cro Magnon man from Neanderthal man. They were not happy with the results, and their leaders argued they should destroy them, which they did by way of a great flood, saving only a few. Those who survived were bred with the Anunnaki women to make Homo Sapiens, or thinking man.

God said, 'let us make man in our image, in our likeness'. Notice a plural is used for God. In the Old Testament Genesis account it states, 'male and female created he them and he called their name Adam'. Older writings use the more complete name Adama which means 'Earthling'. The first of these beings were called Adam and Eve, then known asAtaba and Khawa. It may well be that they were bred by the Anunnaki to be the Earthly Rulers, that they were the beginning of the blood royal, the Holy Grail. Who were these people! If this is correct, no wonder they've never found the missing link.

At this point I suddenly had a thought. Why do human beings have to shield their eyes with their hand to see on a sunny day! No other animal has to squint so why do we! You don't see a horse or a cow squinting do you! A bird which flies high up in the sky where the Sun shines the' brightest doesn't even use its eyelids until it goes to sleep. A polar bear doesn't suffer with snow blindness caused by the reflection of the Sun that shines even brighter with the glare. When a deer or rabbit gets caught in your car headlights, they do not even blink let alone squint. Why!

Because they have adapted to living on Earth. Cro-Magnon man had a large forehead, which shielded his eyes; he would not have had to squint either. Evolution doesn't go backwards does it?

If we were from Earth we would still have a large protruding forehead to protect our eyes. Or our eyes themselves would have adapted by now. We must have come from a planet that was a little further away from its Sun. Are we the descendants of the Anunnaki! In the Old Testament we can read stories of people living until they are 800 or 900 years old. This has been put down to translating errors by those who collated the Bible, with the Church merely saying, they meant to say 80 or 90 years old.

According to the Anunnaki, to rule over their subjects, their leaders needed longevity.

Let's face it, if you get older you usually get wiser. Eight hundred years' worth is a lot of wisdom. To ensure this was the case, the Anunnaki fed their leaders bread and wine. Red wine as we know today, is very good for you; a glass a day can unclog your veins and keep them clear. The bread the Anunnaki fed their leaders was made from a white powder made from the burning of the gold. Eating the bread made from the powdered gold, according to the Anunnaki, made their leaders more intelligent and made them live much longer.

Now the Catholic Church must have known about this, because they still give the bread and wine in their Holy Communion ceremonies. One thing we can all be sure of today, is that there will be no gold powder in their bread. We know that the last person to be fed this bread in a ceremony was the second Pharaoh. Then it stopped. When Moses led the Jews out of Egypt, the Bible would have you believe he went up Mount Sinai and saw the burning bush and God gave him the Ten Commandments. If that were the case, he marched his people about 50 miles out of their way, and they would not have been pleased. It is more likely he went up Mount Horeb, which is en route and the story then fits what happened to him there.

The Ten Commandments were no problem for Moses. Having been brought up by a Pharaoh he would have known the inaugural ceremony of the Pharaohs, in which they had to repeat after the high priest: 'I have not killed. I have not committed adultery.' And so on.

All Moses did was change the first words to Thou shalt, instead of, I Have, and it was all over bar the carving.

The ordinary Israelites would not have been aware of the inaugural words so would not have been any the wiser.

The interesting part of this is the burning bush. When you arc gold for 70 seconds at Sun temperature, it has been found that a pencil standing on its end right next to the flash, scorches but does not fall over. What did Moses witness on top of Mount Horeb? Was it the burning of gold, when he saw the blinding light and spoke to God through the burning bush that didn't actually burn? Did Moses make a mistake and think that the Anunnaki was God or did he know the Anunnaki as his creators so naturally thought of them as his God?

On Moses' return to his people from the Mount, he sees them worshipping a golden calf and, according to the Bible, becomes angry, burns the golden calf to dust and makes them eat it. He then smashes the tablets of stone, throws them in the Ark of the Covenant, and off they go. The Bible makes it sound as though Moses was punishing the Israelites by making them eat the calf.

It could be that he was actually turning them all into leaders. You actually smelt gold - you don't burn it. But it sounds as if that is exactly what he did. The only way of burning gold to a powder is in 70 seconds at the temperature of the Sun's surface, and only then if the gold is very thin. Otherwise you need to maintain that high temperature for 300 seconds.

It is interesting to note that the Bible puts all the emphasis on the Ten Commandments which, as we now know, were easy for Moses to create. Could the Bible be taking our attention away from the importance of the Ark of the Covenant and what it really held within? Remember it took at least four people to lift and eight to carry the Ark of the Covenant. They were told not to touch the sides, only the handles.

Did the Bible conveniently get the spelling wrong? Could it be the Arc of the Covenant? As in electrical arc? Is it the arc that melts the gold, with which they make the bread for higher intelligence? Is this why it's been hidden from us for thousands of years? To get the kind of temperature necessary to almost vaporise gold you would need a capacitor, and that sounds very much what the Ark of the Covenant was.

It is a fact that our brains contain a white substance. Gold is the best conductor of electricity. Our brains receive messages by electronic impulses which travel through this white substance. Scientists also know that something in your brain is super-conducting but as yet they don't know what. If we were all very intelligent, there wouldn't be any workers. We'd all be leaders.

The people responsible for putting a value on gold had to be somebody who knew gold's ultimate potential or capabilities. To the Anunnaki it was more than prized, they needed it for their way of life and probably their very existence. They could not have been from this planet, because they were too advanced for that time. So could it be they arrived from somewhere to find that the inhabitants of planet Earth are Neanderthal - not even intelligent enough to work for them.

Perhaps they then set about upgrading them to Homo Sapiens and, eventually, succeeded.

They would then have needed leaders to keep order, and perhaps they fed these leaders with the white powdered gold. The Homo Sapiens would then have been taught that gold is precious and that it needed to be mined. When the Homo Sapiens had mined it, their leaders could hoard it in vast quantities. Once the process was in motion, it would be able to run by itself. Not, perhaps, forever, but for at least a few thousand years or so. All that would be needed would be to give the Homo Sapiens a helping hand occasionally, and you would have a mining community that takes care of itself, doesn't need paying and doesn't even know who its boss is.

If you are an Anunnaki, and you live for 800 years, you don't have to wait many generations to collect your rewards. Like gathering the honey from the bees, one day the bosses will be coming back to harvest the gold, which is kept in nice convenient little heaps like at Fort Knox, ready for collection. Think about it. If you asked anybody on this planet why we prize such a common metal as gold, they could not tell you. There is no reason; most gold just sits there collecting dust.

The Anunnaki's system would continue to operate unhindered. They gave us a way of life that suited them, not necessarily us, but we knew no different. If we are looking for answers to the thousands of questions this raises, the answers have to lie with the Anunnaki themselves. Who were they? Where did they come from? And, just as important, where did they go?

They certainly existed, and we know this because of the scrolls and their writings. Some of these are in the British Museum, along with vials of the white powder made from the gold, although the latter is not on public display. The remainder are in the Baghdad Museum which the Americans bombed during the Gulf War. By accident? I think not. To hide a secret as big as this, you have to be in complete control of the evidence. Now they are.

According to their scrolls, the Anunnaki must have had a long-term objective when they start talking about changing Neanderthal into Cro-Magnon man, then into Homo Sapiens. This is powerful stuff; this is no ordinary race of people we're talking about. We're talking about manipulating DNA. The idea of anybody knowing about such things at that time is difficult to comprehend. Then, when this race of people are successful, seeding two Homo Sapiens who they name Adam and Eve, through to Abraham, Moses and Jesus this is mind blowing.

It is a strong possibility that the Anunnaki will soon come back for their gold. Can you imagine if the Anunnaki are doing this all round the universe? Upgrading life forms so that they can gather gold for them? Will there soon come a time when we realise that we needed the gold for our own technical evolution, and it'll be too late to save any of it?

The Europeans did the same thing to the native Americans, the native Australians, the Africans, and many others. When will we be paying them back for the gold we took? I think never. Nor will the Anunnaki be paying us back. With so many UFO sightings since the war, the Anunnaki could be here sooner rather than later.

The way all this information came to light really intrigued me. When I first spoke to Laurence Gardner, a genealogist and author of Bloodline Of The Holy Grail, I was amazed to learn that the book was a by-product of his being commissioned by a European prince to trace his family tree.

He began the laborious job of tracing the Prince's ancestors back through the ages until he reached a point where he felt the need to confront the prince with the question, 'Do you know where this is all leading?' The prince asked, 'What do you mean?' Laurence replied, 'Do you realise your family lineage goes back to Jesus?' to which the royal replied, 'Oh yes I knew that, I just wanted to know how it got there.' Laurence replied, 'Well, I'm sure not many people know this.' What the Royal took for granted, we mere mortals knew nothing about. 

When Laurence had finished the work for the Royal he decided to write the book. However he became so intrigued by his findings he could not stop at that, and carried on investigating Jesus' bloodline, and produced his second book, Genesis Of The Grail Kings, which led a trail through from Jesus to Moses, Abraham and Adam and Eve.

An interesting point that this raises is that the Bible states that Jesus' father Joseph was a carpenter. However, this is not what the original text of the Bible states. What was actually said was that Joseph was a Master of the Craft. Anyone who knows a little of modern Freemasonry will know the term 'the craft' and it has nothing to do with wood.

What the Bible was actually telling us (before the Church got hold of it) was that Joseph was just one of a long line of highly trained metallurgists. The only people that could be metallurgists at that time were priests and royalty and you would need to be a metallurgist to be able to convert gold into white powder.

To add more weight to Laurence's work (if that's possible) is the work of the pioneering researcher David Hudson, an American dirt farmer. Now according to David, the difference between dirt farmers and ordinary farmers is that the dirt farmer has to make his own soil from pulverising rock. In 1975 he was doing an analysis of natural products in the area where he was farming. David explains:

'You have to understand that in agriculture, in the state of Arizona we have a problem with sodium soil. This high-sodium soil, which looks like chocolate ice cream on the ground, is just crunchy black. It crunches when you walk on it. Water will not penetrate this soil. Water will not leech the sodium out of the ground. It's called black alkali.'

David was aware that it was possible to leech the sodium from the soil with sulphuric acid. Neighbouring his farm was a copper mine whose waste product was sulphuric acid. He was able to obtain as much as he needed as long as he moved it himself. He eventually administered between 30-60 tons per acre over his land. This penetrated 3 or 4 inches into the ground. When he irrigated, the soil would froth and foam due to the action of the sulphuric acid. What it did was to change black alkali into white alkali, which was water-soluble.

Within two years he was able to grow crops. Evidently it is very important to have enough calcium in the soil in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate will act as a buffer for the acid in the soil. If you do not have enough calcium, the acidity in the soil goes down. You get a pH of 4 to 4.5 and it ties up all the trace nutrients, that being the case the cotton plant would come out of the ground and suddenly stop growing. David said, 'It is important when you are putting all these amendments to your soil that you understand what is in your soil, how much iron there is, how much calcium and so on.'

In doing the analysis of these natural products David was coming across a 'material consisting of no one knew quite what, It seemed more abundant in one area so they decided to begin there. Using chemistry he dissolved the material in a solution and it became blood red. Yet when he precipitated this material out chemically by using a reductant of powdered zinc, the material would come out as a black precipitant just like it was supposed to if it were a 'noble' element. With a noble element, if you chemically bring it out of acid, it won't re-dissolve in the acid.

After he precipitated this material out of the black he took the material and dried it. At the time David had no drying furnace so he just took it outside in the warm Arizona sunshine which, he says, was 115 degrees at 5 per cent humidity, so it really dried fast. Then a strange thing happened.

After the material dried, it exploded. But this was no normal explosion. It just went poof! It was neither an explosion, nor an implosion; all the material had gone in a flash as if 50,000 flash bulbs had gone off all at one time. So David took a new pencil and stood it on end next to the material as it was drying. When the material detonated, it burned the pencil about 30 per cent but did not knock the pencil over. Whatever this stuff was, David thought, it was wild.

He discovered if he dried the material away from sunlight, it not explode. He then took some of the powder that had dried away from the sunlight, and using a crucible reductionvessel made of porcelain, he mixed the powdered material with lead and flux, and heated it until the lead melted. When you do this, the metals that are heavier than lead stay in the lead and those that are lighter float out. This is a tried  and-tested way of doing metals analysis.

This material settled to the bottom of the lead just as if it was gold and silver. It seemed to be denser than lead and it was separated from it. Yet when he took this material and put it on a bone ash cupel, the lead soaked into the cupel and left a bead of gold and silver. He then took this bead of gold and silver for analysis to all the commercial laboratories and they said, 'Dave,       there is nothing there but gold and silver'. The strange thing was, Dave could take the bead and hit it with a hammer and shatter it, like glass. There is no known alloy of gold and silver that is not soft. Gold and silver dissolve in each other readily and form a solid solution.

Both are soft elements so any alloy made from them will be soft and ductile. If you hit gold and/or silver with a hammer it will flatten out like a pancake. David told them, 'Something's going on here that we don't understand. Something unusual is happening,' David took the beads of gold and silver back to his laboratory and separated them chemically.

All he had left was a quantity of black stuff. He then took this back to the commercial laboratories and they told him it was iron, silica and aluminium. He told them it couldn't be iron, silica and aluminium. Firstly you can't dissolve it in any acids or any bases once it is totally dry. It doesn't dissolve in fuming sulphuric acid, it doesn't dissolve in sulphuric nitric acid, and it doesn't dissolve in hydrochloric nitric acid. Even gold dissolves in that, yet it won't dissolve this black stuff.

David decided to hire a PhD at Cornell University who considered himself an expert on precious elements. He paid the doctor to go to Arizona to see the problem for himself. He told David he had a machine back at Cornell that could analyse down to parts per billion. He said, 'If you let me take this material back to Cornell I'll tell you exactly what you have, if it's anything above iron we will find it.'

When they arrived back and tested the material he told David, 'You have iron, silica and aluminium.' David asked, 'Can we borrow a chemistry laboratory?' The doctor told him there was one not being used and together they spent the rest of the day there. They were able to remove all of the silica, all of the iron and all of the aluminium. Yet they still had 98 per cent of the sample that was pure nothing.

By now, more than a little frustrated, David said, 'I can hold this in my hand, I can weigh it, I can perform chemistry with it. That has to be something. It is not nothing.' The doctor told David if he would give him US$350,000 dollars as a grant he would get graduate students to look into it. David had already paid him US$22,000, because he said he could analyse anything, and he hadn't. Neither had he offered to pay David back. So David said, 'I don't know what you pay people around here, but I pay minimum wages on the farm and get a whole lot more out of US$350,000 than you can. So I'm going back to do the work myself.'

He went back to Phoenix totally disillusioned with academia. He was neither impressed with the PhDs or the money they charged. He discovered whilst at Cornell that they work students to generate papers, but the papers say nothing. The government however pays them for every paper they write, so they get their money based on the amount of papers they turn out. They all say the same thing: they just reword it and turn out another paper.

David was in no way about to give in, and began asking around the Phoenix area where he found a man who was a spectroscopist who had studied in West Germany at the Institute for Spectroscopy. He had also been a technician for a Lab Test company in Los Angeles, which actually built spectroscopic equipment.

He was also the man who blueprinted the machines, and designed them, constructed them, then took them to the field and made them work. David thought, here is a good man. This is not just a technician. Here is a man who knows how the machine works. Around this time, David had obtained a Soviet book entitled, The Analytical Chemistry of the Platinum Group Elements by Ginzburg, et al. The Soviet Academy of Science published it. David continues:

'In this book, according to the Soviets, you had to do a 300 -second burn on these elements to read them. For those who have never performed spectroscopy, it involves taking a carbon electrode that is cupped at the top. You then put the powder on that electrode; you bring the other electrode down above it, which creates an arc. In about 15 seconds, the carbon at this high temperature burns away, the electrode's gone and your sample's gone.

All normal laboratories in the USA and possibly right around the world are doing this, then giving a full and final result after only a 15 second burn. 'According to the Soviet Academy of Sciences, the boiling temperature of water is to the boiling temperature of iron just as the boiling temperature of iron is to the boiling temperature of these elements. As you know from driving a car, as long as there is water in the motor of your car the temperature of the car engine will never get hotter than the temperature of water.

If you just heated the water on the stove in a pan, you know that the pan never gets hotter than the boiling temperature of water until the water is gone. Once all the water is gone, the temperature skyrockets very fast.

'As long as there is iron there, the temperature of the sample can never get hotter than the boiling temperature of the iron, so you can then heat this stuff. Now, it is hard to fathom how something with as high a temperature as iron could be just like water to these elements, but it is.

'So we had to design and build an excitation chamber where argon gas could be put around this electrode so that no oxygen or air could get into the carbon electrode and we could burn it not for 15 seconds but for 300 seconds. According to the

Soviet Academy of Sciences, this is the length of time we had to burn the sample.

'We set up, we got the Pk blenders, we got the standards, we modified the machine, we did all the analysis for results, we did all the spectral lines on this three-and-a-half-metre instrument. It was a huge machine. It took up the whole garage area. It was about 30 feet long and about 8 or 9 feet high.

'Anyway, when we ran this material, during the first 15 seconds we got iron, silica, and aluminium, little traces of calcium and sodium, maybe a little titanium now and then, and then it went quiet and nothing read. So, at the end of 15 seconds, we were getting nothing. Twenty seconds, 25 seconds, 30 seconds, 35 seconds, 40 seconds - still nothing. Forty-five seconds, 50 seconds, 55 seconds, 60 seconds, 65 seconds, but if you looked in through the coloured glass, sitting there on the carbon electrode was this little ball of white material. There was still something in there.

'At 70 seconds, exactly when the Soviet Academy of Sciences said it would read, palladium began to read. And after the palladium, platinum began to read. After the platinum, rhodium began to read. After rhodium, ruthenium began to read. After the ruthenium, then iridium began to read and after the iridium, osmium began to read.

'Now, if you're like me, I didn't know what these elements were. I had heard of platinum, but what were these other elements? Well, there are six platinum group elements in the periodic table, not just platinum. They didn't find out about them at the same time, so they have been added one at a time.

'They are all elements: ruthenium, rhodium and palladium are light platinum. Well, we came to find out that rhodium was selling for about US$3,000 per ounce. Gold sells for about US$400 an ounce. Iridium sells for about US$800 an ounce. Then you say to yourself "Gee, these are important materials, aren't they?" They are important materials because the best known deposits in the world are now being mined in South Africa.

'In this deposit you have to go half a mile into the ground and mine an 18-inch seam of this stuff. When you bring it out, it contains one-third of one ounce per ton of all the precious elements. We checked our analysis, which we ran for two-and -a-half years, over and over. We checked every spectral line. We checked every potential on interference; we checked every aspect. We wanted exact matches.

'When we were finished, the man was able to do quantitative analysis, and he said "Dave, you have 6 to 8 ounce per ton of palladium, 12 to 13 ounces per ton of platinum, 150 ounces per ton of osmium, 250 ounces per ton of ruthenium, 600 ounces per ton of iridium, and 800 ounces per ton of rhodium, or a total of 2,400 ounces per ton, when the best-known deposit in the world is one-third of one ounce per ton."

This work wasn't an indication that these elements were there. These elements were there and they were there in beacoup amounts. They were saying, "Hey stupid man, pay attention! We are trying to show you something." lf they had been there in little amounts, I probably would have been content with this. But they were there in such huge amounts, I said, "Golly, how can they be there in these quantities and no one knew it?"

'Now, you keep in mind, it wasn't one spectral analysis! It was two-and-a-half years of spectral analysis, running this material every day. And the man actually sent me away when they read because he could not believe it either. He worked on it another two months before he called me up and said, "Dave, you are right". That is how sceptical he was about it. He couldn't apologise to me. He is a German researcher with German pride, so he had his wife call and apologise to me.

'He was so impressed that he went back to Germany to the Institute of Spectroscopy. He was actually written up in the spectroscopic journals as having proven the existence of these elements in natural materials in the south-western United States. They're not the kind of journals that you and I would ever get to read, but I actually saw the journals and he was written up.

They had no idea where this stuff was coming from, how we were producing it, what concentrations we had gone through or anything. They had analysed just this small amount of powder. The crazy thing about it was that all we had done was to remove the silica and send the other stuff in

They were pretty unbelievable numbers. After we had come at this in every way we knew, in order to disprove it, I decided all we had to do was throw money at this problem, because money solves everything, right? So, at 69 seconds, I stopped the burn. I let the machine cool down and I took a pocket knife and dug that little bead out of the top of the electrode. When you shut off the arc, it absorbs down into the carbon and you have to dig down into the carbon to get the little bead of metal.

'So I sent this little bead of metal over to Harwell Laboratories near Oxford in England. They made a precious metal analysis of this bead. I got a report back: "No precious elements detected." Now this was one second before the palladium was supposed to start leaving. Yet, according to neutron activation, which analysed the nucleus itself, there were no precious elements detected. This made absolutely no sense at all. There had to be an explanation here. Either this material had been converted to another element or it was in a form that we didn't understand yet. So I decided I had to get more information on it.

'I went to a PhD analytical chemist, John Sickafoose, a man trained in separating and purifying individual elements out of unknown material. He was trained at Iowa State University and had a PhD in metal separation systems. He's the man that Motorola and Sperry used in the State of Arizona to handle their waste water problems. He has worked with all the rare earths, he has worked with all the man-made elements.

'He has physically separated everything on the periodic table with the exception of four elements. Coincidentally, I went to him to have him separate six elements; four of those were the elements he had never worked on. He said "You know, Mr Hudson, I have heard this story before. All my life and I'm a native Arizonan, too - I heard this story about these precious elements.

I am very impressed with the way you have gone about this, with the systematic way you have approached it. I cannot accept any money because if I accept money from you I have to write you a written report. All I have to sell is my reputation. All I have to sell is my credibility. I'm a certified expert witness in the state of Arizona in metallurgical separation systems."

'He said, "Dave, I will work for you for no charge until I can show you where you are wrong. When I can tell you where you are wrong, I'll give you a written report. Then you will pay me US$60 an hour for the time I spent." This would have come to about US$12,000 to US$15,000 dollars. If this got rid of the curse, if this just got the thing answered once and for all, it would be worth it. Do it, get on with it.

'Well, three years later, he said, "I can tell you it is not any of the other elements on the periodic table. We are educated; we are taught to do the chemical separation of the material and then send it for instrumental confirmation. The example I use is rhodium because it has a unique colour in the chloride solution. It is a cranberry colour, almost like the colour of grape juice. There is no other element that produces the same colour in chloride solution. When my rhodium was separated from all the other elements, it produced that colour of chloride.

The last procedure you do to separate the material out is to neutralise the acid solution, and it precipitates out of solution as a red-brown dioxide. It is heated under a controlled atmosphere to 800 degrees for an hour, and that creates the anhydrous dioxide. Then you hydro-reduce that under a controlled atmosphere to get the element, and then you anneal away the excess hydrogen.

'So, we neutralised the acid solution and precipitated it out as a red-brown dioxide, which is the colour it is supposed to precipitate out at. Then we filtered that out. We heated it under oxygen for an hour in a tube furnace, then we hydro-reduced it to this grey-white powder, exactly the colour rhodium should be as an element. Then we heated it up to 1,400 degrees under argon to anneal away the material, and it turned snow-white. Now this wasn't expected. This just isn't what is supposed to happen.

'What John did was, he said, 'Dave, I'm going to heat it to the anhydrous dioxide. I'm going to cool it down. I'm going to take one third of the sample and put it into a sealed vial.

 I'm going to put the rest of the sample back onto the tube furnace and heat it up under oxygen, cool it back down, purge it with inert gas, and heat it back up under hydrogen to reduce away the oxides.

"'The hydrogen reacts with the oxygen, forming water, and cleans the metal. I'll cool that down to the grey-white powder. I'll cool down that grey-white powder. I'll take half of that and put it into another sealed vial. I'll take the rest of the powder and put it back into the furnace. I'm going to oxidise it, hydro -reduce it and anneal it to the white powder. Then I will put it into a vial and send all three vials to Pacific Spectrochem over in Los Angeles, one of the best spectroscopic firms in the U.S."

'The first analysis came back: the red-brown dioxide was iron oxide. The next material came back: silica and aluminium: no iron present. Just putting hydrogen on the iron oxide had made the iron quit being iron, and now it had become silica and aluminium.

'Now, this was a big sample. We'd just made the iron turn into silica and aluminium. The snow-white annealed sample was analysed as calcium and silica. Where had the aluminium gone? John said, "Dave, my life was so simple before I met you. This makes absolutely no sense at all."

'He said, "What you are working with is going to cause them to rewrite physics books, rewrite chemistry books and come to a completely new understanding." John gave me the bill: it was US$130,000, which I paid. But he said, "Dave, I have separated it physically and I have checked it chemically 50 different ways. You have 4 to 6 ounces per ton of palladium, 12 to 14 ounces per ton of platinum, 150 ounces per ton of osmium, 250 ounces per ton of ruthenium, 600 ounces per ton of iridium, 800 ounces per ton of rhodium."

'These were almost the exact same numbers that the spectroscopist had told me were there. It was such an incredible number that John said, "Dave, I've got to go to the natural place where this stuff comes from and I've got to take my own samples."

'So he went up and actually walked the property and took his own samples, put them in a bag, brought them back to the laboratory, pulverised the entire sample and then started doing the analysis on what is called the master blend sample. This represents the whole geology, and he got the same numbers.

'We worked on this from 1983 until 1989, one PhD chemist, three master chemists, and two technicians working full-time. Using the Soviet Academy of Sciences' and the US Bureau of Standards' weights and measures information as a starting point, we literally learned how to do qualitative and quantitative separations of all these elements.

'We learned how to take commercial standards and make them disappear. We learned how to buy rhodium trichloride, as the metal, from Johnson, Matthey & Engelhardt and we learned how to break all these metal-metal bonding until it was literally a red solution but no rhodium was detectable. And it was nothing but pure rhodium from Johnson, Matthey & Engelhardt.

'We learned how to do it with iridium, we learned how to do it with gold, we learned how to do it with osmium, and we learned how to do it with ruthenium. This is what we found when we actually purchased a machine for high-pressure liquid chromatography.

'For your information, this person named John Sickafoose was the man who actually wrote his PhD thesis at Iowa State University on how to build this instrument back in 1963-64. After he graduated, some of the graduate students there took that technology and developed it, and eventually Dow Chemical came in and bought it.

'Dow went ahead and commercialised it, and now it is the most sophisticated chemical separation instrument that the world has. It's computer-controlled, all high-pressure, and you can do very precise separations with it. Because this is the man who conceptualised and designed it and told them what the limitations would eventually be on it, he was the ideal man to take the technology and perfect it.

'So we were able to use their basic technology and develop a separation system for the rhodium trichloride. We actually separated five different species in the commercial rhodium trichloride. The word "metal" is like the word "army". You can't have a one-man army. The word metal refers to a conglomerate material.

'It has certain properties: electrical conductivity, heat conduction, and all these other aspects. When you dissolve the metals in acid, you get a solution that is clear without solids. You assume it's a free-ion solution, but when you are dealing with noble elements they're still not free ions. It's what is called "cluster chemistry".

'Since the 1950s there has been a whole area of research in colleges on cluster chemistry and catalytic materials. But what happens is that the metal-metal bonds are still retained by the material. So, if you buy rhodium trichloride from Johnson, Matthey & Engelhardt, you are actually getting Rh12Cl36 or Rh15Cl45. You really aren't getting RhCl3. There is a difference between the metal-metal bonding material and the free ions. What you are buying is cluster chemistry; you are not getting free ions. When you put the material in for the instrumentation to analyse, it is actually the metal-metal bonds of the cluster that are analysed. The instrumentation is not really analysing the free ions.

'I heard that General Electric was building fuel cells using rhodium and iridium. So I made contacts with the fuel cell people back in Massachusetts and travelled there to meet with them. They had three attorneys meet with us, and the GE people were also there.

The attorneys were there to protect the GE people because a lot of people say they have technologies and they meet with them; then after the meeting they sue them, claiming that GE stole their technology. Then to defend themselves, GE has to divulge what their technology really is. So CE is very sceptical when you say that you have something new. They bring their high-faluting attorneys to really screen you.

'After about an hour they said, "These guys are for real. You attorneys can leave." That was because they had also had the explosions. They knew that when they buy the commercial rhodium trichloride it analyses very well. But to make it ready to go into their fuel cells they have to do salt effusions on it, where they melt the salt and put the metal in with it to disperse it further. They know that when they do that, the metal doesn't analyse as well any more. So when we told them we had material' that didn't analyse at all, they couldn't conceive how this was possible. They had never seen it, but they said, "We are interested".

'Now the GE are the people who build analytical instrumentation! They said, "Dave, why don't you just make a bunch of rhodium for us and send it to us and we'll mount it in our fuel-cell technology. We'll see if it works in places where only rhodium works. What is the mechanism of conversion of monatomic rhodium to metallic rhodium in these fuel cells? No other metal has ever been found which will perform the catalysis in the hydrogen-evolving technology of the fuel cell, other than rhodium and platinum. And rhodium is unique compared to platinum because rhodium does not poison with carbon monoxide and platinum does.

'They said, "Dave, we'll just run it to see if it's a hydrogen evolving catalyst and, if it is, then we will see if it is carbon monoxide-stable and, if it is, then it's rhodium or it's a rhodium alternative."

'So we worked for about six months and refined that amount of material and we re-refined it and re-refined it. We wanted to be absolutely sure that this was really clean stuff. We didn't want any problems with this. We sent it back to Tony LaConti at GE. GE, who by that time had sold their fuel-cell technology. All the GE fuel-cell people had gone to work for United Technologies, and, since United Technologies already had their in-house people, the GE people were not integrated into the existing teams. So all the GE people were junior people; they weren't senior any more. After a certain period of months they all quit and left United Technologies.

'Well, Jose Giner, who was the head of fuel-cells at United Technologies, also quit and went to set up his own firm, called Giner Incorporated, in Waltham, Massachusetts. Tony and all the GE people went with him. By the time our material got there, they'd set up their own company in Waltham, so we contracted with them to build the fuel cells for us.

'When our material was sent to them, the rhodium, as received, was analysed as not having any rhodium in it. Yet when they mounted it on carbon in their fuel-cell technology and ran the fuel cell for several weeks, it worked and did what only rhodium would do, and it was carbon monoxide-stable. After three weeks, they shut down the fuel cells, took out the electrodes and sent them back to the same place that said there was no rhodium in the original sample.

'Now there was over 8 per cent rhodium in the original sample. What happened was it had begun to nucleate on the carbon! It actually had begun to grow metal-metal bonds! So now there was metallic rhodium showing on the carbon, where before there was no rhodium.

'These GE people said, "Dave if you are the first one to discover this, if you are the first one to explain how to make it in this form, if you are the first one to tell the world that it exists, then you can get a patent on this." I said, "I'm not interested in patenting this." Then they told me that if someone else discovered it and patented it, even though I was using it every day, they could stop me from doing it. I said, "Well, maybe I should patent it."

'So in March 1988, we filed US and worldwide patents on Orbital Rearranged Monatomic Elements. Now that is a mouthful, so, to make it short, we called it ORMEs. You have ORMEs gold, ORMEs palladium, ORMEs iridium, ORMEs ruthenium, ORMEs osmium. While we were doing this patent procedure, the Patent Office said, "Dave, we need more precise data, we need more exact data, we need more information about this conversion to this white powder state."

'One of the problems we had was that when you make this white powder and you bring it out into the atmosphere, it really starts gaining weight. I'm not talking about a little bit of weight, I'm talking about 20 to 30 per cent. Now that normally would be called absorption of atmospheric gases: the air is reacting with it and causing weight gain, but not 20 to 30 per cent.

'Nonetheless, we had to answer the Patent Office. We had to come up with exact data for the Patent Office. So what we did was use this machine for thermogravimetric analysis. This is a machine that has total atmospheric control of the sample. You can oxidise it, hydro-reduce it, and anneal it, while continually weighing the sample under a controlled atmosphere. Everything is all sealed. We were getting short of funding and couldn't afford to buy one, so we leased one from the Bay Area from Varian Corporation. They sent it in to us and we set it up on computer controls.

'We heated the material at 1.2 degrees per minute and cooled it at 2 degrees per minute. What we found was that when you oxidise the material, it weighs 102 per cent; when you hydro-reduce it, it weighs 103 per cent. So far, so good. No problem. But, when it turns snow white, it weighs 56 per cent! Now that's impossible!

When you anneal it and it turns white, it only weighs 56 per cent of the beginning weight! If you put that on a silica test boat and you weigh it, it weighs 56 per cent! If you heat it to the point that it fuses into the glass, it turns black and all the weight returns. So the material hadn't volatilised away. It was still there. It just couldn't be weighed any more.

'That's when everybody said, "This just isn't right; it can't be!" Do you know that we heated it, and cooled it, and heated it and cooled it, and heated it and cooled it under helium or argon? When we tooled it, it would weigh 300 to 400 per cent of its beginning weight; when we heated it, it would actually weigh less than nothing? If it wasn't in the pan, the pan would weigh more than the pan weighs when this stuff is in it! Keep in mind, these are highly trained people running this instrumentation, and they would come in and say, "Take a look at this. This makes no sense at all"

'Now, this machine is so precisely designed and controlled that they have a magnetic material they can put into this that is non-magnetic when it goes into the machine but at 300 degrees it becomes magnetic. It is in fact a strong magnet. Then, after you get up to 900 degrees, it loses its magnetism. You can actually see if the interaction of the magnetism with the magnetic field of the heating element causes any change in weight.

'The heating element is bifilar-wound. This means that it goes round and round the sample; then you reverse it and wind it right back up so all the current runs against itself all the time. So when a wire flows electricity there is a magnetic field that forms around it, but when you run the wire right next to it, going in the other direction, it forms a magnetic field in the other direction. The idea is that the two fields will cancel. This is the kind of wiring that is used in television to cancel all the magnetic fields. The designers of this machine wanted to eliminate the magnetic field aspect here.

'When we put the magnetic material in the sample and ran it in the machine, there was no response at all. There was no change in weight when the material became magnetic or lost its magnetism. Yet when our material was put in there and it turned white, it went to 56 per cent of its beginning weight. If you shut off the machine and let it cool, it was exactly 56 per cent. If you heated it, it would go less than nothing, and if you cooled it, it would go 300 to 400 per cent, but it always went back to a steady 56 per cent.

'We contacted Varian in the Bay Area and said, "Look, this just doesn't make any sense. There's something wrong with this machine; something isn't right. Every time we use the machine it works fine unless we make the pure monatomic material, and when we do, it turns snow-white and doesn't work correctly any more." Varian looked over our results and said, "You know, Mr Hudson, if you were working with the cooling of the material we would say it is super-conducting. But inasmuch as you are heating the material, we don't know what you've got."

'I decided, well, I have had to learn chemistry and I've had to learn physics, and now I've got to learn the physics of super-conductors. So I bought and borrowed a bunch of graduate books on super-conductivity and I began to read about super-conductors.'

'Evidently there are several phenomena which occur. We hooked a voltmeter (used for checking circuitry) up to the white powder expecting the needle to leap across the voltmeter because this was supposed to be perfect conductivity, but nothing happened. Instead of this being a perfect conductor of electricity it's a perfect insulator.

'So we went back to the book for more information, and discovered that super-conductivity by definition will not allow any voltage potential to exist inside the sample. Now to get the electricity off the wire and into the sample takes a voltage potential, likewise to get electricity out of the sample and on to the wire needs a voltage potential.

'Yet by definition a super-conductor does not allow any voltage potential to exist in the sample. So we thought, what good is this? But what you learn is that you must resonance frequency tune the vibration frequency of the electron wave, until the vibrational frequency of the electron wave is perfectly matched with the vibrational frequency wave of the super-conductor.

'Then the electrons will go on with no push at all because they are seeking the path of least resistance and that is in the super-conductor. When you do get them matched up, a strange thing happens when they go onto the super-conductor; the electrons pair up. They don't go on as individual electrons they go on in pairs! They go on as light.

'Now a curious thing happens, an electron has mass and it exists in space-time, you cannot have two electrons in the same space-time, it won't happen. They exist in different places and locations, but when they pair up and become light you can put billions of them in the same space-time.

'So now what happens with a super-conductor, as long as the frequency electron wave matches the frequency of the super -conductor, is that they keep going onto the super-conductor, more and more and more and more, you don't have to take them off, because they are going on as light. And the only way you know they are in there is by checking the size of the Meissner that forms around the super-conductor.

'So what is a Meissner? Well, when electricity flows through a wire it produces a magnetic field around the wire, but with a super-conductor it produces what they call a Meissner. The cool thing about this is that it does not produce a north and south pole. It's a null field. A super-conductor has no resistance, so you could keep putting energy into it, to the point where it has so much Meissner around it that it becomes larger and larger, because of all the electrons and amperage.

'It will then begin to float on the Earth's magnetic field. It will cause the Earth's magnetic field to travel around it; it will not enter into the sample. It will become stuck in the magnetic field it is sitting in. To a point, you can put, as much energy in a super-conductor as you like, before it becomes HCL, which is a critical mass where as it becomes so huge it collapses and becomes normal. You don't want to be around when this happens.

'To get the energy out of a super-conductor you put the wire up to it and resonance frequency tune the vibration frequency of the wire to match the super-conductor and apply a voltage potential and it comes out. The neat thing is you can make a super-conductor that say runs from Tampa to San Francisco and you can resonance frequency tune the energy, put it in the super-conductor here, and it will get a free ride all the way to San Francisco. All these atoms in perfect resonance harmony producing a quantral wave, and the energy gets on this wave' system and has a free ride all the way to San Francisco.'

At this point, while David goes on to talk about the possibility of floating trains, which they already have in Japan but which work by using opposing magnetic fields, I was imagining a huge egg-shaped craft with Dave's super conductive powder sandwiched in-between an outer skin with people inside ready to go to Australia at the speed of light. Because if Earth's gravitational field has no effect on the occupants because of the Meissner, speed would not be a problem. Perhaps even to the Moon and beyond. Travel would become so quick and easy.

 David continued:

'In March 1988 we filed worldwide patents and US on Orbital Rearranged Monatomic Elements, ORMES. Each element had individual patents. You can imagine the patent office when we tried to patent gold, oh great, who are these guys? Then I filed another set of patents on the super-conductive state. Which is a resonance couple system of quantum oscillators, so there had to be a many atom state of ORMES so we had to can it S- ORMES. The super-conducting state.

'You can have a patent on the atom but you also have to have a patent on the systems of atoms. It's like a man being an army, a man can't be an army, a one-man army isn't real, an army is many men. Well a super-conductor is many atoms, you can't have one atom being a super-conductor. So we had to have a patent on ORMES and a patent on S-ORMES.

   'Well I didn't know that the law said that any patent involving super-conductivity has to have the approval of the Department of Defence, because of the strategic interest of the government. I didn't know this, so I just went ahead and filed the patent. Well, the Department of Defence didn't get involved. I only used the word super-conductivity once in the closing paragraph on the summary page of my patent application.

'I said it has horns, it has four hooves, it moos, it gives milk, it has baby calves, but I didn't use the word cow. I talked about the Meissner, its reaction with gravity (the levitation), but I didn't use the word super-conductivity except one time in the closing paragraph. So they never realised it was a super conducting patent.

'By law you have one year's grace, from when you file a US patent, to file a worldwide patent. So I waited until about three weeks before the end of the year, and contacted the patent office and told them I'm going to file a worldwide patent. Evidently, someone at the patent office re-read my patent application again and said, "Oh gosh it's about super-conductivity."

'Off to the Department of Defence it went, back it came and it said, "He cannot file worldwide". Then I went back to them and said, "Wait, by law I have a six month appeal period, I've only got three weeks. So they over-rode the Department of Defence, and let me file worldwide.

'Now needless to say by now my name was mud at the Department of Defence. Next, I get a phone call from this guy out of the blue, who wants to invest in my technology. I said, "How did you hear about this?' he said, "Well, everybody's talking about it"

'Anyhow, he's telling me about things that nobody should know, he's quoting specific references out of my patent, and nobody is supposed to have seen this, except the patent office and the military review board. So I had a private investigator check him out; I said "Find out who he is and where he comes from."

'We found out he flies out of Langley air force base, he gets his money from a Swiss bank account that the military keeps stocked with money and his job is to provide money to companies whose technologies they need for Star Wars. When they took this legislation to the legislator here in the United States, they turned it down. They didn't allow funding money for Star Wars.

     'So what the military does is put money in Swiss bank accounts that nobody knows about, and this investor goes around looking for companies that need support and when he finds them he funnels money into those companies.'

He said to Dave, 'I've got to have this stuff, because the only way you're going to get absolute confirmation that no one will question, is to have it show that it reflects neutrons.' He went on to say, 'I can get you on line for this in a couple of weeks, whereas it will take you three years.' Dave said, 'Then I'll wait three years.'

He said, 'Dave, have you ever taken this to a university and had university funding or government funding or grants of any kind?' Dave said, 'no'. There was just no way they could get involved with him legally. Dave said, 'he came back to me a couple of times and then gave up'. There was no way he could make Dave do anything. He could see he was totally private and there was nothing he could do.

   When you understand that this produces gamma radiation, the last thing you need is the military having this information.

However, before they let Dave go to patent pending in the US, the military had to approve it. They told him, 'You must get this confirmed by a totally independent laboratory, someone who has no affiliation with you, someone with credentials.' So he told them how about Argon National Laboratories. Were they good enough?

'Yes they're a government laboratory,' they said. 'OK, so we'll have it done by them,' Dave said. So they said, 'Here's what we want you to do, we want you to buy pure yellow gold, 999.99 per cent pure gold, and convert it into white powder, and if you can do that, we'll let your material patent application go to patent pending.'

So Dave went to the Argon National Laboratories and met with Roger Popel, Head of Ceramics and Super-conductivity. When Dave told him his whole story, he said, 'we have physicists here at the national labs that have theorised that the very elements you are telling us should, do this. We know this already. We just don't have anybody who can make them into that state. We're making them one atom at a time in the nuclear facility and know they exist in this state, but making them one at a time it's going to take years and years to produce enough to evaluate it as a super-conductor.'

So he was very excited about it. He wrote it all up and submitted to the Argon National Laboratories, and their attorneys turned it down. Because, they said, 'It involves chemistry and it can be done without the government lab's involvement. You can go to a private lab to get this done, and our very purpose for existence was to do things that you couldn't get done at a private lab.'

Dave said, 'Roger, the problem is if you don't make the white powder, how do you know it's gold, because you have no machine that will confirm it's gold?' What I have to have is, 'You take gold and change it into white powder so you know it came from gold.' He said 'I see your point Dave, it is a problem isn't it?' He said, 'I'll tell you what, there are two guys who used to work here, I know them personally, I socialise with them, I go places at the weekend with them, I know them real well. I'll write to them, and tell them I want them to make this white powder for you. I know them well enough that, if they say it came from gold, I will accept it as coming from gold.'

So he sent Dave to Mike McNallon and Steve Daniluck over there at High Tech. They told Dave they would do the work for $20,000. They bought the yellow gold, and using his procedure made the white powder. And they acknowledged they didn't know where this stuff came from, because it doesn't analyse to be gold, it doesn't have the properties of gold, but it came out of gold.

So David provided the affidavit to the patent office, all signed sealed and notarised. Now it goes to the Department of Defence and they say, That's not enough, now we want to know how you take the white powder and change it back to the yellow metal, gold'. Dave said, 'You must understand this is a materials patent not a procedural patent for the white powder, I was patenting the white powder. I showed them how to make the white powder from a known material, I made an apple into apple sauce, now they wanted me to make the apple sauce into an apple.'

David told them, I can do it, but I don't think I want to tell you how to do it.' What it boiled down to was they wanted as much information as possible from him before they gave him the patent. If they got that piece of the puzzle they would know exactly how this phenomenon works. They would get this stuff and put it into lasers and learn how to energise those with OCR and help produce gamma radiation. And that's a weapon you don't want Gadaffi having, or Hussein, or the military. It will go through brick walls and lead; it will kill everybody in the building but not harm the building. It is a very dangerous material, and no one should mess with it.

So in 1993 David Hudson quit pursuing the patent. The attorney said, 'They never can grant a patent to anyone else that will ever apply for yours, because you applied for it and got turned down.' David said that was all he wanted anyway. So after the expenditure of $540,000 he stopped pursuing the patents. So anyone who is searching for his patents and not finding them that's the reason why, all you'll find is 'patent applied for'. David was financially strapped by then, as it was costing a hell of a lot to maintain the patents. He coupled this with the assurance that they could never issue another patent to anyone on his patent, and said, 'Drop it, don't let us pursue it anymore.'

In 1994 his uncle came to him with a book and said, 'This book talks about white powdered gold.' Dave said, 'Oh really I got a white powdered gold and nobody will allow me a patent on it.' His uncle said, 'Dave it's a book on alchemy,' Dave said, 'I'm really not interested in alchemy. I'm a dirt farmer trying to get credibility in physics and chemistry and you bring me a book on alchemy. I'm really not interested in alchemy. Alchemy is when the Church were involved, this is the occult, I'm not interested in that stuff.'

His uncle said, But Dave, it talks about a white powder gold, it even talks about gold glass.' Dave said, 'And they are right, it does look like gold glass, it looks clear, it just looks white to the naked eye. But if you heat it in a vacuum at 1,160 degrees it will fuse to a pure glass, it's very brittle, but it will grind back down to the white powder. But it is glass.' Dave was amazed to learn that it talked about this in the alchemy text. It also talked about it being the main container of the essence of life.

'Well, we once said that when we have the analytical method this stuff could be anywhere,' Dave continued. 'Like a stealth atom it could be in anything and no one would know it. So one of the first things we did was to go to Safeways and buy some cow and pigs brains and take them to the laboratories and put them in fuming sulphuric acid and carbonise them, and then oxidise away the carbon and do a metal sulphate analysis on the residue.

'And we found that over 5 per cent of the dry matter weight in the brain was made up of rhodium and iridium in the high spin state, and nobody knows it. Then we read this text that says it's the container of the essences of life. I thought, gosh is this possible that this is the same white powder that they are talking about? So I began to do medical studies with it. Now I've done physics, chemistry, super-conductivity, quantum mechanics, and now I'm into medicine.

'I went to a doctor and I told him the stories about it, and he began to administer the white powder to a dog. This dog was a golden retriever who had an abscess, valley fever and tick fever. No medicine they had could cure this animal, nothing would work.

They injected 1 milligram, 1 cc in the tumour on his side, 1 cc intravenously and after a week and a half everything has gone away, and the dog's feeling great. One milligram! That's nothing. That's so small you can barely see it. However, after a week it began to grow back. So they began to inject the dog again, but this time they kept it going for about two weeks and it never came back.'

Then, without telling Dave at the time, the doctor began to give it to an HIV patient. The HIV patient was literally so weak he could not eat or speak. He was on his deathbed being fed by IV every two days. The doctor injected 2 milligrams of the powder into his IV After a week and a half, he is getting dressed on his own, he's eating on his own, and he's thrown away the IV lines, and they have to inject directly into his arm. In a month and a half he's on a plane flying back home to Indiana to attend a family wedding and shaking hands with everybody. They don't even know he's HIV positive.

'You do not get spontaneous remission from HIV. With some cancers you may from time to time, but not with HIV. The doctor was very impressed. So impressed he went on to treat a man who had carposious sarcoma, they are cancers that travel all over your body on the skin. This fellow had 30 lesions over his body. So he injected him with 2 milligram a day and in a month and a half the lesions were totally gone. When the lesions were dry you could literally just rub them away. You may get a slight discolouration where they have been, but the lesions just go. That's with just 2 milligrams a day.'

Dave puts special emphasis on the fact that they were using white powder, made of rhodium and iridium and not gold. Because they discovered that was already in the body, they thought that's what they'd start with. 'Doctors have worked on patients with cancers, ALS, MD, MS, pancreatic cancers, and liver cancers. They have done some experimentation with brain cancers. And one of the things they find is, when the dead tissue of the cancer actually begins to turn to healthy tissue, the cancer appears to get larger, and that's the opening up of the cancer. If you have brain turn ours there is a size limitation, you don't necessarily want to use this material so you may want some other way of treating it initially.'

This remarkable material is now being evaluated by the alternative medicine division of the National Institute of Health in New York City and many other places throughout the United States. And data is being developed on the information discovered. So not only are we talking about a new form of patent, we're talking about a room temperature super conductor that super-conducts up to 800 degrees. The implications for many areas of science are immense.

Then to find out that it is a natural constituent of your body and that it literally flows the light of life around your body. People have actually confirmed that there is super conductivity in your body. The US Navy researchers have measured super-conductivity in your body. What they don't know is what is super-conducting, because it's like some stealth atom that they can't identify. And they're right, that's exactly what it is. It's a higher form of matter that they're not aware of.'

While most scientists today wouldn't know what David Hudson is talking about, some must see its possibilities. Through David's work we now have the ability to take the next step towards free energy. The problem I now see is that scientists themselves will not like the idea that a dirt farmer is able to tell them where they went wrong. And will not want to lose face by having to study work that has gone on outside the scientific fraternity. I hope in the near future to use David's material to heal a friend who has MS. The outcome of this I will make public knowledge so that others can try. I do not intend to let his findings slip away into oblivion.

Through the stress of his work on reaching a conclusion with the white powder, plus government trying to close a factory where he was just starting to try and make the material, David suffered a heart attack and has had a triple by-pass. His doctor and his family are advising him to take things easy, so it is going to be difficult for him to continue with his good work. Many people - myself included - have offered to help, and hopefully when he is better he will accept. Surely we can't get this close to the answer to all our dreams only to walk away.


Are you mind controlled? (4/11/2007)

Do you watch television? How many hours a day do you spend watching T.V.? Have you ever stopped to wonder why is it that ALL OF THE NEWS STORIES ARE THE SAME NO MATTER WHICH CHANNEL IT IS? Have you ever wondered why they call it "Programming", and just who are they trying to program? Who is behind this "Programming"? A Wizard of OZ?

Propaganda was PERFECTED by the Nazis during the Third Reich under Hitler. Hitler stated that the "Bigger the Lie, the more likely one would be to believe it".

Could you imagine that you are watching a television program and while someone is about to be arrested, they show the policeman that the law he is about to operate under is being applied incorrectly? Or how about any show where something is about to happen that involves the law and the AUTHORITY IS QUESTIONED?

Authority is never questioned on Television. Why? Because It Might Cause Us To Think That Maybe The State Has No Authority Over Us.

Television Requires BLIND OBEDIENCE in order to watch it and not get sick to your stomach. BBC Stands For British Broadcasting Company. Who do you think runs it? British Intelligence, That's who. Everything we hear and see on television is directed by British Intelligence. H.G Wells, the Late, Great Science Fiction Writer was himself a Freemason and a Member of British Intelligence. Aldous Huxley's Grandfather tutored H.G. Wells and Huxley's Grandfather was a member of the "Round Table" in England. The First Movies out of Hollywood Included "Things To Come" by Wells. This was an early Propaganda Film aimed at America to Prepare us for World War II and the United Nations. A Must-See Film.

One of the best films to show the effect the programmers are trying to have on civilization is "Harrison Bergeron". This will be the State of Things in the New World Order if something isn't done about it soon. Also I recommend "ZARDOZ" another great Sci-Fi about a civilization of primitives controlled by the elite through brainwashing.

Have you ever stopped to consider the implications of movies like "Star Wars" and "The Empire Strikes Back". Or how about "Raiders of the Lost Ark", or even "Star Trek". All of these movies were made by members of secret societies of Freemasons or under the direction and advisement of them.

So lets follow the advice of Stephen Marley: http://rochester92.vox.com/library/post/mind-control.html

" It's mind control, mind control, corruption of your thoughts, destruction of your soul

Don't let them mold your mind, they want to control mankind

Seems like their only intention is to exploit the Earth

And you trust in their deceit, your mind causes your defeat

And so you've become an invention to destroy this Earth

Propaganda and lies are plaguing our lives,

How much more victimized, before we realize?

It's mind control, mind control, corruption of your thoughts, destruction of your soul

Ol' Grand Master let the people go, you put them in total confusion to downstroy their souls

For they practice what you preach, so they're always in your reach

Hi-tech slavery in these days, it's mind control

They'll make it attractive, to get men distracted

Corrupting, polluting, destroying your soul

Mind control, mind control, corruption of your thoughts, destruction of your soul

The truth is there for all to see..."

We are ready to fight untill the end of times against this conspiracy with the formation of Committee's of Hope worldwide .And now its finaly quite illarius to see my picture as a brainwashed Freemason Officer after Ive been finaly liberating myself from my occult Masters of the United Grand Lodge of England and the even worst ones from the Propaganda Lodge,yes it was all about Propaganda indeed.

Leo Lyon Zagami now sings along with Marley's new tune and hopes in a new world free of Mind Control and evil propaganda!

Leo Lyon Zagami now Khaled Saifullah Khan

 

 

New Information Surfaces About Masonic/Vatican 9/11 Perps (4/17/2007)

New Information Surfaces About Masonic/Vatican 9/11 Perps

Researchers Should Dig Deep into Monte Carlo P2 Lodge, Opus Dei and other Vatican connections concerning the real 9/11 perpetrators who are the same people that brought terrorism to Italy in the 1980's and caused the Bologna train station bombing.

By Greg Szymanski April 15,2007

In the last five years, there have been very few solid leads appearing in the mainstream and alternative media as to who really pulled the strings behind the scenes, causing 9/11.

Of course, the mainstream still clings to the bogus 19 Arab terrorist theory while the alternative media pussyfoots around, casting blame on the Bush administration and, of course, the Jews.

But, in truth, besides pointing fingers at tin-horn politicians, the trail leading to the real 9/11 puppet masters has been conveniently covered-up by their loyal minions working in the media, government and religious organizations.

And according to a number of credible researchers, the reason the truth about 9/11 will never be known is that "everybody is covering" for the evil masterminds working behind the scenes -- The Vatican and their henchmen in the Jesuit Order Gestapo.

However, recently the first chink in the Vatican's tightly knit and devious New World Order armor was made concerning 9/11 when Italian aristocrat and former high level Illuminati figure, Leo Zagami, began naming names, linking 9/11 to the Vatican and their Freemason followers.

Zagami, a former member of the powerful Monte Carlo P2 Lodge, claimed he had first hand information members of his lodge, including former P2 leader, Licio Gelli and Commandante Georgio Hugo Balestrieri had prior knowledge of 9/11 and even help orchestrate the attacks for their bosses in the Vatican and Jesuit Order.

"If you research Balestrieri and those around him, you will get to the truth about who caused 9/11 and it will lead right to the top people in the Vatican as well as Cardinal Egan and former New York Mayor Giuliani," said Zagami on a recent American radio appearance on Greg Szymanski's radio show, The Investigative Journal.

"These are the same people that caused the Bologna train station bombing and who used Italy as a test country for terrorism in the 1980's. Although Gelli is in his 80's now, he still is very powerful and well-connected to the Vatican and those other people like Kissinger and Michael Ledeen in America who are nothing more than Vatican puppets.

"Regarding Baestrieri, he has worked for them for a long time and used to control arms deals in the the Italian port of Livorno involving America, the Vatican and the Middle East. He now has been given American citizenship and is head of the New York Rotary Club. He also owns a company which takes care of airport security in U.S. airports."

Besides Zagami's firsthand knowledge, not much else is known about Gelli or Balestrieri other than Gelli was implicated in the infamous Vatican Bank scandal in the 1980's as well as being a close associate of former President Reagan and his cabinet, having been seen and photographed standing right behind Reagan at his inauguration.

"The both knew about 9/11 and their connections will lead to the real perpetrators, but they will never talk -- never!" added Zagami, who claimed that Balestrieri has placed him on his "blacklist" for talking.

However, a confidential source has sent more information to the Arctic Beacon about Balestrieri, saying the leads if thoroughly investigated, will fill in many of the missing pieces about 9/11 and other important matters concerning the Vatican-led New World Order.

Here is the recent information send by the confidential source. Note that B and GHB stand for Balestrieri:

Your analysis reg. G.H.B. was quite interesting. However, you only scratched the surface.

Here are some leads you might want to investigate further to put the puzzle pieces together. The information that is being share with you are all facts.

G.H.B. is a 'switched' off CIA/FBI asset. He was involved in so called anti drug operations for the US government. It was also through those channels that he obtained his US citizenship.

G.H.B's son was killed in an accident last Christmas in Italy. He had been an anti drug police officer who changed sides, became and addict, was hospitalized and jailed and then had the 'accident'.

G.H.B. has been, or still is, on a special Italian/Senate advisory job with special privileges, fronting for and probably spying his masters in the US.

It appear safe to assume that B is still involved in unauthorized technology transfer deals through his Italian/US connections. His alleged specialty is 'signals' / electronic eavesdropping equipment and other 'sniffer' electronics. He is 'using' www.rdn.it - Silvio Rononi to 'warehouse' for him.

Late last year he anchored himself into a situation in Rome/Italy. The Giacomo Maria Ugolini Foundation, set up by the legendary, Republic of San Marino ambassador Ugolini, who died in early 2006, that has its offices at www.villavecchia.it , a hotel / guest house near Frascati/Rome. The foundation's president is the ambassador's deputy Dr. Angelo Boccardelli, an artist and scholar, rather than a businessman. Villa Vecchia is practically bankrupt.

B. positioned himself as the international adviser to Dr. Boccardelli. Boccardelli has done extensive research on a sculpture alleged to have been carved by Michalangelo. This sculpture is owned by Boccardelli/the Ugolini Foundation.

B has taken Boccardelli to New York to promote and capitalize on the Michelangelo research results that Boccardelli hold. At the end of the Boccardelli interview, video clip you'll see B position himself with a comment that pretty much confirms all that has been stated here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ojNVJY4OVc

In spite of the fact that Boccardelli was ambassador Ugolini's right hand for decades, he is not a businessman and has pretty much no international experience, except for having been in Egypt, Jordan and Syria with the ambassador. Those were the countries Ugolini had been accredited for.

Boccardelli still holds diplomatic status with the Republic of San Marion. B is trying to gain diplomatic status using and instrumentalist Boccardelli so he can engage in activities under the protective umbrella that come with a person's diplomatic status. http://www.esteri.sm/default.asp?id=2195

A person that could probably give you very deep Italian insights is the Marchese Roberto Caldirola in Rome. A somewhat unique and colorful individual with a vast network in Rome. Caldirola can give you more in depth information due to his intimate knowledge of the Italian scene.

Through B's prominent involvement with the Rotary Club at the UN in NY City - Free Mason Light - he is instrumentalizing that avenue as well to keep a front of legitimacy. Within Rotary NY he is collaborating with a Turk - Kaan Soyak -, a wheeler dealer who is being used by certain groups within the Turkish power elite to facilitate 'certain' transactions between the US and Turkey. There is a connection with a NATO contract one of Soyak's companies hold in Turkey. B and Soyak organized a multi state conference in Turkey two years back where all the regional players got together, using Rotary and their Free Mason components to make that all happen. There were more than 400 people at that event.

B, being in his early/mid sixties , being a failure and left over from the cold war era, being personally bankrupt, he grabs any straw he can get to use others for his very own and short term gain. In how far he is being still 'used' by his former handlers is not known. Caldirola might be in a position to tell you more.

There is also a very interesting connection to an Italian lawyer Fabrizio De Silvestri in Turino. De Silveri's father and brother run a prominent private banking operation out of Monaco. They are most certainly all P2 members.

This is also a very well camouflaged connection to Opus Die and B.

Please note that most of the people are not aware who B really is and who he fronts for at any given time. This is especially true for Boccardelli /Ugolini Foundation.





By GainesvilleSun, Beppe Grillo, Xare420| 3 videos


ARTICLES 26-35

 

Il Tesserino della Loggia Monte Carlo e la Universal Unity...GLADIO

 
Il Tesserino della Loggia Monte Carlo 

 

 

 

 

 

SRIA (UK ILLUMINATI) SEP.2005 ELECTION RESULTS

 
SRIA results..........
Our new Supreme Magus – John Paternoster

Fratres all;
I am delighted to announce that we have elected a new Supreme Magus,
in the person of Right Worthy Frater John Paternoster, VIII° & 9°.
Those of you who know John or who read his manifesto will know that
the Electors have chosen a worthy Frater whose esoteric and leadership
qualities will, I trust, benefit us greatly in the years ahead. Our
thanks should go to our two other candidates, Michael Buckley and
Arthur Craddock, for the manner in which they have conducted
themselves throughout the electoral period. I know that the Society
will continue to benefit from their talents and experience in the
years ahead.
The official results are as follows:
Votes Cast: 211
Votes needed to win on first round: 107
First Round:
Michael Buckley: 89
Arthur Craddock: 54
John Paternoster: 68
There being no winner on the First Round, Arthur Craddock was
eliminated and his second preferences distributed as follows:
Michael Buckley: 8
John Paternoster: 42
No second preference 4
The final total was therefore:
Michael Buckley: 97
John Paternoster: 110
I therefore declare that John Paternoster is Supreme Magus Elect of
the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia.
I have been asked to stay on as Secretary-General which I have
accepted; a full list of High Council Officers will be posted shortly
once they have been contacted but the general rule will be to ask
Chief Adepts to stay in post.
I now call on all Fratres to work with John and his team in taking the
Society forwards, and building on our achievements so far. I feel we
have some excellent times ahead.
Fraternal best wishes to you all
Chris Forester
Secretary-General in Charge

il LIBRO NERO della massoneria del Fratello Roberto Amato della nuova P2

  
*Nella foto la Sorella Statunitense Rhonda Bachman illustre Gran Matron della Stella d'Oriente (Order of the Eastern Star) di cui suo bisnonno e' stato uno dei fondatori.
Le donne nascoste: il patto col diavolo
Il LIBRO NERO della massoneria, dall’Adamo androgino ai nostri giorni con documenti inediti.
Roberto Amato
Copertina:
Un libro esplosivo che rivela tante verità e consapevolezze nascoste, che tutti abbiamo nel nostro cuore.
Con questo libro rivendico un posto al sole alle sorelle, alle madri, alle mogli e alle figlie, che hanno lottato direttamente e indirettamente con tanto amore, tenacia , passione e che hanno sacrificato la propria vita e, fatto gravissimo, a volte hanno subito l’abbandono e la persecuzione di quei Fratelli che l’ignoranza e la paura avevano reso ciechi.
Una forzata amnesia massonica, non esclusivamente italiana, nel tentativo di avere quei tanti “riconoscimenti†esteri di regolarità massonica.
Un libro esplosivo: tante verità nascoste.
Per lunghi secoli una parte dell’Umanità è stata largamente ignorata dalla cultura e dalla letteratura: la donna insieme a tutto ciò che è connesso alle tematiche femminili.
Il susseguirsi degli eventi storici e le evoluzioni sociali hanno segregato la donna nei meandri più reconditi, riconoscendole a volte solo un ruolo simbolico o mitico.
Perché un libro dedicato alle donne nascoste?
La Massoneria, guidata dal cuore, dall’intelletto e dall’impegno attivo, non solo degli uomini, ma anche delle donne ha superato periodi di grande persecuzione sia da parte dei re in passato che dai governanti di destra o di sinistra nella storia recente. Le donne, in particolare, si sono sacrificate tanto per realizzare questo percorso iniziatico esoterico, e non lo hanno fatto per ricevere qualcosa in cambio, ma semplicemente per trasmetterlo agli altri con grande responsabilità.
Vorremmo che si riconoscesse alle sorelle il loro giusto valore e il ruolo determinante che hanno avuto nel nostro cammino di vita: la Libera Muratoria.
Con questo libro rivendichiamo un posto al sole alle sorelle, alle madri, alle mogli e alle figlie, che hanno lottato direttamente e indirettamente con tanto amore, tenacia , passione e che hanno sacrificato la propria vita e, fatto gravissimo, a volte hanno subito l’abbandono e la persecuzione di quei Fratelli che l’ignoranza e la paura avevano reso ciechi.
Una grande lotta per un unico diritto: il diritto all’uguaglianza iniziatica, un diritto fondamentale che, dopo migliaia di anni, ancora oggi non è accettato del tutto.
Un colleggio superiore di uomini “saggi†inserito nella Scuola della Natura; un angolo del Pianeta in cui vivere in assoluta libertà, tra uomini liberi da preconcetti e dogmi intellettuali, alla luce di una totale fratellanza e uguaglianza.
Le donne sono rimaste troppo a lungo nell’ombra e la letteratura non gli ha mai riconosciuto una testimonianza veritiera.
Una forzata amnesia massonica, voluta o imposta, non esclusivamente italiana, nel tentativo di avere quei tanti “riconoscimenti†esteri di regolarità massonica.
La società contemporanea, nonostante la divulgazione di internet – che incarna la Globalizzazione - che ha permesso l’accesso delle informazioni a uomini e donne, rimane sempre la chiusura mentale verso quest’ultime.
Sin dalla nascita, il ruolo femminile nella Massoneria era vissuto indirettamente, oggi esso ha un’importanza simile a quella maschile per le conquiste ottenute dalle donne nel sociale e nel privato.
Nonostante ciò, permangono sempre dei pregiudizi verso il sesso debole. Sin dalla creazione del genere umano, infatti, c’è stata inculcata l’inferiorità della donna perché l’uomo è stato creato direttamente da Dio e la donna deriva dalla carne dell’uomo.
“Allora Dio, il Signore, prese dal suolo un po’ di terra e, con quella, plasmò l’uomo.†“ Allora Dio, il Signore, fece scendere un sonno profondo sull’uomo, che si addormentò; poi gli tolse una costola e richiuse la carne al suo posto. Con quella costola Dio, il Signore, formò la donna e la condusse all’uomoâ€.
“Allora egli esclamò: < >. â€
Se si analizzano le materie prime della creazione, il fango e la carne, dobbiamo constatare che quest’ultima è più nobile rispetto alla prima.
In virtù di ciò si può affermare che la donna è più pura e più vicina a Dio, rispetto all’uomo.
La prova inconfutabile è dimostrata dal fatto che la perfezione delle donne è stata premiata con il concepimento e il dono della vita.
Questo pregiudizio verso le donne rappresenta un blocco mentale e sociale voluto che, come un muro di gomma, rimane difficile da sormontare.
Bisogna anche sottolineare che la forza di convincimento della donna risale proprio ad Adamo e Eva.
Infatti Eva, con la sua ascendenza convinse il primo uomo a prendere la sua stessa decisione che li portò alla “cacciata dall’Edenâ€.
E’ a questo errore d’origine che si rifanno tutte le autentiche società iniziatiche nel proporre l’iniziazione ai loro adepti.
Si vuole qui ricordare che, tradizionalmente e fin dalle più remote civiltà, la donna aveva diritto ad alcuni tipi di iniziazione al pari dell’uomo, ma non poteva trasmettere i poteri iniziatici.
Adamo ed Eva non sono stati essi stessi iniziati, dal loro Fattore o dal Serpente, a seconda dei punti di vista?
Un Gran Maestro di una nazione che ha subito una guerra civile di religione, recentemente, in una conferenza massonica affermava: “chi dimentica, non merita!â€.
Perche' io sono la prima e l'ultima,
Io sono la venerata e la disprezzata,
Io sono la prostituta e la santa,
Io sono la sposa e la vergine,
Io sono la mamma e la figlia,
Io sono le braccia di mia madre,
Io sono la sterile, eppure sono numerosi i miei figli.
Io sono la donna sposata e la nubile,
Io sono colei che da' la luce e colei che non ha mai procreato,
Io sono la consolazione dei dolori del parto.
Io sono la sposa e lo sposo,
E fu il mio uomo che mi creo'.
Io sono la madre di mio padre,
Io sono la sorella di mio marito,
Ed egli e' il mio figliolo respinto.
Rispettatemi sempre,
Poichè io sono la scandalosa e la magnifica.
(Ritrovato a Nag Hammadi)
Un cammino pieno di ostacoli partendo dall’Adamo androgino fino al dogma tutto italiano del 1969.
Adamo fu il primo “iniziatoâ€. Egli, fedele alle istruzioni ricevute da Dio, fondò l’equivalente della prima loggia.
Suo figlio Lamech (il cui nome significa forza) divenne il suo successore ed egli, a sua volta, iniziò i propri figli alla Legge Divina, i quali, alla luce della saggezza, fecero prodigiose scoperte.
Jubal … fece progredire la geometria, ed inoltre “ fu padre di coloro che suonano la cetra e la zampogna†(Genesi, iv, 21).
Tubalcain fondò i principi dell’Alchimia e dell’arte metallurgica e la loro sorella insegnò alle altre donne l’arte del tessile.
Ma l’umanità era destinata a dimenticare la parola di Dio e a cadere nelle tenebre dell’ignoranza. I figli di Lamech, prevedendo la catastrofe, incisero i risultati delle loro scoperte su due grandi colonne litiche che sfuggirono alla distruzione causata dal diluvio e, quando la collera divina si placò, un uomo chiamato Hermes o Hermorian, ebbe il compito di ritrovare i due pilastri e, una volta comprese le straordinarie rivelazioni che vi erano scolpite, decise di trasmetterle esclusivamente a chi fosse stato in grado di farle rifiorire.
Hermes si recò a Babilonia dove, dopo aver assunto il nome di Nemrod diede vita ad una nuova loggia e con l’aiuto dei nuovi Liberi Muratori edificò palazzi, torri e templi; la stessa cosa fece a Ninive ed infine inviò trenta fratelli in Oriente, affinché l’esoterismo massonico fosse diffuso in tutta la Terra. Nemrod esortò i suoi adepti ad amarsi vicendevolmente ed a venerare i Maestri che possedevono i segreti dell’arte. Quando morì, Dio lo trasformò in una stella. Ancora oggi, levando gli occhi verso il cielo, i massoni troveranno sempre la stella di Nemrod che guiderà i loro passi.
Invece secondo alcune leggende ebraiche, Adamo, il primo iniziato in Massoneria, doveva essere stato un androgino, prima che Eva si staccasse da lui e si rendesse autonoma.
La mitologia massonica va intesa quindi come insegnamento massonico e non come una mera ricostruzione storica.
L’esclusione della donna dalla Massoneria “regolare†– patente rilasciata solo dalla Gran Loggia Unita d’Inghilterra, e ad un solo Ordine massonico per singolo Stato – pone problemi o ipotesi di diversa natura.
Su questo tema Renè Guenon affermò: “…Come stavano le cose nel Medio Evo? Sicuramente non è impossibile che le donne fossero allora ammesse in alcune organizzazioni che possedevano un’iniziazione che si riferiva all’esoterismo cristiano, e ciò è del tutto verosimile; ma poiché tali organizzazioni sono fra quelle di cui da molto tempo non rimane più traccia, è ben difficile parlarne con sicurezza e in modo preciso e, in ogni caso, è probabile che non vi fossero in esse se non possibilità molto limitate. Quanto all’iniziazione cavalleresca, è anche troppo evidente che, a causa della natura, essa non potrebbe assolutamente convenire alle donne; e lo stesso è da dire delle iniziazioni di mestiere, o per lo meno delle più importanti fra di loro e di quelle che, in un modo o nell’altro, sono continuate fino ai nostri giorni. E’ qui, precisamente, la vera ragione dell’assenza di qualsiasi iniziazione femminile nell’Occidente attuale: tutte le iniziazioni che vi permangono sono essenzialmente fondate su mestieri il cui esercizio appartiene esclusivamente agli uomini.â€
Benché la presenza delle donne sia sempre stata negata, come evidenziato anche nel quarto articolo di Andersen, è più volte documentata.
Nella storia della Massoneria corporativa, infatti, si trovano segni che attestano che le donne erano ammesse nelle Gilde degli Artigiani, con parità di diritti e doveri.
In Francia il “Livre des Métiers†di Etienne Boileau (1268) prevedeva l’accesso delle donne nelle Corporazioni artigiane, e la loro elevazione al grado di Maestro, anche in mestieri manuali tradizionalmente maschili.
Nel 1375 si accerta, la presenza femminile nelle Gilde degli artigiani come in quelle dei carpentieri di Norwich, con Sabine De Steinbach, figlia del Maestro Architetto della cattedrale di Strasburgo.
Nel “Poema Regius†, il più antico e importante documento massonico datato 1390 circa, in nessun verso si evince l’esclusione delle donne; al contrario si parla più di una volta “…così ciascuno insegnava all’altro, e si amavano l’un altro come fratello e sorella…â€. Scritto in Middle English, non si può definire, a stretto rigore, una "Costituzione" sebbene abbia più elementi di una costituzione che non caratteri artistici di poesia.
I massoni operativi, nei tempi antichi, dovevano spostarsi dai loro luoghi di origine, vivere insieme e lavorare per diversi anni per dedicarsi alla costruzione degli edifici di culto. Nell’Antica Massoneria operativa, le persone di sesso femminile erano precluse dalle Corporazioni maschili, salva la eccezione di cooptare vedove e orfane di Maestri in caso di bisogno.
La donna è presente nelle tradizioni iniziatiche-corporative occidentali, a due livelli: esplicitamente come “sorella del mestiere†e come “vedova del maestroâ€, a cui venivano trasmessi i segreti dell’arte, affinché potesse sostituire la funzione del marito, fino al compimento dell’apprendistato del figlio, ed anche come “madre-ostessa†referente delle Confraternite locali per gli artigiani itineranti.
Bisogna rispettare la convinzione della Massoneria mondiale “regolareâ€, che esclude le donne in via di principio, ma abbiamo anche il dovere di riflettere sulle opinioni di quanti dissentono, specialmente di quelle comunioni massoniche - a torto o ragione considerate "irregolari" - che accolgono le donne tra le loro fila.
Peraltro, in considerazione anche della convinzione di molti massoni, la loro esclusione dalla massoneria non è proprio così scontata come potrebbe apparire, a tal punto che moltissime comunioni massoniche regolari di tutto il mondo hanno favorito la crescita e la divulgazione di strutture paramassoniche in cui è ammesso il sesso femminile: per ora solo mogli e parenti strette di massoni ma, col tempo, forse avverrà che tali associazioni possano accogliere le donne, prescindendo dai rapporti di parentela con i fratelli liberi muratori.
Smentita la prima affermazione sulla non presenza o l’esclusione delle donne nell’antica Massoneria Operativa, numerose fonti bibliografiche, hanno dimostrato che il Tardo Medioevo, contrariamente a quanto si crede, vide alcune donne raggiungere un notevole grado di emancipazione sociale e culturale.
Possiamo inoltre affermare che l’iniziazione massonica non è femminile o maschile, ma l’una è complementare all’altra come lo sono il sole e la luna.
Il Recipiendiario che si presta a diventare Apprendista Libero Muratore, nella cerimonia di iniziazione massonica, trova la realtà della donna “lunare†in quanto “ perfetta polarità contraria†a quella dell’uomo “solareâ€.
Riportiamo dal rituale per l’iniziazione del Grande Oriente d’Italia – Palazzo Giustiniani, di recente, il testo che è stato rielaborato dalla Commissione per i rituali nel 1998, al momento di procedere alla vestizio¬ne del neofita, il Maestro Venerabile conse¬gnandogli un secondo paio di guanti bianchi, gli fa presente:
“Fratello, essendo la nostra Iniziazione solare, le donne non sono ammesse ai nostri Lavori; tuttavia noi le rispettiamo e le onoriamo. Questi guanti sono destinati a Colei che rappresenta la tua polarità contraria, cioè quella lunare.â€
La presenza della polarità “femminile†e “maschile†non compare nel rituale dell’ Apprendista Libero Muratore del 1955 della Gran Loggia Nazionale dei Liberi Muratori d’Italia (GRANDE ORIENTE D’ITALIA).
Nello stesso si legge a pagina 36 :
“… vi ricordino questi guanti che le azioni del Libero Muratore debbono essere sempre pure e che egli mai deve macchiarsi di iniquità.â€
Vogliamo denunciare che un circolo molto ristretto di Fratelli che si richiamavano al G.O.I., ha apportato questa modifica nella revisione del rituale del 1969 per giustificare l’esclusione della donna. Dal 1969, infatti, la quasi totalità dei Fratelli non conosce questa modifica e ritiene il rituale in uso quello derivante dagli antichi Liberi Muratori. Fermo restando che successivamente alla modifica del 1969 – per la maggior parte dei Fratelli – l’iniziazione massonica è riservata solo agli uomini, quindi ha un carattere prettamente solare, non bisogna disconoscere – per non negare l’evidenza – l’importanza della donna quale opposto e complementare all’uomo.
Tale rimprovero è rivolto anche alle Sorelle delle organizzazioni massoniche femminili, miste e paramassoniche, che giustificano l’esclusione della donna nella polarità sole-luna. Per dimostrare tale affermazione riportiamo un pezzo del capitolo Fiorentino Beatrice della Stella d’Oriente:
“…La donna segue la via umida, la via lunare; al contrario del Sole, la Luna non irradia luce propria, ma senza il suo chiarore, riflesso di quello solare, le più profonde tenebre coprirebbero la Terra nelle ore notturne…â€
Dall’incontro degli opposti, nasce l’equilibrio e l’armonia di tutto ciò che esiste; senza il due, l’uno non creerebbe il tre, il simbolo della perfezione. Uomo o donna si completano a vicenda, il simbolo del loro complemento è dato dall’Androgino, la mitica creatura bisessuale, maschile a femminile allo stesso tempo.
Senza andare oltre in un simbolismo che continuamente richiama l’attenzione su di una incontrovertibile realtà, si può dire che la via solare seguita dal Massone doveva essere completata da un cammino accessibile alla sua compagna, non più facile, ma più pratico, che consentisse la proiezione degli ideali massonici fuori ed oltre il chiuso delle Logge….â€
Partendo dal presupposto che la Massoneria non accetta dogmi, come fa ad accettare questa modifica del 1969 divenuta negli ultimi trenta anni, il dogma massonico in Italia, e nelle zone dove ha interferito?
Siamo costretti così a confrontarci con questo dogma.
La Libera Muratoria
Sin dai tempi della antica Roma si intravedeva un’affinità tra i collegia fabrorum romani o corporazioni di mestiere, e le corporazioni medioevali di muratori, grazie alle maestranze bizantine o italiche (tra cui, i cosiddetti magisteri comacini) dell’alto Medioevo.
Non esistono però documenti che attestino l’esistenza della massoneria che risalgono all’epoca romana. La nascita della Massoneria come organizzazione può essere documentata solo nella Cristianità medievale. In quell’epoca infatti si costituirono molte confraternite di muratori, le prime attestazioni sono inglesi e scozzesi .
Nell’epoca della rivoluzione francese, la Massoneria è stata oggetto di pesanti attacchi da parte dei politici, del Vaticano, dei dittatori (di destra o di sinistra), della plutocrazia internazionale ed infine dei ciarlatani, avventurieri e mistificatori che sono sempre stati presenti nei consorzi umani.
Come conseguenza si è avuta la disgregazione e la frantumazione del Millenario Istituto, nonchè la deformazione, il travisamento, l’inquinamento e la degenerazione di esso.
Le migliaia di Liberi Muratori che hanno impugnato il maglietto, lo scalpello e gli altri strumenti muratori, per una scelta di vita, nella famiglia, nel lavoro, nell’impegno civile e sociale, non si rassegnano ad essere messi continuamente all’indice, guardati con sospetto, sbattuti sulle pagine dei giornali come orditori di trame, inquisiti per chi sa quali crimini, giudicati, nella più benevola delle ipotesi, come delle persone fuori dal tempo perché espressione di un anacronismo incomprensibile, che comunque desta sospetto.
“Nell’antica Massoneria una norma e un coerente modo di vivere riunivano tutti gli iniziati e con l’unico scopo di elevare il Tempio alla gloria di Dio e di trasporre la connessa esperienza spirituale in una adeguata simbologia. Nella moderna Massoneria codesto ideale è appannaggio di una sola della numerose correnti massoniche. Ci si trova dunque di fronte, nel momento attuale, a un’istituzione intellettuale e sociale è molto meno rilevante di quanto non si creda generalmente.â€
I libri che parlano dell' origine della massoneria "moderna", la descrivono così: Sul piano storico la moderna Libera Muratoria fissa la sua data di nascita al 24 Giugno 1717 in coincidenza con la costituzione della Gran Loggia Inglese, sorta dalla fusione delle quattro Logge preesistenti nella città di Londra.
La massoneria era sicuramente un'unica, ma non unitaria, organizzazione nella Cristianità medievale ed anzi, nelle isole britanniche, era giunta tardi, importata dal continente all'epoca dei Maestri Comacini.
In verità da un piccolo "scisma" nel 1717 dal corpus degli "operativi" (ANCIENTS), si staccarono quattro Logge, che costituirono la GRAND LODGE of LONDON il 24 giugno del 1717 ( il giorno quindi di S. Giovanni, che diventa il santo patrono della Massoneria Inglese); non più dunque operativa ma, com'era esplicitamente affermato "speculativa"(MODERNS). La maggior parte dei membri dello scisma erano tutti o comunque vicini alla ROYAL SOCIETY o "espulsi" dagli Operativi di Londra, su disposizione del Wren. Furono espulsi nel 1715: Anderson, Payne (2°GM, 1718; 4°GM, 1720), Teofilo Dèsaguliers (3°GM, 1719), Johnson, Stuard, Antony Sayer (1°GM), Entick, Montagu.
Da quella scissione i privilegi e la Tradizione iniziatica dei Liberi Muratori non saranno più solo appannaggio esclusivo dei massoni, ma uomini con diverse professioni verranno chiamati a gioirne.
La nuova massoneria fu più adatta all'esportazione di quello spirito "mondialista" e "missionario" amanti del nuovo trinomio : Scienza, Progresso e Conoscenza, dentro i non troppi rigidi confini di quella che Anderson chiamò – “The Costitutions of The Free Massonsâ€, London 1723, “most ancient and worshipful Fraternitàâ€: si riconoscevano fratelli quanti in nome della esclusiva ragione miravano a combattere l’ignoranza e la superstizione.
L'unione delle due Grandi Logge fu raggiunto il 27 Dicembre del 1813, dopo 96 anni, quando fu tenuta la Grand Assembly of Freemasons for the Union of the Two Grand Lodges of England , con l'elezione a Gran Maestro del Duca di Sussex che l'anno successivo fu installato 1° Gran Maestro dell' United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE).
I "liberi muratori" - Antients - erano l'insieme dei "muratori" che godevano di certe "franchigie" (da qui "liberi" o "franchi" muratori; "libera" o "franca" muratoria), e che giravano per i vari paesi europei soprattutto per costruire chiese ed edifici pubblici. I "liberi muratori" sono stati per secoli al servizio dei principi e dei Papi. Bonifacio IV (1110) , Niccolò III (1277) e Benedetto XII (1331), riconobbero loro il diritto di governarsi secondo i propri statuti con esenzioni da oneri e obbligazioni locali, di potersi trasferire di paese in paese liberamente, di godere di una specie di monopolio per la costruzione di fabbricati religiosi di maggiore importanza. Non era mai accaduto che venissero condannati dagli uni o dagli altri, anzi "l'arte muratoria", comprendeva oltre l'architettura anche la raffigurazione del sacro .
I più dimenticano che un tempo si dava inizio ai lavori in nome della Santissima e Indivisibile Trinità. Invece con la nascita della "massoneria moderna" o degli aristocratici "liberi pensatori" per opera di alcuni pastori protestanti, giunse a breve la prima condanna scomunica del 4 maggio 1738, con la bolla “in eminenti apostolatus speculaâ€, di S.S. Clemente XII.
La continuità storica della Craft libero muratorie seppero conservarsi in Gran Bretagna, in Scozia ed in Irlanda, con diverse caratterizzazioni fra loro.
Nella seconda metà del 1600 nelle Craft c.d. “operative†scozzesi ed inglesi finirono per innestarsi il movimento Rosacroce ed altre correnti Umanistiche ed Ireniste nonché correnti Ermetico-Alchemiche, Deiste,Teiste, Latitudinarie, pre-Illuministiche, nel crogiuolo della grande stagione della filosofia inglese.
Con la creazione della c.d. Logge di Accettazione , nacque con la Gran Loggia di Londra del 1717 e con i poli di York e di Edinburgo, la Massoneria Moderna simbolica o speculativa in senso filosofico.

In definitiva, dal punto di vista di chi optava per la regolarità iniziatica e pertanto tradizionale dell'Istituzione "SPECULATIVA" e cioè dei "liberi pensatori", si può certamente dire che la Libera Muratoria moderna nacque con il piccolo "scisma" massonico di Londra del 1717. Questa è l'origine della Massoneria che dà le patenti di “regolarità†alle altre Massonerie “regolari†del mondo.
La Massoneria Universale oggi si riconosce nei principi dettati dalla Gran Loggia Unita d’Inghilterra nei quali si richiamano saldamente i legami fra la Massoneria antica e la Massoneria moderna.
Nel 2005, nasce a Londra la REGULAR GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND
ANCIENT AND HONOURABLE FRATERNITY OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS.
(ed ecco spuntare di nuovo Rui Gabirro e la sua nuova P2)
Conoscere i “Landmarks†e confrontarli.
Può suscitare meraviglia soprattutto al non iniziato, il fatto che la massoneria “regolareâ€, di influenza anglosassone, pur predicando la tolleranza e l’uguaglianza, non ammetta donne tra le sue fila e che questo divieto sia persino un “Landmarks†per i massoni.
La parola “Landmark†è di origine germanica ed è composta, da “Land†che significa terra e da “mark†che significa traccia, segno.
Nella lingua inglese la parola “Landmark†indica un oggetto cospicuo che contraddistingue una località, o definisce il confine di un territorio. Erano appunto quei segni di antichissima origine che servivano a delimitare i confini tra l’una e l’altra proprietà, e la loro rimozione o manomissione è, da sempre, considerata grave crimine.
“Non sposterai i termini del tuo prossimo, posti dai tuoi antenati, nell’eredità che avrai nel paese di cui l’Eterno, il tuo Dio, ti dà il possessoâ€.
Il fatto che tali segni fossero costituiti, normalmente, da pietre di medio - grandi dimensioni confisse verticalmente nel terreno, ha fatto, con ardita metafora, dire a più d’uno che essi siano le colonne su cui poggia l’Istituzione Massonica.
L’articolo XXXIX° dei Regolamenti Generali, contenuto nelle Costituzioni dei Liberi Muratori di James Anderson - tradotti, adottati, citati o riportati integralmente da tutte le obbedienze del mondo, persino dai gruppi massonici non riconosciuti quali regolari – dice: “Ciascuna Gran Loggia annuale ha in sé il potere e l’autorità di fare nuove norme o di modificarle nel reale interesse della antica Fraternità, purchè gli antichi LANDMARKS siano sempre scrupolosamente mantenuti…â€.
Con ciò, il Dr. Anderson introdusse per la prima ed ultima volta il concetto di Landmarks, non precisando quali fossero nelle Ordinanze Generali, che furono approvate a Londra nel 1721, il giorno di S. Giovanni Battista.
Nel linguaggio corrente inglese, Landmark viene usato per significare genericamente limite, confine, punto di riferimento. I primi legislatori della Massoneria moderna nel 1723, utilizzano il sostantivo “Landmark†con il significato di “limiteâ€, “confineâ€.
“Le persone ammesse come membri di una Loggia devono essere uomini buoni e sinceri, nati liberi e di età matura e discreta, non schiavi non donne, non uomini immorali o scandalosi, ma di buona reputazioneâ€.
Anderson esclude le donne dall’iniziazione Massonica al pari degli schiavi e degli uomini immorali o scandalosi.
Nell’edizione successiva del 1738, del New Book of Constitutions del Dottor James Anderson, si legge nei III Dovere Concernente le Logge : “ Gli uomini fatti Massoni devono essere nati liberi ( e non schiavi), di età matura e di buona reputazione, sani e forti, non deformi o mutilati al tempo della loro ammissione e non donne, non eunuchiâ€.
In questa successiva stesura si paragona lo status iniziatico della donna del tempo pari a quella degli eunuchi. Si sposta il focus dell’attenzione dalle donne associate prima agli schiavi poi alle deformità fisiche e infine agli eunuchi.
In soli quindici anni, l’evoluzione femminile viene bloccata, la donna viene considerata al pari di una mutilazione fisica.
In un’ antico documento francese del 1735-6, l’Art. 3 dal titolo: In quel che riguarda le Logge, si legge: “Coloro che sono ammessi membri di una Loggia devono essere di grande fedeltà, di nascita libera e di età ragionevole: uno schiavo, o un uomo di costumi scandalosi o riprovevoli non può essere ammesso nella fratellanza. Le donne ne sono pure escluse, ma a causa degli effetti che il loro merito produce troppo sovente tra i migliori fratelliâ€
I toni cambiani nel documento francese, intermedio alle due pubblicazioni inglesi di Anderson del 1723 e 1738: il documento, troppo sconosciuto, ma ancora attuale, mette in risalto la “gelosia†di molti Fratelli dinanzi alle capacità e all’operatività delle sorelle.
Per altri Ordini Iniziatici – vedi Martinez de Pasqually - , non esistevano quelle ragioni adottate dai Massoni per non ammettere le donne nel lontano 1770, e cioè la frivolezza, le indiscrezioni, le possibili rivalità amorose che potevano portare nel tempio tutto quello che era profano.
Il Martinismo accettava le donne ma andavano tenute sotto continuo controllo. (cos’è il martinismo).
I Canoni fondamentali dell’Ordine Massonico , i Landmarks, dal termine usato all’ art. 39 del “Libro delle Costituzioni†dell’Anderson, non furono mai ufficialmente stabiliti e accettati, fino alla proposta del MACKEY del 1858, Gran Segretario del Supremo Consiglio Mother ecc, pubblicata nella “American Quarterly Rewiew of Freemasonryâ€.
Il Mackey, nel commentare il XVIII dei suoi Landmarks, afferma
18-Un candidato alla iniziazione deve essere uomo, nato libero, non mutilato e di età matura.
(Dai Landmarks secondo MACKEY 1858.)
Egli non fa cenno più all’esclusione della donna come fatto penalizzante, al pari delle mutilazioni fisiche e dell’età.
Riportiamo alcuni limiti o confini, che sono stati trascritti e adottati negli anni successivi alle Costituzioni inglesi scritte nel 1723, che si ricollegano al nostro argomento, dove l’essere donna non era più una pregiudiziale, una menomazione o una schiavitù:

il nono Landmarks della Gran Loggia del Minnesota 1856, afferma che:
“ I Massoni devono essere di età matura, nati liberi, di buona fama e robusti e sani, non deformi o mutilati e non eunuchiâ€.
Il quarto Landmarks secondo Findel del 1871 afferma:
“I candidati debbono essere probi e pacifici cittadini ed aver compiuto la maggiorità; debbono essere di ineccepibile moralità e reputazione; aver corretto costume e condotta irreprensibile, e debbono godere della pienezza delle loro facoltà intellettuali. Le Logge debbono prendere su di essi, prima di ammetterli, tutte le informazioni necessarie.â€
Il diciassettesimo dei Landmarks secondo Roscoe Pound del 1919, afferma:†Il Massone deve essere un maschio adulto, nato liberoâ€.
In altri termini i fondamenti giuridici dell’ortodossia massonica sarebbero il rispetto di questi Antichi Doveri (Old Charges), cioè delle norme tradizionali trasmesseci dalle antiche corporazioni dei muratori.
Nella “ History of Freemasonry and Masonic Digest†(Vol. II), J. W. Michel scrive:
“I Landmarks della Massoneria sono quelle leggi immemorabili che sono state tramandate di epoca in epoca e da generazione in generazione senza che nessuno ne conosca l’esatta origine e senza che nessuno avesse il diritto di alternarle o cambiarle. Essi consistono nelle fondamentali leggi scritte e non scritte della Società. I Landmarks non scritti comprendono tutti quei rituali essenziali e insegnamenti della Loggia che non possono essere appresi altrove. I Landmarks scritti sono 6 e si trovano negli Old Charges di un Libero Muratore nella Costituzione Inglese stampata e pubblicata nel 1723â€
Le sopravvissute nella storia massonica
Come leggeremo, non esiste un solo caso isolato di iniziazione femminile in Europa nel XVII secolo, ciò fa intendere quanto forte era la pressione delle nobil donne, malgrado i divieti, di ottenere la loro ammissione tra le fila della Libera Muratoria.
Nello Statuto della Loggia Massonica di York del 1693 si riporta che: â€Colui o colei che deve essere fatto massone pone le mani sul libro…â€
La catena tradizionale di tali ammissioni femminili continua fino agli albori della Massoneria speculativa.
Ad esempio è documentata che nel 1663 venne associata alla “Compagnia Londinese Dei Liberi MuratorI†una tale Margaret Wild, vedova. Nel 1714 nel sud dell’Inghilterra, un’altra donna Mary Banister fece apprendistato come Massone per sette anni, pagando alla Compagnia la dovuta somma di 5 pence.
Il caso più famoso è quella della duchessa irlandese Elizabeth St. Leger, o, come in seguito è diventata, dopo il matrimonio, l’On. Sig.ra. Aldworth, alla quale ci si riferisce a volte, anche se erroneamente, come "l’unica donna che ha ottenuto l’onore dell'iniziazione nei misteri di sublimazione della Massoneriaâ€.
L’On. Elizabeth St. Leger era una figlia del primo visconte Doneraile o Doneraille, un residente di Cork. Suo padre era un Massone molto zelante e, come era l'abitudine del suo tempo - la prima parte del diciottesimo secolo - ha tenuto una riunione di Loggia occasionale in casa sua, assistito dai membri maschi della sua famiglia e di tutti i fratelli nella vicinanza immediata e dagli ospiti. Questa Loggia era registrata regolarmente al Numero Distintivo 150 sul registro della Gran Loggia dell'Irlanda.
La storia racconta di un pomeriggio prima dell’iniziazione di un signore chiamato Coppinger, la Sig.na St. Leger si era nascosta nella stanza adiacente a quella usata come stanza del Tempio. Questa stanza a quel tempo aveva delle alterazioni e la sig.na St. Leger si dice rimosse un mattone dal divisorio con le sue forbici e attraverso l'apertura divenne testimone della cerimonia d’iniziazione.
L’aver visto il rituale d’iniziazione la turbò tanto che immediatamente si diede alla fuga, ma non riuscì ad eludere la vigilanza del custode della Loggia il Copritore Esterno che, munito di una spada riuscì ad arrestarne la fuga. Lei strillò allarmando i membri della Loggia, che arrivarono correndo, e scoprirono che era stata testimone di tutta la cerimonia appena terminata. Dopo una lunga discussione e cedendo alle suppliche di suo fratello – ma ritengo all’alto lignaggio del padre visconte -, decisero di ammetterla nell'Ordine e fu iniziata regolarmente, e, nel corso degli anni, è diventata per capacità la Maestra Venerabile della Loggia.
Nel libro stampato a Napoli nel 1746 “Relazione della Compagnia de’ Liberi Muratori†a pagnia XVIII leggiamo:
“Dopo la risposta se li scopre la gola per vedere se a caso fosse femmina, e però delicatamente si tenta all’interno con la mano per riconoscere se vi è prominenza, e si fanno ancora altre osservazioni; perché alle volte vi potrebbe essere dell’inganno per la curiosità di qualche donna, che travestita, sotto la sembianza di giovinetto, si introducesse nell’Assemblea, come nella Loggia di Ginevra accadde l’anno 1735, in cui Madamosella Chatillon tentò travestendosi di penetrare.
Era questa una donzella, che compito non aveva per anche il ventunesimo anno dell’età sua. Aggiungeva ella al pregio d’una non mediocre beltà quello d’uno spirito assai pronto e vivace. Il suo portamento era serio; e di statura alta, e ben formata, e compressa appariva. Ella era servita ed amata da un giovine Cavaliere di qualità, il quale sovente gli addiceva per motivo di partirsi da lei la necessità, che aveva di ritrovarsi nella Conversazione de’ Liberi Muratori. La damigella, che era avezza ad essere a parte d’ogni più intimo suo segreto, non poteva soffrire, che il Cavaliere, solo per questo, avesse mutato il suo costume. Quindi è, che si accese, sempre più di desiderio per quello, che le veniva costantemente celato. Le riuscì dunque con alcune industriose maniere d’essere introdotta, e presentata, per essere ammessa alla Conversazione, lusingandosi di potersi nasconder sotto finto abito, e nome mentito. Non pensò, che qualche altra cosa, oltre la mutazione della veste, le sarebbe stata necessaria per poter condurre a buon fine l’impresa risoluzione. Quindi è, che fatte le prime cerimonie, e portatasi sempre con coraggio, la gentile fanciulla non potè non restare sorpresa, e impallidire, quando alla presenza del Venerabile Gran Maestro si vidde sbottonare il giustacuore, e scorre la goletta. Voleva far resistenza, le tremava la mano, e si leggeva nel pallore del volto la confusione, e il timore. Nono si stette per questo di proseguire il suo offizio quel Fratello, cui era stato commesso, ma ben tosto toccò con mano il gentile inganno della dama ingegnosa. Rimase egli stupito ed attonito esclamando: O sogno, o questa è una femmina. Ma certificatisi tutti dell’inganno, e dissimulando il disgusto concepitone, dopo un dolce rampognamento, si sforzò ciascuno di farle finezza ed onori, per quanto comportavano le circostanze, e l’istituto, del luogo. Il Gran Maestro poi così le prese a dire: Voi siete l’unica tralle femmine, che possa darsi il vanto d’aver penetrato nelle nostre Conversazioni. Noi conosciamo il vostro merito, lodiamo il vostro spirito, e siamo ammiratori di esso; ma dall’altro canto siamo molto osservanti del nostro istituto per non esservi più compiacenti. Voglio però che vi resti memoria di noi, e della nostra Confraternita, e del nostro impegno. Così dicendo ordinò, che le fosse regalato un paro di Guanti, un Martello, e una Squadra. Dopo questo fatto in memoria della tentata Muratoria, volendola congedare fu servita di sorbetti e d’orzate, e presentandole il Gran Maestro una Pistola corta, così le ragionò: E’ nostra costituzione, valorosa donzella, di non poter alcuno di noi partirsi dalla Loggia se non dopo terminati tutti i nostri uffizi; quindi è, che mi duole gravemente, che non possiate a quest’ora restar servita di compagnia né da me, né da alcun altro di questi gentiluomini; perciò prevaletevi in vostro bisogno di quest’arme, che congiunta al magnanimo vostro spirito vi renderà sicura da ogni oltraggio. Ella rese le più distinti grazie a quella gentil Conversazione, premendo nell’animo il dolore di non essere pervenuta al suo fine; e accompagnata da i due gentiluomini Sopravegghianti, e dal Gran Maestro, fino alla porta se ne partì.â€
Nel XVIII° Secolo, almeno due corporazioni femminile, quella delle spillaie e le cappellaie sarebbero state affiliate al Compagnonaggio francese – “Compagnonnage†che, rappresentava rispetto alle Antiche Corporazione di Mestiere, un’attività edilizia inferiore ed a livelli di manovalanza .
In Inghilterra, il 25 Gennaio 1723/4 sotto forma di lettera anonima, venne pubblicato sul Read’s Weekly Journal “La Congrega delle Sorelle Libere Cucitrici 1724â€.
“Allorquando Eva Progenitrice inventò per prima l’Ago al fine di mettere insieme le Foglie di Fico, il Cucire non servì a nascondere la Nudità sua e quella di suo Marito. In progresso di tempo, le sue Discendenti fecero diventare quella del Cucire, che intendeva soltanto proteggere la Nudità, una vera e propria Arte Ornamentale. Perciò, non solo l’Ago, ma lo Spillo, lo Spillone, il Filo, il Ditale e molti altri Strumenti furono usati, grazie ai quali la accorta e operosa Sorellanza ottenne notevole Lucro e grande Reputazione.â€
“… Meriterebbero di essere chiamate Filo-Matematiche, essendo grandi Amanti, nonché fautrici, di tali Scienze. Particolarmente versate nel Comporre e Scomporre. Lo stesso Fidia non riuscì a superare molte Sorelle nel Rilievo, poiché esse operano al Vivo. Sono profondamente attaccate ai Liberi Muratori, e a tutti quelli che lavorano la Pietra, e si vantano che è sempre la Corporazione delle Sorelle Cucitrici a Rifornire e Popolare i tanti edifici eretti dalla Fratellanza dei Liberi Muratoriâ€.
La morale massonica: Il XVIII secolo e Le logge d’adozione
“Sui costumi dei Liberi Muratori circolarono nel secolo XVIII voci infamanti: essi, si diceva, banchettavano spesso e non ammettevano le donne… Si erano meritati gli elogi dell’autore dei Praise of drunkenness ( Elogio dell’ubriachezza) e nel 1730 un certo Peter Farmer pubblicava una satira, New Model for the Rebuilding Masonry on a stronger basis than the former, in cui figurava una canzone, “Let malicius people censure†col sottotitolo: “A song made by a mason, occasion’d by a report that they were guilty of sodomitical practicesâ€. Anderson stesso, nei “Songs†che pubblica in appendice all’edizione del 1738 delle Costituzioni, crede di dover inserire un Sword-bearer’s Song (Canto del portaspada) di protesta:
Noi abbiamo pietà di questi sciocchi
Che credono impure le nostre azioni;
noi sappiamo che è dalla loro ignoranza che procede
un’opinione così meschina dei nostri atti.â€
Al rimprovero dell’omosessualità e alcolismo, non fu la massoneria inglese ma precisamente la massoneria continentale che trovò la buona risposta e la “grazia†propria del XVIII secolo francese, creando per le donne la “massoneria d’adozioneâ€.
I liberi Muratori Francesi, nel XVIII secolo, danno accesso alle donne con l’ adozione, creano uno spazio misto entro riunioni specifiche e separate da una Loggia esclusivamente maschile.
Nel 1730 operavano già delle Logge d’Adozione ( Loges d’Adoption).
I riti della Massoneria femminile sono “androgeniâ€, cioè, uomini e donne si trovavano in comune nelle logge di adozione, e insieme prendevano parte ai “lavoriâ€. Non fu mai concesso a donna di prendere parte ai “lavori†della Massoneria maschile o dar luogo a logge tutte femminili.
La Massoneria di “adozioneâ€, denominata anche “androginaâ€, ebbe vari ordini e riti tra i più citati: Ordine dei sette savi, Ordine del Palladio, Rito delle Scozzesi di perfezione, Rito di Monte Tabor, Rito di Mopse, Rito della Felicità, Rito della Rosa, Rito degli amanti del piacere.
La loro esistenza veniva però taciuta ai massoni col grado di apprendista. La prima comparsa di queste logge avvenne in Francia ( e sono il frutto evidente del mondano spirito francese) che lavoravano sotto gli auspici della GRANDE LOGE DE FRANCE.

Soltanto nel 1770 la Massoneria femminile venne convalidata dai debiti statuti. Il riconoscimento ufficiale ha la data del 1774.
Da un documento dell’epoca, DAMES MACONNIèRES , si apprende che originariamente la Massoneria femminile, sotto la denominazione di “Logge d’adozioneâ€, si costituì su due sole classi: nella prima venivano comprese le dame “virtuoseâ€, nella seconda le “volubiliâ€. Una classe doveva operare all’insaputa della esistenza dell’altra.
La direzione delle logge femminili era di pertinenza degli uomini. Precisa il documento†I fratelli incaricati di dirigerle faranno loro pervenire le lezioni senza farsi conoscere. Guideranno le prime [ LE VIRTUOSE] con letture di buoni libri (Rousseau, Voltaire, Diderot, Mirabeau), e le altre col formarle all’arte di soddisfare segretamente le loro passioniâ€
La esistenza di questi cenacoli venne per la prima volta denunciata nel 1882 dalla rivista dell’Ordine dei Gesuiti “Civiltà Cattolicaâ€.
Nel libro “ la massoneria delle donne, regolamento e rituali (1730-1780)â€, troviamo scitto:
“ Le prime tracce accettabile di una Muratoria con le donne appartengono proprio al decennio 1730-40. Tra le più significative, una Marcia della Libero Muratore attribuita a un membro della Loggia Coutos-Villeroy, datata 1737 e lettere private che dicono, per esempio: “ La signora Contessa di Grandville ha messo a parte della vostra lettera tutta la fratellanza, ma nessun membro di quel corpo è stato così ardito da rispondere, malgrado le sue sollecitudineâ€, o : “Non dimenticatevi di me presso la signora, la vostra cara Libero Muratoreâ€. Le tracce divengono più esplicite nel decennio seguente. Nel 1747 la loggia Saint-Julien di Brioude, Haute Loire, arricchisce i propri numeri con numerose signore della nobiltà – “Quella fu la sola seduta straordinaria, dice il segretario, nella quale furono ricevute delle donneâ€.
Dal libro “Rituali e Società Segreta†edizioni Convivio, a pag 460 riportiamo l’Obbligazione della Massoneria di Adozione del Grado 1° Apprendente:
“Io giuro e prometto solennemente, in presenza di questa Venerabile Assemblea, di conservare e custodire fedelmente nel mio cuore tutti i segreti dei Massoni e della Massoneria di Adozione che mi saranno confidati, e di sottopormi ai Regolamenti e usi di questa Loggia, sotto pena di essere disonorata se manco alla mia Obbligazione.
In questo caso acconsento di essere colpita dalla Spada dell’Angelo Sterminatore. Così, per garantirmene, possa una porzione del fuoco, che risiede nella più alta regione del cielo, discendere nell’anima mia per accenderla e purificarla, rendendola degna di penetrare nei più segreti sentieri della virtù. Così siaâ€.
All’obbligazione delle Dame di Adozione, mettiamo a confronto il Giuramento maschile inglese del Libero Muratore del 1730 circa:
Io Qui solennemente Prometto e Giuro alla Presenza di Dio Onnipotente e di questa Rispettabilissima Assemblea, che Celerò e Occulterò e giammai Rivelerò i Segreti dei Muratori o della Muratoria, che mi saranno confidati; salvo che a un Sincero e Legittimo Fratello, dopo debito Esame, o in una Rispettabile Loggia giusta e perfetta di fratelli e Compagni.
Io inoltre prometto e Giuro, che non li metterò in Iscritto, non li Stamperò, Marcherò, Scolpirò, o Inciderò, né che li lascerò mettere in Iscritto, Stampare, Marchiare, Scolpire o Incidere su legno o Pietra, sicchè possano illecitamente ottenersi, sia pure per l’apparire di un Carattere o di una Impressione.
Tutto questo sotto Pena non inferiore a quella di avere la Gola Tagliata, la Lingua sradicata, il Cuore strappato dal lato Sinistro del mio Petto, e seppellito a una Gomena dalla Riva nelle Secche Marine, là dove la marea monta e cala due volte nelle 24 ore, il mio Corpo ridotto in Cenere, e le Ceneri sparse sulla faccia della terra, sicchè non rimanga di me Traccia veruna fra i Muratori.
E che Iddio mi assista.
Quello che oggi come allora, scandalizza i più, è come persone di grande rispetto e considerazione si sottoponessero al giuramento o a una obbligazione così solenne, sotto pena di conseguenze così terribili.
La Massoneria d’Adozione o Mista comparve in Francia nel 1730; e successivamente si fondarono in seguito molti riti diversi.
Pour DUCHAINE, deux ateliers féminins furent fondés à Mons, un à Tournai, un à Alost et deux à Bruxelles. Il précise aussi que la Maçonnerie d'adoption était régulière et reconnue par la Grande Loge de Londres. Il cite, à titre de preuve, le procès-verbal d'une tenue du 29 janvier 1778. Il s'agit d'une tenue de la Vraie et Parfaite Harmonie à l'Orient de Mons en présence du F:. Dillon, député Grand Maître de toute les loges anglaises. Cette tenue au grade de Maître est suspendue pour procéder à l'initiation d'une soeur en loge d'adoption et le tracé de cette cérémonie est inséré au procès verbal (10).......
Per DUCHAINE, due Logge femminili furono fondati a Mons, una a Girai, una ad Alost e due a Bruxelles. Precisa anche che la Muratura di adozione era regolare e riconosciuta per il Grande Loggia di Londra. Cita, a titolo di prova, il verbale di una tenuta del 29 gennaio 1778. Si tratta di una tenuta della Rispettabile Loggia “Vera e Perfetta Armonia†all'Oriente di Mons in presenza del F:. Dillon, deputato Grande Maestro di tutte le Logge inglesi. Questa tenuta al grado di Maestro Libero Muratore – terzo grado simbolico- è sospesa per procedere all'iniziazione di una sorella ospite di adozione ed il tracciato di questa cerimonia è inserito nel verbale di Loggia (10).......
Sempre in Francia, ampio proselitismo massonico femminile si ha nella corte di Luigi XVI; nel 1786 Maria Teresa di Savoia – Carignano, dama di corte del sovrano, assunse la Gran Maestranza delle Logge Femminili di Rito Scozzese.
Degli ordini che imitavano la Massoneria nacquero, per seguire la moda francese del tempo : si ebbe così l’â€Ordine della Felicitàâ€, l’â€Ordine della Rosaâ€, e altri ancora. Vi si “fraternizzava†tra grandi signori e attrici dell’Opera.
“Per eludere l’anatema lanciata da Clemente XII, i Liberi Muratori tedeschi fondarono l’Ordine dei Mopsi (Mops in tedesco significa significa cane alano giovane), nel quale “tutti i membri dovevano essere cattolici romaniâ€, come ci dice l’autore dell’â€Ordine dei Liberi muratori tradito†“ma essi sono molto tiepidi su questo argomentoâ€. Il rituale imitava il rituale massonico perfino nei particolari.
Così il profao doveva “raspare†alla porta della loggia. Un fratello gli metteva attorno al collo un collare di cui gli spiegavano il simbolismo, nello stesso modo col quale un venerabile spiegava quello del grembiulino.â€
Nello stesso periodo, si ha la presenza di una prima massoneria mista con il famoso Rito Egizio di Cagliostro, a partire dalla città di Bordeaux (1783), che diede una svolta fondamentale nella storia della Massoneria e all’ esoterismo in generale.
Il Rito Egiziano di Cagliostro
Il Rito Egiziano di Cagliostro è il primo movimento Libero Muratorio di grande spessore che và in senso contrario alla società del tempo.
Nel corso della sua storia, la Massoneria ha ammesso una sola persona di sesso femminile ad essere partecipe delle onoranze della Corporazione, cioè la Regina o Balkis di Saba , la cui effige si trova nelle Cattedrali tedesche insieme a quella del più potente dei re, di Re Salomone. Dalla loro unione nascerà la stirpe reale ed iniziatica etiopica (custode dell’Arca dell’ Alleanza?).Un antico manoscritto etiopico, il Kebra Nagast narra che, quando il figlio di Salomone non ancora adulto andò a far visita a suo padre a Gerusalemme, con le astuzie ereditate dalla madre gli portò via alcuni, “carri volanti†e la famosa Arca dell’Alleanza che poi avrebbe nascosto in Etiopia.

A lei si ispirò Cagliostro quando, si proclamò Gran Cofto del “Rito Egizioâ€, e nominò Regina di Saba Lorenza Feliciani affidandole la Gran Maestranza delle Logge Femminili da lui iniziate annesse ai luoghi di riunione del Rito ( Misraim).
Giuseppe Balsamo ebbe forse i primi approcci con la Massoneria a Malta, ma fu iniziato solo il 12 Aprile del 1777, quando, a Londra, vide la Luce nella Loggia n° 289: "L'Esperance". Questa Officina che si riuniva alla Royal Taverne, apparteneva alla "Stretta Osservanza" e non godeva di grande prestigio, dato che accoglieva persone di livello sociale medio-basso. Con Cagliostro ricevettero il crisma anche Serafina Feliciani, Giuseppe Ricciarelli, Pierre Boileau e il Maestro Venerabileconsegnò loro una giarrettiera con inciso il motto "Unione, silenzio, virtù".
L'anno dopo il massone Cagliostro era già famoso, fu infatti accolto all'Aja con grandi onori dalla Loggia "L'indissolubile", dove tenne un'orazione di tre ore, nel corso della quale parlò diffusamente del Rito Egiziano al quale stava lavorando. I Fratelli olandesi gli chiesero di erigere una Loggia d'adozione, dove si potesse operare secondo il nuovo rito. La richiesta fu subito accolta e Cagliostro rilasciò il diploma di fondazione della Loggia mista di cui fu nominata "Prima Ispettrice" Serafina.Il Rito Egiziano che ormai cominciava ad albeggiare, si andò precisando negli anni successivi, grazie a continui incontri ed esperienze che l'Italiano ebbe in mezza Europa.
Nel 1779 fu iniziato, all'Ordine rosacrociano "dell'Oro" che riprendeva la celebre leggenda del XVII°; poco più tardi entrò in contatto con la setta di Adam Weishaupt, basata sullo spiritismo e sulla teurgia, quindi divenne un seguace del Benedettino Dom Pernety. Il suo rito prevedeva lo stato di trance, tramite il quale l'officiante, veniva illuminato da un angelo custode che gli comunicava la parola sacra. Questo miscuglio di Massoneria e magia evocativa, affascinò Cagliostro che divenne un fedele di Pernety ed ebbe, per ricompensa, la direzione della Loggia.
Tali esperienze, insieme ad un'improbabile lettura del manoscritto di un certo Giorgio Cofton sulla liturgia Sacra Egiziana e agli insegnamenti del misterioso Althotas che lo avrebbe iniziato ai segreti di Iside e Osiride, furono altri elementi del Rito Egiziano che doveva condurlo alla rovina.
Il 25 Febbraio 1779 Cagliostro arrivò nella piccola città di Mitaunella Curlandia, ove era diffusa la cosiddetta Massoneria cerimoniale che si occupava "di speculazioni astratte e di formule empiriche". All'interno delle Officine si praticava la "purificazione" che avrebbe dovuto portare a una vera e propria rigenerazione fisica e spirituale, a un ringiovanimento, in parole povere, del corpo e dell'anima. Inutile dire che Cagliostro si mise subito in evidenza evocando spiriti, scoprendo tesori nascosti, facendo previsioni incredibili.
Da Mitau Cagliostro si trasferì a San Pietroburgo, dove dimorò dal 5 Giugno 1779 al Marzo 1780
Intanto egli si era trasferito in Polonia, dove a Varsavia operava il principe Adamo Poninski, fondatore di una Loggia templare; nel suo castello di Vola aveva creato un laboratorio alchemicodove Cagliostro eseguì alcuni esperimenti. Abbandonò poi anche la Polonia per recarsi a Strasburgo dove giunse il 19 o il 27 Settembre e vi si trattenne per tre anni, operando miracolose guarigioni, tanto da essere chiamato "l'amico degli uomini" e "Mio Dio".
Nel 1783 si recò a Napoli dal cavaliere d'Aquino, quindi ripartì per la Gran Bretagna e l'8 Novembre 1783 giunse a Bordeaux, la città che aveva ospitato il mitico don Martinez Pasqualis.
Ai primi di Ottobre del 1784 si trasferì a Lione, dove alloggiò all'Hotel de la Reine. Il suo scopo principale era quello d'incontrare, uno dei più prestigiosi capi massonici del mondo, fondatore dell'Ordine dei "Cavalieri Benefici", il mercante Jean-Baptiste Willermoz.
Fallito questo tentativo, Cagliostro, con dodici Fratelli tratti dalle dalle Logge "Le Perfait Silence" e "La Sagesse", fondò l'Officina Madre di Rito Egiziano "La Sagesse Triomphante"
l'attivismo iniziatico del Conte proseguiva con molte iniziative, fra le quali, la più interessante fu la fondazione della Loggia di adozione "Isis", in casa della Marchesa d'Orvilliers; la direzione fu assunta, naturalmente da "Serafina", col titolo di "Regina di Saba". Ad essa aderirono le dame della più alta nobiltà parigina.
Ciò non impediva alla giovane sposa di seguirlo nei suoi viaggi attraverso l’Europa, in Francia (dove venne anche arrestato, e poi espulso), in Russia, in Polonia, in Svizzera, in Spagna, e di essere messa a parte di ogni suo segreto dei suoi artifici.
Tuttavia, sarà Lorenza a farlo incarcerare di nuovo, stavolta per sempre e Giuseppe Balsamo, conte Cagliostro, viene arrestato a Roma e deferito al Sant’Uffizio, da lei stessa accusato di stregoneria, esperimenti, alchimia e imbrogli vari. Ma la donna aveva fatto i conti senza l’oste: oltre che il marito fu imprigionata anche lei, e chiusa nel monastero di Sant’ Apollonia in Trastevere, nella piazza dove sorgeva la chiesa omonima, oggi scomparsa. Tale monastero è quello dove, molto, molto tempo prima, aveva vissuto, scomparso il suo grande amore, la Fornarina di Raffaello. In ogni caso, in quegli anni, esso aveva la precisa funzione di Refugium peccatorum, e la disciplina all’interno vi era molto severa. Il fatto è che, finito il periodo di pena, non risulta che Lorenza sia uscita dal monastero, e nemmeno che vi sia rimasta: scomparve, e nessuno ha saputo più nulla di lei.
“ Una Loggia ISIS d’adozione fu solennemente istallata il 5 agosto 1785, crediamo nel palazzo della marchese d’Orvilliers ( domicilio del Gran Cofto, rue Saint Claude all’angolo del Boul. Beaumarchais), invaso perennemente da una folla di nobili, dame, giornalisti, ecclesiastici, militari…â€
La massoneria egiziana non era “androgenaâ€, ma oggi,alcune Gran Loggie che si richiamano al rito egizio, l’ hanno divisa in due sezioni, le dame vengono iniziate separatamente dai fratelli a tre gradi, nella “LOGE EGYPTIENNE D’ADOPTIONâ€; il Cagliostro non faceva distinzione di sesso, il suo sistema si proponeva di perfezionare l’essere umano e non il maschio o la femmina.
Con Cagliostro, la donna può svolgere una importante funzione nella operatività Massonica.
I rituali e i catechismi per le sorelle, tuttavia, furono redatti e concepiti meglio di quelle ad uso dei fratelli.
Alle sorelle non si parlava di Muratoria (Hiram) , ma di Salomone e della regina di Saba affermando, che il re d’Israele l’introdusse nel Tempio (la iniziò) per istruirla ai misteri.
Dopo la morte di Cagliostro, l’insegnamento è stato assunto in eredità in Italia dal Rito di Misraim di Venezia che, nel 1945, riunito al Rito di Memphis, divenne:
L’ ANTICO e PRIMITIVO RITO ORIENTALE
di MISRAIM e MEMPHIS –Gran Santuario Adriatico
il cui Sovrano Grande Jerofante Generale del tempo, Gastone Ventura, nel Solstizio d’Inverno lo risvegliò, con il nome di
RITO EGIZIO FEMMINILE d’ADOZIONE
Che da allora e sempre attivo e operante. Il Sovrano Grande Gerofante Generale è il vertice delle due linee iniziatiche, quella maschile (Riti Uniti di Misraim e Memphis) e quella femminile (Rito Egiziano Femminile d’Adozione).
Il SïœGïœSïœAïœ propone un Rito Egiziano femminile, che diversamente da molti altri casi, non è un rito "al ribasso", ma un rito specifico, in quattro gradi, decisamente operativo, probabilmente uno dei più belli, dei più interessanti riti massonici femminili.
I rituali sono direttamente ispirati a quelli di Cagliostro. I principi che reggono il Rito sono quelli dell'iniziazione femminile di cui si trova traccia nel mondo antico, dove le vestali, sibille ed altre sacerdotesse conoscevano l'importanza del fuoco inestinguibile e della coppa divina, e la necessità della loro eterna protezione. Il rito Egiziano Femminile differisce dai Riti misti che danno la stessa iniziazione alle donne e agli uomini, appoggiandosi su di una falsa interpretazione del concetto di uguaglianza, esso considera che nel campo iniziatico, non è questione di uguaglianza o ineguaglianza tra due esseri, ciascuno, di fronte a tutta la manifestazione, possiede i propri valori, la propria dignità. La legge della manifestazione è la diversità che non spinge verso l'identico nel quale le diverse parti del tutto diventano uno nella promiscuità, ma vuole che ciascuna parte sia sempre di più se stessa, esprimendo così il suo modo di essere. È questa specificità riconosciuta alla donna che dà al Rito Egiziano Femminile tutto il suo valore. Pertanto l'adozione del Rito Egiziano Femminile da parte dell'antico e Primitivo Rito Orientale di Misraïm e Memphis non costituisce una subordinazione ma piuttosto il segno di un legame comune con l'Ordine Divino e l'Ordine Umano.
Anche l’ Italia non è immune della presenza di altri rami del MISRAIM e MEMPHIS.
STORIA DEL RITO EGIZIANO FEMMINILE DI ADOZIONE
Il Nel mese di aprile 1789, dopo il suo soggiorno a Rovereto e a Trento, il Cagliostro, prima di prendere la strada per Roma, ove, otto mesi dopo, fu tratto in arresto dalla polizia vaticana, processato e condannato per eresia ed altro, si recò a Venezia, ove sin dal 1778 altre volte si era recato In tale occasione, verosimilmente, Cagliostro affidò i rituali delle sue Logge femminili,dette "Androgene di Adozione" alla Potenza Assoluta del Rito di Misraim pro tempore, che, prevedendo per il futuro di operare con una linea femminile in sintonia con la linea maschile del Misraim che si basava sulla iniziazione Osiridea, aggiunse nel rituale di terzo grado femminile di Cagliostro una iniziazione specificamente Isiaca e, inoltre, adattò i rituali femminili, le cerimonie e i templi alle esigenze di armonia con i rituali maschili del Misraim, pur mantenendo, in linea di principio e di massima, significati ed idee valide di Cagliostro, nel rispetto della tradizione.
Il 17 giugno 1945, alla fine della seconda guerra mondiale, il Pot.'. F.'. Marco Egidio Allegri, che,oltre ad essere la Potenza Assoluta del Rito di Misraim di Venezia, era anche, dal 1923,Gran Conservatore ad vitam del Rito di Memphis di Palermo assonnatosi nel 1925 per le leggi fasciste, riunì i due Riti nei loro molteplici punti di contatto e fondò l'Antico e Primitivo Rito Orientale di Misraim e Memphis, costituendo il Sovrano Gran Santuario Adriatico allo Zenit di Venezia.
Il 21 dicembre 1971, il Sovrano Grande Hyerophante Generale pro tempore, Gastone Ventura, rese attive le Logge Androgene di Adozione, organizzando a Bologna la Loggia Madre e Maestra Iside, consacrando tale risveglio con l'iniziazione e con l'installazione, in qualità di Gran Maestra Regina di Saba la Sorella A.C. , già 9° grado del "le Droit Humaine" e S::: I::: dell'O::M::--
Il 21 dicembre 1989 il Sovr.'. Gr.'.Hyerophante Gen.'. pro tempore , S.C., constatato che le Logge androgene cominciavano ad affermarsi in Italia ed anche in alcune Nazioni dei due emisferi, organizzò le Logge androgene in un Rito, che chiamò "Rito Egiziano Femminile di Adozione".Tolse la parola : "androgena", che spesso veniva equivocata con la parola "Mista", ed organizzò il Rito su quattro gradi iniziatici e due gradi amministrativi : il 1° grado per le sorelle Apprendiste Egiziane, il 2:'.Grado per le Compagne Egiziane, il 3.'. grado per le Maestre Egiziane ed il 4° grado per le Maestre Perfette Egiziane.. Il 5° grado amministrativo per le Grandi Maestre Nazionali ed il 6° grado amministrativo per la Gran Maestra Internazionale, la quale assumeva anche il titolo di "Regina di Saba" in ricordo del Cagliostro.. Diede. così una razionale organizzazione amministrativa, che prevede per ogni nazione una Gran Maestra che presiede una Loggia Madre e Maestra Nazionale alle cui dipendenze stanno le logge della nazione, e per i due emisferi una Gran Maestra –Regina di Saba, che presiede la Gran Loggia Madre e Maestra "Iside", composta da tutte le Grandi Maestre Nazionali e dalle sorelle del 4° grado, chiamate dal S.·.G.·.H.·.G.·. a farne parte.
Per l'Italia la Gran Maestra Regina di Saba è anche la Gran Maestra Nazionale Italiana. La sede della Ven.·.ma Grande Loggia Madre e Maestra "ISIDE" è idealmente allo Zenith di Venezia e realmente nella sede di residenza del S.G.H.G.
Il Rito femminile dipende dal Sovrano Grande Hyerophante Generale, il quale delega alla Gran Maestra Regina di Saba alcuni suoi poteri amministrativi per una migliore organizzazione del Rito.
Il Rito Androgeno di Adozione è una linea prettamente femminile in quanto opera con rituali specificatamente congeniali alle qualificazioni femminili. I Lavori di tale Rito si svolgono in RR.'.Triangoli ed in RR.'.LL.'., che sono condotti e diretti dalle sorelle VV.'.MM.'..
Nei Lavori rituali è prevista la presenza di un Fratello, munito di un alto grado del Rito adottante,il quale, iniziaticamente, rappresenta il S.'.G.'.H.'.G.'.. Tale Fratello , oltre ad avere uno specifico compito rituale, garantisce la legittimità e la copertura iniziatica alla riunione nonché dà una indispensabile collaborazione alla Venerabile Maestra nelle iniziazioni.
Il Rito,che è incentrato sul mito biblico e sulla leggenda di Iside e di Osiride, opera per portare in luce nella donna le potenzialità,che, una volta scoperte, valorizza ed esalta agevolandone la realizzazione. Constatato che la donna è portata a vivere principalmente nel piano emozionale, la aiuta a dominare tale piano, spostando la sua attenzione al piano mentale e al piano spirituale.
E' bene chiarire i motivi della ADOZIONE.
Molti si chiedono : perché il Rito femminile non può operare iniziaticamente in modo indipendente, ma deve essere adottato da un Rito maschile . Per rispondere a tale domanda , bisogna prima, sia pure brevemente, ricordare che l'iniziazione femminile, nei tempi antichi, quando potere regale e potere sacerdotale,e, quindi, iniziazione regale ed ordinazione sacerdotale erano un tutt'uno accentrato nella persona del Faraone, le donne erano iniziate sacerdotesse dal Faraone o, per delega, dal Gran Sacerdote, ed assumevano dei compiti molto importanti nella estrinsecazione rituale del culto. Le donne , quindi, partecipavano attivamente ai misteri religiosi e, soprattutto, tradizionali. Purtroppo, l'iniziazione Femminile, dopo un lungo periodo di avversioni, si è perduta definitivamente allorquando l'imperatore Teodosio ( 347 - 395 d.C. ), sotto la pressione della nuova religione , soppresse l'Ordine delle Vestali e con esso tutti i culti cosiddetti pagani, pena la morte per coloro che li avessero operati. Da quel momento si sono aperte per le donne soltanto le porte dei conventi.
Dopo un brutto periodo di oscurantismo, nasce, intorno all'anno 1000, una corrente iniziatica conosciuta col nome di "cavalleria", la quale riesumò in maniera accettabile, dati i tempi, antichi miti in chiave cristianeggiante, come le leggende del Santo Graal e dei Cavalieri della Tavola Rotonda di Re Artù, nelle quali l'elemento femminile veniva posto al centro di un simbolismo che raffigurava la donna come forza vivificante e trasfigurante di grande valore, condizione indispensabile per la salvazione spirituale dell'umanità. E' noto che il Graal, indicato come calice nel quale Giuseppe d'Arimatea aveva raccolto il sangue di Gesù Crocifisso, simbolicamente rappresenta la Coppa, il Grembo, la Madre della Creazione, l'Eterno Femminino.
Nell'alto medioevo qualche sporadico tentativo di iniziazione femminile è stato tentato ma senza continuità.Vi sono tracce che attestano che le donne erano ammesse nelle Gilde degli Artigiani ed in qualche altra società esoterica. Comunque non è facile ricostruire la storia delle associazioni iniziatiche nelle quali l'essenzialità della Tradizione viene trasmessa oralmente e la cui esistenza appare soprattutto nella pubblicità negativa fatta dai detrattori. Non è neppure agevole ricostruire tale storia a causa delle ricorrenti persecuzioni da parte del potere politico e, ancora di più da parte del potere religioso in tutti gli Stati Europei, per cui le associazioni iniziatiche sono state spesso costrette a mimetizzarsi e a vivere in clandestinità. Nel tardo medioevo diviene ancora più difficile la ricostruzione storica della iniziazione femminile, che ha dovuto subire l'azione negativa dei detrattori della massoneria in genere e dei detrattori aderenti allo stesso Ordine massonico, contrari alla promiscuità dei due esseri nelle Logge.
Qualcosa appare in Francia, ove il seme della libertà ha prodotto qualche frutto più che altrove. Per registrare le prime realizzazioni in materia di iniziazione delle donne, bisogna arrivare alla seconda metà del XVIII° secolo e, poi, alla seconda metà del XIX secolo. Nel giugno 1774 il Grande Oriente di Francia autorizzò in via ufficiale "le Logge femminili di adozione" ponendole sotto la guida e la protezione dei Fratelli.In pratica non si trattava di logge femminili vere e proprie ma di tornate maschili alle quali potevano partecipare le donne. E' stato un tentativo di Rito Misto che è durato poco.
Altro tentativo, questo molto serio, è stato fatto intorno al 1776 da Cagliostro con il Rito Egiziano, linea maschile e linea femminile , cioè logge maschili e logge androgene di adozione. Tale esperimento cessò con la morte di Cagliostro avvenuta nel 1795 nell'infame prigione del castello di S.Leo in Romagna.
Ed ora, per chiarire in modo soddisfacente il significato dell'adozione, è necessario precisare le funzioni conseguenti alle qualificazioni femminili e le funzioni conseguenti alle qualificazioni maschili date da Dio ai due esseri sin dall'inizio.
A tale proposito, ci dice S.C. sul libro "La scienza Ermetica" che la Tradizione ci insegna che la manifestazione,è diversificata in parti complementari ma disuguali, le quali, appunto perché disuguali si armonizzano fra di loro. La legge della manifestazione è la diversità, possiamo affermare che la diversità non spinge verso l'identico in cui le varie parti divengano promiscuamente uno, ma vuole che tali parti siano sempre più sé stesse per potere esprimere sempre più perfettamente il proprio modo di essere.
Le varie parti del Tutto esprimono qualificazioni e funzioni diverse che debbono sempre più essere affermate e realizzate. Così, in riguardo ai sessi, maschio e femmina si presentono come due tipi e chi nasce maschio deve compiersi come maschio e .chi nasce femmina deve compiersi come femmina. Ugualmente, in relazione alla direzione verso il sovrannaturale, maschio e femmina devono avere ciascuno la propria Via che non può essere mutata senza incorrere in un modo di essere contraddittorio.
Dopo avere constatato che l'Uguaglianza è soltanto una utopia irrealizzabile sulla terra, parlando dell'essere maschio e dell'essere femmina non diremo che fra di loro c'è uguaglianza, diremo che tra di loro c'è Pari Dignità in funzioni diverse e comprenderemo allora che ciascuno dei due esseri complementari deve affermare e realizzare sempre di più le proprie innate qualificazioni. Da ciò risalta la necessità che la via iniziatica fra i due esseri non potrà mai essere uguale, essa dovrà essere simile con rituali e significati diversi.
Le due vie, sebbene diverse, non possono essere totalmente indipendenti l'una dall'altra. Occorre che esse nascano e si sviluppino nello stesso contenitore, esse dovranno essere legate nella forza eggregorica a cui danno origine. Pertanto l'Iniziazione Femminile non potrà essere uguale a quella maschile.Essa potrà essere simile nel metodo, cioè deve essere simbolica ed ermetica e dovrà procedere secondo il VITRIOL e la conseguente purificazione.
L'A.·. e P.·. Rito Orientale di Misraim e Memphis – Sovrano Gran Santuario Adriatico, seguendo la linea adottata dal Rito di Misraim di Venezia dal quale proviene, lavora su due linee, una Maschile ed una Femminile.
I rituali del Rito Egiziano Femminile privilegiano nel primo e nel secondo grado il mito dell'origine e della “caduta†ed in particolare il mito di Eva, con una iniziazione al terzo grado che scopre per la donna il massimo delle sue qualificazioni ed al quarto grado fa della donna il ponte tra il mondo fisico ed il mondo metafisico, dandole la possibilità di esaltare le proprie qualificazioni intuitive per fare assurgere al livello della consapevolezza il mistero della sua profonda spiritualità.
Gli ultimi decenni del XIX secolo videro la nascita in Francia di una massoneria “mistaâ€, nella quale trovavano accoglienza le donne, segnando così un ulteriore “strappo†con la tradizione seguita dalla massoneria inglese e nel mondo anglosassone.
Infatti, il 14 gennaio 1882 presso la loggia Les Libres Penseurs du Pecq, staccatasi dalla da poco nata Gran Loggia Simbolica Scozzese e resasi “indipendenteâ€, fu iniziata Maria Deraismes (a sinistra), scrittrice femminista e militante di punta del movimento di emancipazione femminile. Nel 1893, a opera della Deraismes e di Georges Martin, altre donne furono iniziate e venne data vita alla loggia del Diritto Umano, la quale si diffuse negli anni seguenti fino a costituire una nuova organizzazione “massonicaâ€, la Gran Loggia Simbolica Scozzese “Il Diritto Umanoâ€, che accoglieva uomini e donne e adottava i rituali del R.S.A.A..
Chi ha più paura?
“Se le donne hanno paura della Massoneria, più ancora la Massoneria ha paura delle donneâ€, scriveva nel 1869 il francese Lèon Richer sul giornale massonico “La morale indipendenteâ€.
Non è certa la data della prima costituzione di una loggia massonica tutta al femminile anche se i meriti di averne ospitata una nel 1901 – documentata - , spetta alla terra di Francia.
Nell’Italia settecentesca, per prima fu introdotta la massoneria semplice inglese e precisamente in città con nuclei di residenti inglesi, come a Firenze e Roma, dove il fenomeno fu però piuttosto spasmodico e non durevole. Nei porti principali, come Palermo, Genova e Livorno furono importati anche vari sistemi francesi, mentre non deve essere sottovalutato il ruolo che i reggimenti mercenari stranieri ebbero nella diffusione in determinate zone italiane.
Nel Regno di Napoli, lo sviluppo della massoneria settecentesca fu notevole; Napoli, la più grande città del mondo conosciuto, era famosissima in tutta Europa per il suo elevato livello culturale ed intellettuale. Tra le varie Gran Loggie Nazionali che fiorirono ricordiamo quella del Principe di San Severo: Raimondo di Sangro, noto scienziato ed alchimista; La Gran Loggia Provinciale olandese; La Gran Loggia Provinciale Inglese;
Nel 1773 fu creata una Gran Loggia Nazionale, sotto la guida di Francesco D’aquino, Principe Di Caramanico, e protetta dalla Regina MARIA CAROLINA, figlia di Maria Teresa d’Austria, la quale anche essa faceva parte di una loggia femminile “Saint Jean du Secret e de la parfait Amitièâ€. La massoneria era talmente presente che , quando la nota attrice Bernasconi, durante una recita nel teatro San Carlo, fece dei segni massonici, ci fu un’ applauso assordante.
Le Massonerie italiane, conservano e si richiamano tutt’oggi agli “Statuti Generali Della Societa’ Dei Liberi Muratori Del Rito Scozzese Antico E Accettato, Pubblicati In Napoli Nel 1820 E.V.â€
Gli Statuti, riportano nell’ “Art. 01 – L’Ordine dei Liberi Muratori appartiene alla classe degli ordini cavallereschi: ha come per fine il perfezionamento degli uominiâ€
Questi Statuti Generali non escludono esplicitamente la donna dalla Libera Muratoria. Ciò fa presumere che nel Napoletano e in Sicilia vivessero delle donne che, almeno collateralmente, partecipavano a lavori muratori. La Loggia, organizzata secondo la lettera e lo spirito di questi Statuti dovrebbe essere pronta ad accogliere la donna che nella vita civile ha ormai raggiunto l’uguaglianza quasi completa con l’uomo.
Anche nella prima loggia inglese fondata a Firenze nel 1732 c’erano delle donne fra cui una non meglio identificata “Madama Suarezâ€. I massoni della loggia fiorentina, fra cui si annoverano alcuni libertini ed atei, lottano contro i pregiudizi, contro la intolleranza religiosa e per una maggiore libertà intellettuale.
Un’ulteriore pronunciamento ufficiale dalla Massoneria “regolareâ€, si ebbe nei primi del ‘900.
La Gran Loggia Riunita d’Inghilterra nel 1929, le tre Grandi Logge Britanniche nel 1938 ed infine le Grandi Logge degli Stati Uniti nel 1952, adottarono sette regole internazionali per il riconoscimento. Riportiamo il secondo:
2.â€L’appartenenza alla massoneria deve essere limitata esclusivamente a uomini; sono interdette le relazioni massoniche di qualsiasi genere, con logge miste o con congregazioni che accettano donne come membri.â€
Perché, negli anni che vanno dal 1929 al 1952, venne affermato chiaramente che le donne erano escluse dai Templi? Quando le condizioni socio-politiche della donna in Europa sono mutate.

Regola adottata universalmente, poco chiara, perché le Grandi Logge degli Stati Uniti adottano un metodo diverso. Infatti, esse sono in rapporti di amicizia, promuovono e proteggono l’â€Order Of The Eastern Starâ€, costituito nel 1850 e codificata definitivamente nella forma attuale nel 1876.
Dall’Europa al nuovo continente
Occorre, infine, ricordare gli ordini paramassonici. Del tutto scomparsa la “massoneria d’adozione†del XVIII° secolo, nonostante alcune reviviscenze in Francia (presso la Grande Loggia furono attive “logge d’adozione†fino al 1952) e in Italia (dove pure per un quindicennio, dopo il 1859, ne furono attive alcune), nel 1850 fu fondato a New York da Robert Morris l’Order of Eastern Star (Ordine della Stella d’Oriente) che, riorganizzato nel 1876 e riservato alle donne mogli o parenti di massoni, si è da allora esteso in tutto il mondo massonico. Strutturato sulla base di Capitoli e amministrato da un Gran Capitolo Generale, possiede propri rituali distinti da quelli muratori.
Nel 1872, sempre negli Stati Uniti, fu fondato l’Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mistic Shrine (Antico Ordine Arabo dei Nobili del Mistico Santuario), soprattutto dedito alla beneficenza, cui sono ammessi i titolari del 32° grado del Rito Scozzese Antico e Accettato e i Knights Templar del Rito di York.
Esso è l’unico ordine riconosciuto dalla Massoneria regolare che si collega agli USA, che inizi donne legate da stretta parentela con Maestri Massoni, nonché Fratelli Massoni che abbiano conseguito il grado di Maestro.
Tali organismi affiancano la Massoneria “regolare†e ad esse si ispirano, sia pure con un proprio Rituale ed una propria iniziazione.
In Italia l’Ordine “Della Stella D’oriente†, arriva molto tardi. Il primo capitolo è stato costituito nel 1966- non sotto il G.O.I.- , e i vari Capitolo oggi presenti, si chiamano subordinati e sono alla diretta dipendenza del Grande Capitolo Generale di Washington il quale è retto dalla Most Worthy Gran Matron e dal Most Worthy Gran Patron quali supreme autorità dell’Ordine.
Le finalità dell’ O.E.S. sono quelle massoniche, realizzate però con riti e simbologia propria. L’Ordine ha una sua propria iniziazione che si propone di fiancheggiare nel campo Profano la Massoneria Universale condividendone gli Ideali e le finalità di perfezionamento spirituale e sociale per il congiungimento di una società fondata sulla verità e l’amore, nella quale siano abolite l’ingiustizia, l’ignoranza, la miseria ed ogni forma di discriminazione.
Per quanto riguarda la parte iniziatica questa si impernia sulla simbologia della Stella a cinque punte, di cinque diversi colori, con cinque figure di donne eroiche, tratti dai libri sacri e dalla storia. Essendo un rito androgino esso determina una fratellanza armonica, una problematica vasta e completa, ma assolutamente reale poiché formata, come la società tutta, di uomini e di donne.
Cosa scrissero negli anni le protagoniste:
….â€L’Ordine, tutt’altro che nuovo nel mondo – è stato infatti fondato nel 1850 in America – è peraltro nuovo in Italia ove ragioni storiche e sociali ne hanno ritardato l’introduzione e la diffusione sino ai nostri giorni. Perciò si può ben dire che le “Stelle d’Oriente†non hanno maestri e debbono educarsi da sole principalmente sulla base delle norme, quasi esclusivamente regolamentari, fornite dal “Gran Capitolo†Americano.
….Particolarmente ben accettati dunque sono stati i Consigli del Gran Maestro (Salvini), che rispondendo ai numerosi quesiti postigli ha spianato i primi ostacoli di questa non facile via iniziatica. Innanzitutto egli ha voluto segnalare l’errore in cui è facile incorrere, e cioè quello di credere che l’Ordine sia essenzialmente femminile.
Fermo restando il carattere strettamente solare dell’iniziazione massonica, riservata quindi a soli uomini, non bisogna disconoscere – per non negare l’evidenza – l’importanza della donna quale opposto e complementare dell’uomo. Essa segue la via umida, quella lunare; al contrario del Sole, la Luna non irradia luce propria, ma senza il suo chiarore che è riflesso di quello solare, le più profonde tenebre coprirebbero la Terra nelle ore notturne.
Dall’incontro degli opposti, nasce l’equilibrio e l’armonia di tutto ciò che esiste; senza il due, l’uno non creerebbe il tre, simbolo di perfezione; uomo o donna si completano a vicenda, il simbolo del loro complemento è dato dall’Androgino, la mitica creatura perfetta.
Senza andare oltre in un simbolismo che continuamente richiama l’attenzione su di una incontrovertibile realtà, si può dire che la via solare seguita dal Massone doveva essere completata da un cammino accessibile alla sua compagna, non più facile, ma più pratico, che consentisse la proiezione degli ideali massonici fuori ed oltre il chiuso delle Logge….â€
Il Gran Maestro del G.O.I., Giordano Gamberini ne favorì il rafforzamento, facilitò la nascita di gruppi femminili a Roma, Livorno, Milano, Napoli, Trieste e li affidò al dinamismo e alla capacità organizzativa di Marisa Bettoia, madre dell’attrice Franca.
Come riportava la notizia la rivista del tempo del G.O.I.:
" Il Capitolo "Minerva" di Roma, dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente, finora avente operato sotto decreto, ha ricevuto la Charter definitiva, recatagli solennemente dal G.P. Robert Lybrook Clark e dalla G.M. Ella Mae Parker Stokes, di Washington.
Alla presenza del Gran Maestro del G.O. d'Italia (Lino Salvini) e del delegato per l'Italia dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente Fr. Bob de Brujn, hanno poi proceduto alla installazione dei dignitari del Cap. Minerva, M.W. Marisa Bettoia e W.P. Riccardo Colasanti.
Alla cerimonia assistevano numerose delegazioni straniere, il G.M. Onorario Acrisio Bianchini, il Gr. Segretario Giuseppe Tellaro e il G. Oratore Aggiunto Elvio Sciubba"
"Il Capitolo "Minerva" di Roma della Stella d'Oriente ha installato - alla presenza del G.M. (Lino Salvini) e dell'ex G.M. (Giordano Gamberini) del G.O. d'Italia - i dignitari del nuovo Capitolo "Sirio" di Pesaro, W.M. Giusi Brilli Cattarini Ew.p. Antonio Jorio".
Parlano di sé, dei loro esordi nelle Logge venete e di recente, la delegata per l'Italia della Direzione dell'Ordine, la Dr.ssa ELDA LEVI, ha risposto a delle domante pubblicate su Firenze Magazine di Maggio 2001.
Riportiamo quasi per intero l'intervista.
D – Qual’ è il rapporto con la massoneria maschile? E inoltre, vi potete definire "massoneria"?
R - " Il nostro è un rito che affianca la massoneria, ne condivide i fini e accoglie, oltre ai fratelli, anche delle sorelle".
D - Ma sono di più le donne o gli uomini?
" La maggioranza è di donne, proprio perché gli uomini hanno altre, più differenziate opportunità di partecipare a gruppi nell'ambito massonico. Per le donne ce ne sono di meno, quindi scelgono con l'Ordine una delle poche che hanno. E che offre loro- in sostanza- le stesse opportunità sia di approfondimenti e di studi esoterici che di iniziative verso l'esterno, sia culturali che assistenziali".
D - Quante sono, più o meno, in Italia le donne che appartengono all'Ordine?
R - "I membri della Stella d'Oriente - uomini e donne- sono intorno ai cinquecento"
D - Quindi, una persona qualsiasi non può far parte dell'Ordine.
R - "Allo stato attuale no. Ma come tutti gli statuti, anche i nostri possono essere cambiati."
Organizzazione "para-massonicaâ€, collegata alla massoneria "vera" (?), è stata più volte nell'ultimo decennio "strumentalizzata" dai Fratellini , con il dire che presto c'era la possibilità di dialogare alla pari con le sorelle. Probabilmente, si era in attesa che dalla sede principale dell'ordine che è a Washington, venissero indicazioni o si cambiassero gli Statuti per fare entrare le donne non parenti di massoni nei Capitoli, come stabilito nei regolamenti.
Le Stelle d’Oriente, è oggi una delle più grandi organizzazioni fraterne al mondo, ove lavorano uomini e donne iniziate, oramai vecchia di 150 anni, che collabora fattivamente accanto alla più grande e potente organizzazione massonica maschile.
Si legge negli Statuti e Regolamenti dell'Ordine , pubblicati in Italia
Art. 4 - Principi e finalità.
"Il Grande Oriente d'Italia, fatti propri gli Antichi Doveri, persegue la ricerca della verità ed il perfezionamento dell'Uomo e dell'Umana Famiglia; opera per estendere a tutti gli uomini i legami d'amore che uniscono i Fratelli; propugna la tolleranza, il rispetto di sé e degli altri, la libertà di coscienza e di pensiero. Presta la dovuta obbedienza e la scrupolosa osservanza alla Carta Costituzionale dello Stato democratico italiano ed alle Leggi che ad essa si ispirino. (Gran Loggia del 19-20 Marzo 1994)"
"Quella unione di uomini saggi e virtuosi, che, con allegorico significato, si appella ordinariamente "Società dei Liberi Muratori" è stata in ogni tempo considerata come il santuario dei buoni costumi, la scuola delle virtù, il tempio della filantropia. Essa ha per principio la esistenza di un Dio, che adora e rispetta sotto la formula di GRANDE ARCHITETTO DELL' UNIVERSO: ha per fine il perfezionamento del cuore umano; e si propone, qual mezzo necessario per ottenere questo fine, l'esercizio e la pratica della virtù. La società dei Liberi Muratori è di sua natura eminentemente umanitaria, ed è incessantemente occupata ad erigere e fabbricare templi alla virtù e scavare oscure prigioni al vizio".
DEI LIBERI MURATORI
"11. Se il fine della Istituzione è il perfezionamento dell'Uomo, è indispensabile che il Libero Muratore pratichi la vera morale, che suppone la cognizione e l'esercizio dei doveri e dei diritti dell'uomo.
Egli deve essere quindi giusto, umano, sincero, benefico verso ogni specie di persone e soprattutto buon padre, buon figlio, buon fratello, buon marito, buon cittadino."
Le direttive del Grande Oriente d’Italia sono:
Il Grande Oriente d’Italia - Palazzo Giustiniani - è sempre disposto a prendere in considerazione il riconoscimento di quelle Grandi Logge che professano e praticano, liberamente e con pieno convincimento, i Princìpi fondamentali della Libera Muratoria e che possono dimostrare che le Logge di loro dipendenza, ed i membri che la compongono, li hanno praticati con coerenza. Il Grande Oriente d’Italia ritiene che questi Princìpi siano i seguenti:
3 Nessun membro della Gran Loggia o delle Logge che la compongono può avere rapporti massonici con associazioni massoniche irregolari o con Logge miste o con Corpi che ammettono donne.
4 La Gran Loggia deve accettare come membri soltanto uomini, di buoni costumi, che esprimono un credere nell’Essere Supremo.
(documento approvato nella Gran Loggia del 20 marzo 1994, dopo la bufera giudiziaria del 1993, conclusasi con la sentenza di archiviazione nel 2003).
Cosa ne pensa il “grande vecchioâ€, già Gran Maestro Aggiunto del G.O.I. negli anni della crisi che vanno dal 1985 al 1993, il Potentissimo Fr. ETTORE LOIZZO 3,33° grado del R.S.A.A., in un recente libro risponde:
“D-Donne e Massoneria, un capitolo interessante, ma poco conosciuto della Istituzione.
R-“Non c’è un ruolo delle donne in Massoneria. Almeno nella nostra Obbedienza. La rispettiamo, certamente, ma niente di più. Cento anni fa, gli americani (che hanno molta fantasia in tutte le cose) hanno creato un corpo parallelo a quello degli uomini, denominato “Stelle d’Orienteâ€, con un proprio rituale, limitato alle sorelle, alle mogli, alle figlie e alle nipoti in via diretta di massoni.
Va chiarito che non si tratta di un problema di supremazia, ma esclusivamente di tradizione e di rito. Noi siamo cultori del rito solare che, come noto, non prevede l’utilizzazione delle donne.
Altre istituzioni, invece, le accettano regolarmente. Piazza del Gesù, per esempio, lo fa. Noi no. Non possiamo. Pur sapendo e riconoscendo che le donne fanno un figurone sui problemi esoterici e culturali che riguardano la Massoneria. Con loro abbiamo ottimi rapporti, ma non possiamo ammetterle ai nostri lavori.â€
Si sa il pensiero del Gran Maestro Raffi a Trieste il 27.9.02 per l'apertura della nuova Casa Massonica ha detto:†So che in Italia si contano delle obbedienze femminili, e più di una, ma il GOI non ne ammette: le organizzazioni paramassoniche, come l'Ordine delle Stelle d'Oriente, trovano ospitalità, ma non nelle frequentazioni rituali. Del resto quando arrivano dei 'transfughi' da altre obbedienze cui le donne sono ammesse, si percepisce in loro una certa insofferenza. Sulla questione c'è qualche similitudine con quanto accade nella Chiesa: di fermento ce n'è molto…â€
La tolleranza alle novità, dei vertici del Grande Oriente, diventa rispetto delle regole, dopo la partecipazione di un’illustre il fratello Mariano Bianca a una conferenza con un Gruppo Massonico Femminile. Alleghiamo il documento.
L'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente è la più grande organizzazione fraterna del mondo, alla quale possono aderire sia uomini che donne. Ne possono farne parte uomini che siano Maestri Liberi Muratori e donne a loro legate da specifiche relazioni parentali.
L'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente (Order of the Eastern Star - O.E.S.) nacque negli Stati Uniti d'America dalla trasformazione, voluta dai Liberi Muratori Americani, delle Logge d'Adozione in un Ordine misto che escludesse qualunque pratica irregolare di co-Muratoria o di Muratoria mista, mantenendo però gli scopi caritatevoli e beneficenti a proprio fondamento e in collaborazione o a supporto delle analoghe azioni della Muratoria regolare.
L'Ordine venne fondato da Rob Morris, una singolare figura di Massone, insegnante e direttore didattico prima, scrittore (fu poeta laureato della Massoneria) ed organizzatore massonico a tempo pieno poi.
Egli era pervenuto al convincimento che le donne imparentate a Maestri Massoni avrebbero potuto partecipare in certa misura ai benefici derivanti dalla conoscenza di questo grande e fraterno Ordine.
Insieme alla moglie Charlotte Mendenhall, alla quale rimase unito da un amore durato oltre cinquant'anni, lavorò allo sviluppo dell'idea dell'Ordine invitando i Fratelli Massoni e le loro mogli a discuterne i principi.
Nel 1850 sistemò l'idea dei gradi, diede loro forme e analogie, decise che ad ogni grado fosse abbinato un tema preso dalle pagine dell'antichità e che a ciascuno di essi fosse abbinata un'eroina - tre tratte dal Vecchio Testamento e due dal Nuovo.
Le finalità dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente sono quelle della Massoneria Universale, realizzate però con Riti e simbologie proprie.
Le Stelle d'Oriente hanno una loro iniziazione ed operano secondo un loro rituale. La loro è una scuola iniziatica (di tipo lunare) che si propone di fiancheggiare la Massoneria condividendone gli ideali di Libertà, di Fratellanza e di Uguaglianza e lo scopo di perseguire un progresso spirituale e sociale per pervenire, o perlomeno tentare di pervenire, ad una società migliore fondata sull'amore e sulla verità, nella quale siano aboliti l'ingiustizia, l'ignoranza e la discriminazione.
Il simbolismo dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente è appunto incentrato intorno all'astro rappresentato come pentalfa rovesciato e nelle cui punte sono rappresentate figure simboliche.
Ognuna di queste figure è a sua volta emblematica di un personaggio tratto o rielaborato - come abbiamo visto - dall'Antico e dal Nuovo Testamento.
L'identificazione simbolica con le cinque punte e quindi con le cinque figure femminili porta a divenire protagonisti del labirinto della vita. Tutto diviene finalizzato alla esaltazione di virtù quali la fedeltà, la perseveranza, la purezza, la speranza e lo zelo spirituale rispettivamente modulate dalle condizioni muliebri di figlia, vedova, moglie, sorella o madre, come appunto i personaggi precedentemente citati.
La Stella Fiammeggiante rovesciata, simbolo delle Stelle d'Oriente, è stata più volte
oggetto di contestazioni da parte di diverse Organizzazioni massoniche femminili in quanto espressione simbolica, secondo un ottica puramente maschile, della donna intesa come male e quindi rappresentata con la testa poggiata per terra e le gambe per aria. Sempre secondo i detrattori, un altro grave limite dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente sarebbe quello di aver vicino in ogni carica femminile una corrispondente carica maschile e il divieto per le donne di iniziare.
L'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente, al di là dell'aspetto iniziatico, va considerato inoltre una associazione attiva nell'ambito dell'istruzione (borse di studio), della ricerca (sul cancro, sulle malattie cardio-vascolari) e dell'assistenza (volontariato di vario tipo).
L'Ordine è organizzato per Capitoli, governati da Gran Capitoli Nazionali, che si riuniscono in Assemblea Triennale legislativa condotta e diretta dal Gran Capitolo Generale. In quei Paesi nei quali non è possibile o non è conveniente stabilire un
denominato "Aldebaran", con funzione programmatica e di collegamento. Il luogo in cui opera il Capitolo si chiama Clima, ed i quattro lati della loggia sono denominati regioni. Nel Quadro del Capitolo sono rappresentati segni zodiacali e cabalistici. La parte iniziatica si impernia sulla simbologia della Stella a cinque punte, ognuna di colore diverso e con figure di donne eroiche, rilevate dai libri sacri e dalla storia. Questa sostituisce il Delta luminoso della Loggia maschile. Ma la simbologia dell’Ordine è ampia e con implicazioni eterne ed universali, con riferimenti a tutte le religioni, a tutte le virtù morali ed a tutte le condizioni umane. Sono simboli di lealtà, fraternità, rettitudine ed amore, simboli positivi ed attivi che guidano verso la Verità e la Luce, sempre col sostegno della Ragione, ed in continuo impegno di Solidarietà fraterna. Essendo un rito androgino, esso determina una fratellanza armonica, una problematica vasta e completa, ma assolutamente reale, poiché formata, come l’intera società umana, da esseri dei due sessi. Finalità, ritualità, simbologia ed organizzazione sono oggetto di ampia trattazione in un dotto volume del Fratello Sebastiani, nonché in articoli della Sorella Caliterna.
In Italia sono attualmente attivi 15 Capitoli:
- Capitolo MEDITERRANEO n. 1 - Napoli;
- Capitolo MINERVA n. 3 - Roma;
- Capitolo F. DE CAROLIS n. 5 - Cosenza;
- Capitolo SIRIO n. 6 - Roma;
- Capitolo CISALPINO n. 7 - Torino;
- Capitolo TRINACRIA n. 8 - Palermo;
- Capitolo BEATRICE n. 9 - Firenze;
- Capitolo ISIDE n. 10 - Perugia;
qualità di una Loggia di Maestri Muratori come riconosciuta dalla Fraternità Muratoria, quanto a regolarità e legittimità. Questa reciproca autonomia fa sì che l'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente accetti, in tutto il mondo, solo Maestri Muratori Membri di Logge subordinate a Grandi Logge di riconosciuta regolarità e legittimità. Poiché in tutto il mondo i Membri dei Capitoli dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente sono ammessi presso le sedi Muratorie, essi sono tenuti all'obbligo della riservatezza.
L'Ordine ha stabilito come condizioni fondamentali per l'ammissione:
- La fede nell'esistenza dell'Essere Supremo;
- Per gli uomini, che siano stati installati nel grado di Maestro Muratore presso una Loggia Regolare e si trovino a pié di lista di una Loggia Regolare;
- Per le donne, che si trovino in condizioni di parentela stretta con il Maestro Muratore installato nel grado presso una Loggia Regolare e a pié di lista di una Loggia Regolare, ove per parentela stretta si deve intendere moglie, figlia, figlia legalmente adottata, madre, vedova, sorella, nipote, matrigna, figliastra, sorellastra, nonna, pronipote: ognuna, nelle condizioni suddette, che abbia compiuto i diciotto anni può essere eletta Membro dell'Ordine.
Esso è perciò un Ordine i cui Membri si trovano in relazione con la Libera Muratoria. L'Uomo che si trovi a perdere la presenza a pié di lista di una Loggia-Regolare, viene escluso dall'Ordine; la donna che perda il legame parentale per qualunque causa, una volta ammessa, non può più essere esclusa dall'Ordine.
L'ordine della Stella d'Oriente ha come scopo le attività beneficenti e caritatevoli,
sia verso i propri Membri, sia verso l'esterno; le sue attività beneficenti e caritatevoli possono o meno essere svolte in collaborazione con le analoghe attività svolte dai Liberi Muratori. Più ampiamente, gli scopi dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente sono:
- Fraterni, cioè rivolti ai legami di sorellanza e di fraternità che si creano tra i suoi Membri;
- Educativi, cioè rivolti alla promozione dello sviluppo etico, personale e sociale, dei propri Membri, oltre che al sostegno della crescita educativa dell'intera società;
- Scientifici, cioè diretti al sostegno della ricerca scientifica e culturale in generale a beneficio della collettività, oltre che della promozione culturale dei Membri;
- Caritatevoli a beneficio di tutta l'umanità bisognosa.
In questo senso, l'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente versa ogni anno delle somme ingenti a sostegno di numerose iniziative, scientifiche, come la ricerca sui tumori, educative, come assegni di studio universitari per studenti meritevoli ma privi di mezzi, beneficenti, come il totale sostegno di scuole per bambini dislessici. Ogni anno, l'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente raccoglie tra i propri Membri, e distribuisce a favore di iniziative di questo tipo, autonomamente o in collaborazione con le Grandi Logge del mondo, molti miliardi.
L'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente trova tutte le proprie ispirazioni e basa tutti i propri insegnamenti, su un solo Libro che considera Sacro, la Bibbia.
Su di essa si basano le lezioni rituali fondamentali che sono impartite ai Membri nel corso della loro appartenenza all'Ordine; su di essa ogni Membro è costantemente invitato a riflettere. Come dice il Regolamento dell'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente, "I
precetti della Sacra Scrittura guidino e governino la condotta dei Membri di quest'Ordine".
Pertanto, le lezioni dell'Ordine sono esclusivamente scritturali ed i suoi insegnamenti esclusivamente morali. L'Ordine della Stella d'Oriente lavora sia informalmente che Ritualmente. Il suo Rituale, dotato di un ricco simbolismo di provenienza Biblica ricorda a tutti gli Ufficiali i propri compiti, rammenta a tutti i Membri i propri doveri e invoca l'assistenza e l'aiuto dell'Altissimo per tutti i Membri e per l'Ordine in generale; nel corso delle cerimonie di iniziazione, trasmette ai nuovi Membri le lezioni scritturali fondamentali dell'Ordine, insegna ad interpretarne il simbolismo e richiede l'assunzione di una Obbligazione perpetua sull'Onore.
Tale Obbligazione è relativa alla riservatezza sui contenuti dei lavori, sull'appartenenza e sui modi di riconoscimento; oltre che alla difesa dei principi dell'ordine, alla partecipazione alle sue attività e all'obbedienza alle sue leggi e regolamenti.

Usciamo fuori con coraggio, per denunciare che il Grande Oriente d’Italia non si è mai aperto per paura di un attacco del Grande Leone Dormiente, in realtà però quest’ultimo, è sempre attento, vigile e affamato e coglie ogni occasione per aggredire.
Nelle pubblicazioni Inglesi delle “Antiche Costituzioni†del 1723 all’art. 1 si ribadisce: â€Io vi esorto ad onorare Dio nella sua Santa Chiesa, a non abbandonarvi all’eresia, allo scisma, all’errore, nei vostri pensieri o seguendo l’insegnamento di uomini senza creditoâ€.
Il Grande Oriente d’Italia esclude perentoriamente qualsiasi iniziazione femminile al proprio interno.
Ricordate, nei momenti di persecuzione storica e nei momenti della ricostruzione post-bellica, i fratellini si ricordano delle sorelline.
Un’esempio eclatante, l’apertura del futuro Gran Maestro del GOI in esilio, Alessandro Tedeschi, nel 1919.
SVILUPPARE!!!!!!!
Non tutti i Liberi Muratori condividono l'apertura alle donne che è, semmai, da porsi su un piano 'esoterico', non certo della cronaca i cui interpreti sono, quasi sempre, estranei alla lettura delle antiche norme delle corporazioni di mestiere delle quali spesso sconoscono pure l'esistenza…

Di recente il Gran Maestro L'Avv. Gustavo Raffi, ha risposto: “che il problema dovrà essere risolto a livello internazionaleâ€.
La Gran Loggia Unita Inglese ( UGLE), il 10 marzo del 1999, prende ufficialmente le “distanze†e chiarisce definitivamente il modo di comportarsi delle Grandi Logge “regolari†con l'organizzazione internazionale americana delle STELLE D'ORIENTE (Order of the Eastern Star). La inserisce tra i "corpi che interferiscono" con la massoneria, e fa notare che la partecipazione dei fratelli massoni "regolari" alle loro cerimonie è incompatibile. In effetti, un massone che fa parte di una Gran Loggia regolare, viola non solo le direttive internazionali, ma anche i Landmark. Ricordiamo che non solo i Profani o le organizzazioni "irregolari", tra le quali anche le Stelle d'Oriente, non possono lavorare nei templi massonici, dove lavorano gli uomini, e non possono neanche condividere i Templi.
E' il definitivo chiarimento alle "sette regole internazionali per il riconoscimento" deliberate nel lontano 1929 e accettate universalmente nel 1952.
In casa, gli inglesi, come si comportano?
In Inghilterra esistono associazioni iniziatiche squisitamente femminili che usano vari rituali, ad esempio, sull’Arte della tessitura. Altre Obbedienze esclusivamente femminili, adottano integralmente i rituali dei fratelli, come “L’Order of Women Freemasons “ che è un’ organizzazione massonica femminile molto presente e che conta oggi più di 300 logge. Sono state censite almeno due Gran Logge Femminini dalla United Grand Lodge of England, in Inghilterra e nel Galles e vengono definite "corpi d'imitazione":
THE HONOUABLE FRATERNITY OF ANCIENT FREEMASONS
68, GREAT CUMBERLAND PLACE, LONDON W1H7FD;
THE ORDER OF WOMEN’S FREEMASONS
27 PEMBRIDGE GARDENS, LONDON W24EF.
Non sono in rapporti ufficiali con la massoneria regolare, ma sono stimate, e da tempo esistono delle discussioni informali su tematiche di interesse comuni.
Nonostante i Landmarks, divieti imposti e reiterati, la massoneria “regolare†non ha evitato la presenza della donna nell’ambiente massonico o para-massonico, realtà sviluppatasi in Italia e in tutta l’ Europa tra l’Ottocento e i primi del Novecento, erede anche di una pratica associativa (segreta), quella della Carboneria, della Giovine Europa e con Mazzini che si occupò in particolare della filiale italiana, la Giovine Italia.
La setta dei Carbonari, aveva una formazione di donne, denominate Giardiniere, fra le figure di spicco indichiamo la Confalonieri, la Belgioioso, la Bianca Milesi.
Cristina di Belgioioso

Nata a Milano nel 1808 dalla nobile famiglia Trivulzio, sposò nel 1824 il principe Emilio Barbiano di Belgioioso, dal quale presto si separò tenendo con sé la figlia Maria. Educata all'arte, agli interessi sociali, all'attenzione per la condizione femminile da Bianca Milesi, cospirò contro l'Austria per cui dovette fuggire a Parigi, qui fondò un salotto intellettuale e politico tra i più prestigiosi e si dedicò alla diffusione della sua ideologia, in dimestichezza con Mamiani, Massari, Gioberti, Ferrari e dando vita a due importanti periodici, «La Gazzetta Italiana» e «L'Ausonio», ove accanto a scritti del Manzoni e del Vico diffuse notizie sulla realtà sociale della Lombardia. Nel 1842-46, nel suo feudo di Locate, si adoperò per creare istituzioni sansimoniane in favore delle donne del luogo. La rivoluzione del '48 la sorprese a Napoli, ma animosamente noleggiando un vapore e organizzando un corpo di armati, si portò a Milano, dove si adoperò perché casa Savoia accettasse un programma di profonde riforme. Nel 1849 fu incaricata da Mazzini di provvedere all'organizzazione della sanità nella difesa della Repubblica Romana ed ebbe accanto Margaret Fuller Ossoli e Giulia Modena. Caduta Roma, prese la strada dell'esilio e fu a Malta, in Grecia, in Turchia, in Medio Oriente. Gli ultimi anni li trascorse nelle sue ville lombarde di Locate e Merate, impegnata in opere sociali e in varie riflessioni sul problema femminile. Si spense a Milano nel 1871. Tra le sue opere ricordiamo: Essai sur la formation du dogme catholique (1843), Essai sur Vico (1844), Studi intorno alla storia della Lombardia negli ultimi trent'anni … (1847), Osservazioni sullo stato attuale dell'Italia e sul suo avvenire (1868), Sulla moderna politica internazionale (1869).
Giardiniere: con questo termine venivano chiamate tutte le donne che, appartenenti alla Carboneria, invece che radunarsi alle "vendite" si incontravano nei loro giardini. Ogni raggruppamento, giardino formale o aiuola, era composto da nove donne e, per entrare a farvi parte, queste dovevano superare un lungo periodo d’indagine:
· Apprendista: il motto era Costanza e Perseveranza, e in esso venivano illustrati i programmi operativi in atto
· Maestra Giardiniera: vi si arrivava dopo un lungo periodo di tirocinio, il motto era Onore e Virtù; era un livello piuttosto impegnativo e le donne erano autorizzate a portare un pugnale tra calza e giarrettiera.
Segno di riconoscimento era disegnare con la mano un semicerchio, toccandosi la spalla sinistra, poi quella destra e alla fine battere tre colpi sul cuore.
La Società delle Giardiniere cominciò ad agire in Lombardia durante e dopo il marzo del 1821, comunque già nel 1816 sulle rive dell’Olona era infuriata una battaglia romantica che aveva coinvolto tutto il popolo, e che lasciava presagire il malcontento popolare.
Inizialmente l’attività di queste donne non fu presa completamente sul serio, solo dopo il tentativo rivoluzionario del 1821 e dopo che furono giunte diverse notizie da Napoli su una Società delle Giardiniere, le cui componenti erano solite tenere un pugnale nella giarrettiera e usare un linguaggio molto acceso, ci si cominciò a chiedere se queste società esistessero realmente,soprattutto perché la donna, fino ad allora, era considerata solo nel suo ruolo di madre, moglie, sorella e amante e quindi i suoi sentimenti potevano essere legati all’area familiare-affettiva.
Molte furono le donne che vennero arrestate e processate, accusate di far parte di queste società giardiniere. I provvedimenti che furono presi nei loro confronti si differenziarono tra nord e sud.
Nel Lombardo – Veneto le giardiniere erano convinte che fosse sufficiente una congiura per cambiare le sorti del paese, non erano organizzate politicamente, non avevano una volontà comune. Furono interrogate e la maggior parte delle volte giudicate non perseguibili.
Nel Napoletano la congiura aveva assunto l’aspetto di un moto militare e le giardiniere furono incarcerate, torturate e condannate a vari anni di prigione.
Erano madri, erano giovani spose che intravedevano lontano, lontano le desolate madri piangenti di quei martiri, le giovani mogli piangenti, le sorelle piangenti, i teneri figlioletti orfanelli e derelitti; e gemevano e piangevano ……. “ e noi, oggi aggiungiamo, che tra loro c’erano le Cugine che giuravano nelle baracche sul pugnale prima L.O.M. “Liberta’ o Morteâ€, poi “Libertà ed Uguaglianza†ed infine “Fratelli d’Italia, L’Italia s’è desta!
Verso la metà del secolo, particolarmente in Francia ed in Germania, furono costituite varie società androgine, quasi massoniche, come l’ORDINE DELLE MOPSE, L’ORDRE DES CHEVALIERS ET CHEVALIèRES DE LA ROSE e L’ORDRE DE LA FèLICITè. Ci sono indicazioni che quest’ultima associazione mista sia stata attiva anche in Liguria, verso il 1745. Qualcuno afferma, che solo per la curiosità femminile, nacque la così detta Massoneria di Adozione, di impronta festaiola anche se con intenti filantropici.
In Francia già nel 1744 il cavaliere di Beauchène fonda le Logge di Adozione come filiazione di Logge maschili di cui portano il nome. Sono riservate alle consorti ed alle parenti dei Fratelli e vi si ricevono i gradi di Apprendista, Compagna, Maestra e Maestra Perfetta. Il Duca di Chartres vi inizia la moglie e la sorella, duchessa di Bourbon che ne diviene la Gran Maestra. Nel 1774 le Sorelle Massone “lavoravano†in tutti i paesi d’Europa, dove esistevano riunioni della Massoneria Maschile.Nello stesso anno si deve la nascita in Francia della famosa “Loggia delle Nove Sorelle†, che accoglieva molte donne di corte e che il Grande Oriente di Francia la riconobbe come Loggia di Adozione.
Nel 1774 il Grande Oriente di Francia sancì la “Costituzione delle Logge di Adozione, per consentire a questo gentil sesso di partecipare alla carità e alla filosofiaâ€.
A Parigi nel 1760 la loggia di adozione, fondata dal conte di Bernouville, accoglieva letterati, nobili ed artisti. Nel 1774 a Nimegue in una riunione di questo genere, presieduta dal Principe d’Orange e dal Principe di Waldeck, si raccolse tanto da fondare un ospizio per i poveri. Nel 1775, la loggia “S. ANTONIO†di Parigi, dopo l’istallazione della Gran Maestra duchessa di Borbone, fu raccolto molto denaro per liberare alcune persone povere in carcere, perché non avevano potuto pagare i mensili alle nutrici. La stessa Gran Maestra quattro anni dopo, in una delle solite riunioni fece raccogliere una buona somma di denaro per una povera famiglia di provincia, che con ingenua semplicità aveva gettato alla posta una domanda di soccorso così indirizzata: “Ai Signori Massoni di Parigiâ€.
Moltissimi altri esempi di carità si potrebbero citare ad onore della massoneria di adozione, che prosperava anche durante l’impero di Napoleone Bonaparte, sempre con carattere essenzialmente filantropico e con molto splendore.
La Massoneria era tanto in auge in Francia che Maria Antonietta scriveva in data 26 gennaio 1781: “Tutto il mondo vi partecipaâ€.
La partecipazione femminile alla Libera Muratoria, fu un grande argomento di dibattito in tutte le Massonerie latine, in un’epoca nella quale la donna si trovava in uno stato di inferiorità sociale e di dipendenza dall’uomo. Benché la discussione fosse stata avviata in ambienti dei gradi “azzurriâ€, fu nei gradi Scozzesi che si arrivò ai fatti.
Dalle logge femminili di Adozione, vere e proprie iniziazioni di donne , nei templi, furono praticate in Italia da Giuseppe Garibaldi, Gran Maestro effettivo del Grande Oriente d’Italia nel 1864 e Gran Maestro onorario a vitam, oltre che “Primo Massone d’Italiaâ€. Quando accolse le prime sorelle, Garibaldi scrisse che si accingeva a celebrarle coi poteri riconosciuti dalla Gran Loggia Unita d’ Inghilterra. Iniziò anche la figlia Teresita.
“Per il sesso debole Garibaldi stravedeva; fu uno dei più impegnati paladini della sua emancipazione. In questa campagna non si impose limiti, firmò diplomi di ogni genere, intestati a più o meno nobili dame, che non avevano nessuna perplessità nel vedere figurare i loro dati anagrafici in un documento massonico. Alla sorella Susanna Elena Carruthers, nata ad Edimburgo nel marzo del ’31 e dimorante a Pisa, fu consegnato nell’agosto 1867; nel luglio il Nizzardo sottoscrisse quello intestato alla ventiseienne Luigia Candia De Michelis.
Il primo accenno dell’Umanitario ad un’attività assimilabile a quella di una Loggia femminile è del 1867: “La Società Patriottica femminile di Milano, presieduta dall’ottima sorella Angelina Foldi, incaricò tre sorelle nostre, Batoli, Bracco e Marino, affinché distribuissero soccorsi agli straziati fratelli di Palermoâ€. Vi è poi un cenno a Candia De Michelis. I cognomi menzionati sono tutti presenti nelle cronache massoniche del decennio. Andrea Batoli era addirittura un 33mo del Supremo Consiglio di Palermo. Dobbiamo ancora all’Umanitario una notizia da Torino: all’inizio del’69 annunciò che “stava per fondersi una Loggia presieduta dalla Principessa Lascarisâ€. Altre informazioni riguardavano un brindisi “alle mopse della Federico Campanella di Modica†e alla moglie di Ferdinando Ferruggio, della Samaney, sposata con il solo matrimonio civile e premiata per questo “con l’ammissione all’Ordineâ€.â€
Nella storia massonica italiana il 1864 è l'anno in cui fu diffuso il Decreto del Gran Maestro Giuseppe Garibaldi sulla riforma della Massoneria in Italia e contenente anche le modalità per organizzare le cosiddette "Logge di Donne". Il documento inviato al Supremo Consiglio del Grande Oriente d'Italia stabiliva:
Caprera 15 maggio 1864 E.·.V.·.
A.·.G.·.D.·.G.·.A.·.D.·.U.·.
AL S.·.C.·.G.·.O.·. d'Italia residente provvisoriamente in Palermo.
Io G.·.M.·. della Massoneria Italiana del Rito Scozzese antico ed Accettato - riconosciuto dal Gr.·.M.·. della Massoneria Inglese sotto il medesimo Rito - a maggiormente riuscire al desiderato scopo dell'Unità Massonica italiana, propongo quanto segue:
1°. Esistendo nella città di Palermo il Sup.·.Cons.·. G.·.O.·. d'Italia di Rito Scozz.·. Ant.·. ed Acc.·., è mio desiderio che tutti i Corpi Mass.·. esistenti in Italia al medesimo Rito, si riuniscano a quello per cementare l'Unità sudetta.
2°. Tutti i Corpi Mass.·. che travagliano regolarmente con tutt'altro Rito, sono considerati conformi alle regole degli Statuti Generali dell'Ordine.
3°. Credo pure necessario che si riunisca la G.·.L.·.C.·. in Palermo, ove intervengano i rispettivi deputati di tutte le LL.·. esistenti in Italia che vogliono a noi unirsi, onde possano intendersi.
4°. Saranno create delle LL.·. di Donne, a fine di vieppiù facilitare i nostri lavori, conferendo esse col S.·.C.·.G.·.O.·. d'Italia residente provvisoriamente a Palermo.
Le presenti proposizioni da me firmate, saranno promulgate e lette in tutte le LL.·. Mass.·. d'Italia.
G. Garibaldi 33.·.°
La creazione delle logge di donne faceva parte dell'ambizioso progetto di Garibaldi di diffondere i principi laici e massonici nella società italiana post-unitaria mediante una collaborazione tra massoneria e mondo femminile attraverso l'Adozione, della quale il Generale fu il più illustre sostenitore. Si svilupparono così le logge di Adozione nate in un periodo critico per la massoneria post risorgimentale afflitta da problemi e divisioni interne.
Il Decreto venne pubblicato su L'Umanitario, anno I, n. 12, Palermo, 1867, p. 6. L'Umanitario era il bollettino del Supremo Consiglio di Rito Scozzese del Grande Oriente d'Italia. Il testo del Decreto fu perentoriamente diffuso dall'Organo Supremo alle Logge esortandole: "(..) a voler concorrere con i loro lavori, acciò sia conseguito il fine supremo che ci propone il detto sommo Cittadino, quello cioè, dell'Unità Mass.·. Italiana. Ed il Sup.·. Cons.·. stenderà le braccia con gaudio a tutti coloro che si coopereranno per cotanto sublime e santo scopo".
Giuseppe Belmonte, Duca di Santangelo, venerabile della Loggia “I FIGLI DELL’ETNAâ€, decise di portare la sua pietra al grande edificio massonico del Supremo Consiglio Scozzese di Palermo che Garibaldi dichiarava di voler costruire. Nella metà del 1868 fece battezzare in Loggia la figlia ARGIA dalla Contessa Giulia Caracciolo Cigala.
Tra le nobil dame, spicca per impegno e tenacia la Contessa Cigala.
“La contessa Cigala, assieme alla sorella Enrichetta onnipresente militante femminile dell’ esoterismo massonico italiano, movimentò in molte occasioni la scena profana dell’ex Regno di Napoli, alleandosi con chiunque le capitasse sotto mano. Due esempi ne configurano la personalità: l’Anti-Concilio di Napoli, promosso nel dicembre 1869 da Giuseppe Ricciardi in contrapposizione al Vaticano I, la vide con la sorella attivissima organizzatrice; in occasione della spedizione garibaldina del 1867, conclusasi con la débàcle di Mentana, un manipoli di volontari da lei patrocinato le fece dono di una bandiera conquistata in una scaramuccia con i papalini. “
Enrichetta Caracciolo

Quinta delle otto figlie del comandante Caracciolo, cadetto di una nobile famiglia napoletana, Enrichetta nacque nel 1821. Alla morte del padre, la madre la rinchiuse presso il convento di clausura delle suore benedettine di San Gregorio Armeno, dove fu costretta a pronunciare i voti. In convento, a causa del suo atteggiamento, ma soprattutto delle letture clandestine, venne ben presto gratificata dalla nomea di rivoluzionaria, favorevole ai liberali e contraria alla monarchia. L'ambiente chiuso e retrivo in cui era costretta a vivere la spinse più volte a richiedere alla Sacra Rota, a Gregorio XVI e a Pio IX lo scioglimento dei voti, che però non ottenne per la tenace opposizione del cardinale Riario Sforza, arcivescovo di Napoli. I disturbi nervosi di cui mostrava di soffrire le permisero tuttavia di lasciare il convento almeno durante il giorno. Ma, accusandola di connivenza con i liberali, il cardinale Riario ottenne facilmente l'autorizzazione a farla arrestare e a costringerla ad anni di assoluta segregazione. Nel 1854, ottenuta la libertà condizionata, Enrichetta riprese i contatti con le società segrete di Napoli, sfuggendo alla polizia e al clero che la ricercavano. La liberazione della città, nel 1860, significò per lei l'inizio di una nuova vita che culminò nel matrimonio con l'inglese Greuthen. Nel 1864, in un meridione tutt'altro che pacificato e retto da leggi speciali e tribunali militari, pubblicò le sue memorie
Nell’ Assemblea del 1867 De Luca , affrontò un tema quanto mai attuale, la questione dei rapporti fra donna e Massoneria:
RIviviamo periodicamente la questione delle Figlie di adozione e delle Mopse. Le Figlie di adozione , istituzione francese, sono dame di carità; il loro ufficio è l’esercizio della beneficenza. – Le Mopse, da mops (cane in teutonico), simbolo di fedeltà, sorsero nel medio evo cogli anatemi di Roma; si davano loro a conservare gli oggetti massonici, - L a questione delle Figlie di adozione e delle mopse , decisa in massima , è per l’attuazione, questione di tempo. L’educazione impartita fino ad ora alle nostre donne non permise ancora al G.O. di fare un passo in questa via di progresso, ed il Fr. Macchi, qui presente, comunque caldo partigiano della muliebre abilitazione, pure dovette piegare dinanzi alle prepotenti condizioni dell’attualità – Buoni padri di famiglia, educhiamo le nostre figlie ai nobili sentimenti della beneficenza, togliamole all’incubo del pregiudizio, apprendiamo loro a sapersi condurre nel mondo, diamo loro l’esempio del rispetto alla donna, e verrà tempo che saranno buone ausiliare dell’Ordine nostro. Ammettendole ora a parte dei nostri lavori verrebbero facilmente a screditare colla loro leggerezza la più pura delle istituzioni. Però non si perda di vista la questione, e la si studi onde arrivare allo scopoâ€
Anche la famosa Madamme Blavatsky (Helena Petrovna), fondatrice della Società Teosofica – New York 1875 – fu iniziata ad un’ alto grado del Rito di Memphis-Misraim dal Gran Gerofante Universale Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Il momento storico in cui si concreta formalmente una svolta, tramantata nel tempo, rispetto al ruolo istituzionale della donna all’interno della Libera Muratoria, coincide con l’azione di Marie Deraismes.
In Europa, la soluzione la diedero parzialmente , GEORGE MARTIN e gli altri fratelli della Loggia “ I Liberi pensatori di Pecqâ€, con la iniziazione massonica nel febbraio del 1882 ai primi tre gradi della sorella Maria Deraismes (1828-1894), che fondarono a Parigi nel 1893/4 la Gran Loggia Simbolica Scozzese Mista di Francia, detta anche “ LE DROIT HUMAINâ€- ( Il Diritto Umano).
Il Fr. Gorge Martin 30° grado (volontario garibaldino) appartenente al Rito Scozzese che nel 1860 era Oratore all’Assemblea Costituente della GRAN LOGGIA SIMBOLICA SCOZZESE – oggi: GRAN LOGGIA DI FRANCIA.
La “FEDERATION MIXTE DU DROIT HUMAIN », l’aggettivo « Mixte » fa riferimento al fatto che questa associazione, attiva soprattutto nel campo dei diritti umani, accoglie tra le sue file sia uomini che donne a parità di diritti.
Maria Deraismes (1828-1894)
Résolument républicaine et démocrate, elle participe activement à diverses associations pour la défense des droits des femmes. S'inscrivant dans une lutte contre l'antiféminisme, elle publie tout au long de sa vie de nombreux ouvrages en faveur de l'émancipation des femmes.
Elle organise avec Léon Richer, le 11 juillet 1870, le premier banquet féministe et en août 1878, le premier congrès international du droit des femmes.
Dès 1881, elle devient la première femme à prendre la direction d'un journal "Le Républicain de Seine et Oise".
Le 14 janvier 1882, elle est reçue apprentie Franc-maçonne, à la loge Les Libres Penseurs au Pecq. Dès lors, elle ne cesse de lutter pour une véritable reconnaissance et admission des femmes en Franc-maçonnerie. Cette lutte soutenue par le docteur Georges Martin aboutit à la création de la maçonnerie mixte du Droit Humain en avril 1893.
Successivo alla costituzione della Gran Loggia, l’’11 MAGGIO 1899, ci fu la costituzione del SUPREMO CONSIGLIO DEL 33° ED ULTIMO GRADO DELLA MASSONERIA SCOZZESE MISTA INTERNAZIONALE, il solo che può rilasciare le investiture costitutive delle “Officine†Miste dal 1° al 33° grado incluso per tutto il mondo.
Affiliata al “Droid Humain†fu Annie Besant, allieva prediletta della Madamme Blavatsky (Helena Petrovna) alla cui opera si deve nel 1902, l’introduzione in Inghilterra della “Co-Masonryâ€. Sei anni dopo la fondazione a Londra della “Human Duty†ad opera della Besant, sorse la “Honorable Fraternità of Ancient Masonry†, poi diventata “The Order of Women Free Masonsâ€, mentre nel 1913 nasceva la “Honorabke Fraternità of Ancient Freemasonsâ€. Di notevole importanza “The Order of Ancient Free and Accepted Masonry for Men and Woman†fondato dalla Bothwell-Gosse nel 1925.
Le origini de LE DROIT HUMAIN nel nostro paese risalgono al 1915, quando fu introdotta per opera da M. Spasiano e E. Donvito ( che furono poi membri del Gruppo Massonico che si richiamava a Palazzo Brancaccio), con Bolla-Patente del 20 agosto 1915.
In Italia presente ufficialmente dall’ 01 ottobre del 1922 con il Rappresentante del Supremo Consiglio il Pot.mo Fr. FABIO VALENTINO 33 e dopo gli sconvolgimenti politici del 1925 la Federazione Italiana si mette in “sonnoâ€, per riprendere pieno riconoscimento nel 1951 (decreto del 28/01) che riconosce il Governo eletto nella tornata dell’ 8-9-10 dicembre 1950, quale organismo direttivo della Federazione Italiana del Diritto Umano e presidente viene eletto il Pot. Fr. Agostino Caporlingua 33 . Attualmente la Federazione italiana è presente con 15 logge e 150 iscritte.
Persegue la conoscenza di se stessi secondo gli insegnamenti di donne come Annie Besant, filosofa della società teosofica parigina, e di Maria Montanari, Gran maestra in Italia fino al 1985.
Leggiamo e riportiamo nella Dichiarazione di principi:
“ART.01 l’Ordine Massonico Misto Internazionale “Il Diritto Umano†afferma l’uguaglianza essenziale dei due esseri umani, l’uomo e la Donna. Proclamando “Il Diritto Umano†l’Ordine vuole che essi giungano su tutta la terra a godere – in maniera uguale – della giustizia sociale, in una Umanità organizzata in Società libere e fraterne.
ART.02 Composta da Massoni dei due sessi, fraternamente uniti, senza distinzione di razze, di religione, di filosofie, l’Ordine s’impone, per raggiungere tale scopo, un metodo rituale simbolico, grazie al quale i suoi membri edificano il loro Tempio alla perfezione ed alla Gloria dell’Umanità.â€

Alcuni massoni nel pieno spirito “garibaldino†non potevano che diventare alleati delle donne “uomini liberiâ€, che rivendicavano un ruolo attivo, anche nella massoneria, non solo durante le guerre, ma principalmente negli anni della ricostruzione post-bellico.
Nell’anno 1900, a Napoli esisteva un
“ANTICO ed ORTODOSSO SUPREMO CONSIGLIO dei 33.:
Federazione italiana di R∴S∴A∴ed A∴ e delle sorelle MOPSEâ€.
Ma ebbe scarso sviluppo.
Come veniva considerata la presenza delle Mopse, dal Gran Maestro del Grande Oriente d’Italia Francesco De Luca (in carica dal1864 al1867):
“ Riviene periodicamente la questione delle figlie di adozione o mopse - così DE LUCA affrontò il problema - Istituzione francese, esse sono dame di carità; il loro ufficio è l’esercizio della beneficenza; sorsero nel Medio Evo con gli anatemi di Roma; si davano loro a conservare gli oggetti massonici. La questione delle figlie di adozione, decisa in massima è, per attuazione, questione di tempo. L’educazione impartita fino ad ora alle nostre donne non permise al Grande Oriente di fare un passo in questa via di progresso. Buoni padri di famiglia, educhiamo le nostre figlie ai nobili sentimenti della beneficenza, togliamole all’incubo del pregiudizio, apprendiamo loro a sapersi condurre nel mondo e verrà tempo che saranno buone ausiliarie dell’Ordine nostro. Mettendole ora a parte dei nostri lavori verrebbero facilmente a screditare colla loro leggerezza la più pura delle Istituzioni.â€
I vari Gran Maestri della massoneria italiana, dovettero affrontare gli anni della pubblicistica antimassonica; ove l’ammissione delle donne, anche se a titolo diverso e in ruolo subalterno, dava facilmente adito a polemiche e ad accuse.
Leo Taxil, inventò anche una Massoneria Palladica che egli chiamò “Rito Palladio Riformato†, dedita a piccole orge, con Gran Sacerdotessa Diana Vaughan.
Con la morte del Gran Maestro del Grande Oriente d’Italia, Adriano Lemmi nel 1906 e l’elezione a Sovrano Gran Maestro del R.S.A.A. di Achille Ballori e luogotenente Saverio Fera, l’unità massonica maschile italiana cessa nel 1908.
Si ebbero così due Massonerie dette dei Ferriani e dei Balloriani che, dal luogo delle rispettive sedi, assunsero il nome di Piazza del Gesù e di Palazzo Giustiniani. Dal caos massonico italiano che ne seguì , che si protrarrà fino al 1961 e al 1973, nacquero alcuni gruppi, fondati da coloro che non volevano prendere posizione in favore degli uni o degli altri. Fra questi, uno era capeggiato dal fratello Edoardo Frosini, noto anche come dottor Hermes, fondatore di una loggia di Rito Simbolico a Firenze e dimissionario dal G.O.I. l’8 febbraio 1909, fondò il Rito Filosofico Italiano.
In Italia per la prima volta il Rito Filosofico Italiano nel 1910 ammise le donne con gli stessi diritti e doveri degli uomini, escludendosi però le maritate con profani e ponendo alle nubili l’obbligo di sposare Massoni: limitazioni che non sembrano compatibili con la libertà, specie in questo delicato campo.
Sempre in quegli anni – dicembre 1910- in Italia il Rito Filosofico Italiano, risolveva per conto suo la questione delle donne in loggia, ammettendole con gli stessi diritti e doveri degli uomini ( con alcuni limiti). Nelle sue Costituzioni si legge:
“L’Articolo 12 - Si ammettono a titolo regolare tanto l’uomo che la donna. Non possono, per altro, essere ammesse donne unite in matrimonio con un Profano; le sorelle nubili debbono promettere sul loro onore che esse non contrarranno matrimonio che con un Libero Muratoreâ€.
Il Rito , ebbe un suo momento di notorietà fino all’inizio della seconda guerra mondiale.
Con la vittoria e il ritorno alle logge il Rito Filosofico ritenne di aver compiuto il suo mandato e si sciolse. I suoi membri si ricongiunsero al Supremo Consiglio del Rito Scozzese Antico ed Accettato per l’Italia e sue Colonie di Piazza del Gesù 47 di Roma ……….
Un tentativo di risveglio del tutto irregolare è stato effettuato nel 1973 o ’74 dal Savona – Piazza del Gesù - , che esibiva patenti che furono ritenute irregolari del G.O.I.
Nel nord dell'Italia sempre agli inizi del 1900, da un’Obbedienza Mista, la
GRAN LOGGIA MISTA SIMBOLICA ITALIANA,
su sollecitudine del GRANDE ORIENTE d’ITALIA , precisamente dal RITO SIMBOLICO ITALIANO (1912), nacque e visse per qualche tempo una Gran Loggia, formata esclusivamente da donne che praticava e governava i soli primi tre gradi simbolici.
:
GRAN LOGGIA FEMMINILE d’ITALIA
di cui fu Gran Maestra Lavinia Holl’o e Gran Maestra Aggiunta Anna Franchi ,
“Massoneria Femminile Italiana – Ia Assemblea Costituente.
29 Marzo 1913.
Ill∴ e Car∴ Sorella,
Questa Sereniss∴Gr∴ Loggia, venuta a conoscenza delle deliberazione prese, nell’ultima sua tenuta, del Grand’Oriente d’Italia a proposito di una costituente organizzazione iniziatica di Donne, ritenuto di aderire a questa nuova organizzazione che sostanzialmente risponde agli scopi che la Gran Loggia Mista Simbolica d’Italia si è preposti, ha deliberato di sospendere i suoi lavori e di convocare in Roma nel giorno 30 marzo p.v. ad ore 14, nella sala cortesemente concessa dalla Sereniss∴Gr∴ Loggia di Rito Simbolico Italiano, in via Dogana Vecchia 29 (Palazzo Giustiniani), tutti i gruppi di donne già organizzati massonicamente nelle varie città d’Italia per discutere …..â€
Un’autorevole fratello scozzese del tempo, Liborio Granone 33 del Supremo Consiglio del R.S.A.A. di Piazza del Gesu’ 47 , scriveva nel 1915:
…†L’unica soluzione è quella di permettere e di agevolare la formazione di una specie di massoneria femminile, esclusivamente femminile. Gli Ordini regolari dovrebbero avere diretti rapporti con essa, secondo norme da stabilirsi di comune accordo, in modo però da evitare qualsiasi vincolo di dipendenza. Le decisioni dei primi non dovrebbero imporsi alla seconda, come la condotta di questa non dovrebbe compromettere quelli. Ognuno per conto proprio e tutti guidati del trinomio Libertà – Uguaglianza – Fratellanza per beneficiare i popoli, agevolando lo sviluppo generale del progresso, combattendo il dispotismo e propugnando la giustizia, la pace e la verità sempre e dovunque.
In tal guisa si eviterebbero tutti i deplorevoli inconvenienti dannosi, cagionati sia dalla esclusione totale delle donne dal movimento iniziatici, che dalla loro ammissione nelle logge regolari maschili. Non sarà magari una massoneria perfetta, specialmente nei primi tempi, ma benefici se ne avranno molti, perché risulta necessario organizzare le donne con vincoli solenni ed in segreto , dati i pregiudizi sociali che ancora imperano a vantaggio dei preti. Sul riguardo possono sorgere divergenze secondarie, ma è impossibile trascurare ancora la donna.
Queste per altro progrediscono quotidianamente con impressionante rapidità. Il secolo ventesimo sarà ricordato anche per la pacifica rivoluzione femminile, che si compie sotto i nostri occhi. La donna non è più esclusa dalla vita pubblica e professionale. Essa lavora nei campi e nelle industri, insegna nelle scuole, esercita la medicina ed altre professioni, partecipa al commercio, parla nei comizi e nei congressi, in certi paesi entra anche nei parlamenti, sostiene la concorrenza degli uomini, si afferma sempre più nelle arti, nelle e nelle scienze.
La donna insomma non è più serva, non è più serva, non è strumento di piacere, non è povero simulacro umano confinato nelle alcove e nelle cucine, o nel focolare domestico, se si ama la idilliaca retorica, che in sostanza è falsa e rancida – per subire continuamente la tirannica volontà maschile. Essa si risveglia, si redime e lotta vittoriosa non per il predominio, ma per avere gli stessi diritti e doveri degli uomini, per essere libera come questi, per rendersi degna di appartenere all’umanità. Il suo progresso intellettuale, etico, politico e così via è inarrestabile, travolge pregiudizi e superstizioni, contribuisce allo sviluppo della civiltà ed assicura efficaci impulsi al graduale miglioramento dell’individuo e dell’umana convivenza…â€
“ Ond’è lodevole lo sforzo di alcune benemerite donne, che in Italia han fatto sorgere e diffondere la massoneria femminile, la cui Gran Maestre è la sig. [ non la chiama Sorella] Lavinia Holl’ assai nota specialmente nel campo magistrale per le sue non comuni virtù di organizzatrice tenace e valorosa. La Gran Loggia Femminile d’Italia si è regolarmente costituita nel 1912, essa pratica e governa i solo primi gradi simbolici e svolge un’azione prevalentemente filantropica ed educativa. La sua divisa è: Patria – Famiglia – Umanità – Libertà – Uguaglianza – Fratellanza. La Gran Loggia ha fondato alcune officine e conta un buon numero di affiliate.
Questo nuovo sodalizio iniziatici potrà fare molto bene, specialmente dal punto di vista intellettuale e filantropico, se persisterà senza tentennamenti. Bisogna che vada avanti e che abbia fiducia nelle proprie forze e nel proprio avvenire, perché la sua missione non è facile, né di poco conto: redimere le donne italiane, che in massima parte ancora non sanno sottrarsi alla nefasta influenza pretesca. Di contro il Vaticano è necessario che sorga ed abbia vita rigogliosa e feconda anche la massoneria femminile, alla quale perciò non dovrebbe mancare la solidarietà costante dei liberi muratoriâ€
Testimonianza certa, che la presenza femminile nelle Logge era frequente, ma a quel tempo esistevano piccoli gruppi sparsi sul territorio già organizzati massonicamente. Qualche vecchio massone, afferma che l’Obbedienza, anche se con un numero d'aderenti molto limitato, vive ancora.
Alla fine del XIX secolo, il movimento di emancipazione femminile pose nuovamente in evidenza la questione dell’accesso delle donne nelle logge massoniche, ma non nella forma spuria delle logge di adozione, che pur aveva soddisfatto le nobildonne del Settecento, bensì secondo le identiche regole iniziatiche e rituali riservate agli uomini. Queste decise rivendicazioni aprirono, nella storia massonica, il capitolo delle Obbedienze “rosaâ€.
I primi anni del 900, vide il nascere di una moltitudine di Obbedienze miste, o esclusivamente femminili o composte da gran logge “a sessi separatiâ€.
Anche il movimento massonico femminile fu disperso durante il fascismo, e si ricostituì nel secondo dopoguerra.
L’11 ottobre del 1925, i Fascisti romani, guidati dal famigerato federale Italo Foschi, assaltarono le Sede del R.S.A.A. e della Serenissima Gran Loggia, sita in Piazza del Gesù al n° 47. Gli squadristi erano un centinaio e nella loro furia devastatrice non risparmiarono niente, nemmeno i busti di Garibaldi, Mazzini, Obberdan e Bovio. I labari e un gran ritratto ad olio del Palermi furono portati per scherno per le vie della Capitale ed infine bruciati.
Sin dal dopoguerra è iniziata la lacrimevole fioritura di iniziative massoniche, che ha portato i Massoni a difendersi da una belligeranza interna quasi permanente. La Massoneria si offre al basso intrigo di corridoio e all’infedeltà di chi anche gli ha “giurato†(o impegno massonico) obbedienza. A questo riguardo ci sembra opportuno ricordare quanto scritto da Christian Jacq.
“Il suolo del Tempio massonico è un pavimento a mosaico, cioè una sorta di scacchiera in cui s’alternano caselle bianche e nere. Esso raffigura allegoricamente il mondo, che è luce e tenebre a un tempo. Si potrebbe inoltre affermare che è un’eloquente rappresentazione della storia dell’Ordine Massonico, comprendente periodi costruttivi e fasi di decadenzaâ€.
“Quando la Massoneria riprese nel nostro Paese i suoi lavori dopo la forzata interruzione ventennale, si ricostituì anche quella femminile ad iniziativa della sorella M. A. COSTA – CAVINI, la quale , già in possesso di un vecchio brevetto di Rosa – Croce, si pose dapprima alla obbedienza di un Gruppo Simbolico, dando successivamente vita, a seguito di difficoltà sorte, ad un Rito autonomo femminile, di cui assunse la Gran Maestranza onoraria, costituzione di un Supremo Consiglio sul modello Scozzese.
Sappiamo che la Sorella Costa-Cavini è una perfetta iniziata, dotata di grande fede, di tenace volontà, di adeguata cultura, di alto spirito filantropico e che essa dalla mamma apprese, quand’era bambina, il valore della sciarpa massonica, decorante il corpo esanime del nonno, il quale, passato all’Oriente Eterno, le lasciò il nobile retaggio spirituale che la condusse più tardi all’iniziazione. Sappiamo anche che attorno a lei è un eletto cenacolo di sorelle tutte docenti universitarie.â€
Le esigenze del 1946 erano determinate dalle misure fasciste e dalla guerra, che lontanamente si possono paragonare agli anni successivi delle varie “scissioni†e “diaspore†che hanno determinato il “caos†e talvolta la “contraffazione†dei filoni storici della Massoneria Italiana.

L’incontrollata proliferazione di formazioni Massoniche o sedicenti tali, prive di radici e di riferimenti, spinge spesso i promotori ad adottare indebitamente il nome di “PIAZZA DEL GESU’ â€, per indubbio prestigio che assicura tale denominazione, sinonimo in Italia ed all’estero, di Massoneria a carattere spiccatamente tradizionale ed esoterico.
Infatti, la maggior parte di essi, si richiama a quei membri di “PIAZZA DEL GESU’ †che non accettarono l’incorporazione nel G.O.I. (andando “in sonno†o costituendo nuclei separati dopo il 1945 e il 1973) o all’artefice della fusione; altri, di più recente costituzione, sono nati dopo la scomunica internazionale inglese di “irregolarità†(1993) del GRANDE ORIENTE d’ITALIA di “PALAZZO GIUSTINIANI†.
Anni in cui il potere politico, pur essendo fecondo di grandi realizzazioni massoniche, indebolì notevolmente la compagine spirituale esistente fra i Fratelli. Nulla più delle divergenze in materia politica è causa di inimicizia fra i Fratelli, convinti della potenza dell’Ordine, si infiltrarono nelle Logge, per conseguire finalità di lucro individuali, per ottenere facilitazioni nella vita e nella carriera profana e per affermarsi nella vita politica.
“La Massoneria è sempre viva e perciò sempre attuale quando fa Massoneria; è sempre in ritardo e sempre battuta quando la protende a forza politica, a centro di potere, a scuola ideologica†.
Dopo il forzato assonnamento, si parla nel rapporto riservatissimo del Commissario Capo di P.S. Giuseppe Dosi presso il Center Intelligence Corps, il 9 febbraio del 1946, scriveva al punto : “ 5) A Roma assicurasi trovasi presso Piazza Ungheria una loggia massonica femminile appartenente alla Massoneria di adozione che ammette le donne e della quale è Venerabile una professoressa 70 enne.â€
In Italia c’erano donne che avevano brevetti massonici del Rito Filosofico Italiano, del DROIT HUMAIN e di altre Gran Logge o Obbedienze Miste che si erano estinte nelle varie fusioni o proseguivano come Miste , che bussavano alle porte dei Templi delle Massonerie Italiane di R.S.A.ed A.
Il R.S.A.ed A., a differenza della massoneria simbolica, aveva attinto gli alti gradi da una tradizione lontana, non artigianale ma cavalleresca e aristocratica. La prima loggia di maestri scozzesi si riunì a Londra nel 1733 tre anni dopo che il cavaliere Andrè Michel Ramsay, precorritore dei Riti Scozzesi, veniva iniziato Libero Muratore.
Nel 1762 con la promulgazione delle Costituzioni di Losanna e delle Costituzioni di Federico II di Prussica la fisionomia del rito era in gran parte completa. Ufficialmente, però, il primo Supremo Consiglio del Rito Scozzese fu eletto a Charleston nella Caroline del Sud (U.S.A.) il 1801; il secondo, a Parigi nel 1804. In Italia il primo Supremo Consiglio fu costituito a Milano nel 1805.
Il Rito Scozzese non ha mai riconosciuto la Massoneria Mista o una Massoneria Femminile, ma uomini con alti gradi hanno sempre favorito, almeno in Italia dal dopoguerra fino ai nostri giorni, la nascita di una Massoneria Femminile, perché ritenuta priva di discordie o peggio, che affliggono invece, ancora largamente, la o le Massoneria maschile.
Scriveva GINO PELAGGI 33 sul Notiziario del 1948 del “SUPREMO CONSIGLIO D’ITALIA DEL 33 ED ULTIMO GRADO DI R. S. A. ed A. PER L’ITALIA, SUE COLONIE E DIPENDENZEâ€:
“Quali i rapporti che i Supremi Consigli regolari di Rito Scozzese possono avere con la Massoneria Femminile? Senza dubbio fraterni, pur se necessariamente soltanto ufficiosi fino a quando il CONVENTUM INTERNAZIONALE non avrà adottata una determinazione, che noi pensiamo, per le ragioni anzidette, debba condurre al riconoscimento delle Logge femminili.
Si dirà che i Landmarks parlano di “uominiâ€; che gli old charges si riferiscono solo a “fratelli†ed, analogamente, le Costituzioni Anderson del 1717 e di Federico di Prussica del 1786; mentre le dichiarazioni di principi, approvate nel Conventum di Losanna del 1875, sancendo che la “Massoneria è aperta agli uomini di tutte le nazionalitàâ€, sembra escludere le donne.
Anzitutto le Costituzioni di Anderson, quando, al n. 4, parlano dell’iniziazione, fanno riferimento a persona di età non inferiore ai 25 anni, senza quindi distinzione di sesso.
Ma, a prescindere da ciò, a noi sembra inconsistente sottigliezza quella di voler inferire da una locuzione adoperata al maschile un divieto per le donne, che avrebbe dovuto essere, nel caso, sancito espressamente; mentre usualmente si adopera il maschile: sicchè “uomo†diventa, nel linguaggio comune, quando il vocabolo viene adoperato in senso generale, sinonimo ed equivalente di “individuoâ€, parola, quest’ultima, che non consente distinzione di sesso.
Pur se nelle Grandi Costituzioni non si accenna alle donne, da ciò volendosi desumere il divieto di iniziarle, nulla impedisce che il Conventum apporti una modifica in senso positivo ed esplicativo. Il mondo cammina e si evolve e questa realtà, che è nella legge del progresso, consigliò appunto Federico II di sancire che le Costituzioni possano essere modificate nel Congressi Internazionali, come infatti si fece a Losanna nel 1875. Solo i Landmarkes sono intangibili; ma essi consentono, come abbiamo visto, una interpretazione la quale non è di ostacolo alla soluzione auspicata.
E’ questa, quindi, una questione che dovrà decidere il Conventum e tre soluzioni si presentano: o l’esclusione, o l’ammissione delle donne nelle Loggie insieme con gli uomini, o la costituzione di una vera e propria Massoneria femminile. Noi siamo per quest’ultima determinazione, che varrebbe ad evitare da una parte, gli inconvenienti dannosi derivanti dall’assenza delle donne nelle Officine, e dall’altra l’ eterossia di un Rito Misto che, almeno come tale, non potrebbe essere riconosciuto, perché contrastante col tradizionalismo scozzese.
Si stabilirebbero, di comune accordo, i rapporti che dovrebbero intercorrere tra gli Ordini maschili e femminili, eliminando interferenze e vincoli di dipendenza; ma dovrebbero consentirsi almeno lo scambio di visite che servirebbero per cementare i vincoli di comune fraternità.
Così le donne, che dovrebbero, naturalmente, modellare i loro lavori con lo stesso rito, costituendo sia la Gran Loggia che il Supremo Consiglio, avrebbero il vantaggio di lavorare in un clima di omogeneità, particolarmente dedicandosi, secondo le loro speciali attitudini, alle opere esistenziali, evitando l’imbarazzo della egemonia maschile, che finisce sempre con l’affermarsi nelle Loggie miste, cagionando una prevalenza di sesso ingiusta ed inopportuna.â€
Su iniziativa di alcune Obbedienze che si richiamavano a “PIAZZA del GESU’†(fondata dal Pot.mo SAVERIO FERA nel 1908), fu sponsorizzata già nel lontano 1945 con il gruppo della REGGENZA , una GRAN LOGGIA FEMMINILE.
All’ombra del GRUPPO di PALAZZO BRANCACCIO (1946),-MASSONERIA UNIVERSALE DI R.S.A.A. Piazza del Gesù - Sovr.: Gran.: Comm.: Gran Maestro ANDREA FINOCCHIARO APRILE 33.: ( ove confluirono i Fr. M. Spasiano e E. Donvito del DROID HUMAIN) , ebbe “Luce†la:
COMUNIONE ITALIANA della MASSONERIA FEMMINILE
GRAN LOGGIA NAZIONALE FEMMINILE d’ITALIA di R. S.A.ed A.,
Dopo la mozione votata dal Congresso massonico femminile tenutosi in Roma il 18.03.1951 E.:V.:…. Omissis…… fu approvato:
Art.1°) E’ autorizzata la creazione di un Triangolo di Sorelle massone investite del 33.: ed ultimo grado in Italia col comando di erigere e costruire una Piramide scozzese femminile;
Art.2°) A comporre il predetto Triangolo sono chiamate le Pot.: Sorelle Amelia Donvito, Elettra Ruffoli E Bice Rinaldi, Fondatrici Della massoneria femminile dei gradi simbolici in Italia che saranno investite nelle forme del rito.
Art.3°) A rappresentare i Grandi Ignoti nel Governo del Rito e dell’Ordine femminile in Italia, sedente in Roma, sono designati gl’Ill.: e Pot.: Frr.: Finocchiaro Aprile 33.:, Spasiano Mario 33.: ed Ezio Garibaldi 33:.
L’operato e l’attivismo decennale delle sorelle, anticipò di molto la costituzione in Francia, della Gran Loggia Femminile di Francia (1952) e fu prima massoneria tutta al femminile che adotto tutti i gradi della Piramide Scozzese del R.S.A. ed A. (dal primo al trentatreesimo grado) in piena ritualità, non come ancora oggi succede (anche per gli uomini) con il dare i gradi Scozzesi in modo virtuali. Un primato che viene riconosciuto oggi dalle sorelle francesi della:
GRANDE LOGE FEMININE DE FRANCE
60, rue Vitruve- 75020 Paris
che hanno assunto il ruolo di Gran Loggia Madre, diffondendo o regolarizzando le logge femminili in tutta l’Europa, rilasciando patenti di “regolarità†alle Grandi o Piccole Logge Femminili. Dai primi anni del 1960, le sorelle francesi hanno portato la "Luce massonica" su tutta l'Europa e non solo, hanno creato dei centri di collegamento internazionale che riunisce tutte le Obbedienze Femminili quale il C L I M A F - Centre de Liaison International de la Maçonnerie féminine .
La Gran Loggia conta oggi più di 11.000 sorelle, presenti in più di 300 logge.
La GRAN LOGGIA NAZIONALE FEMMINILE d’ITALIA di R. S. A .ed A., visse subito dopo la fine della seconda guerra, e si estinse quando questo gruppo massonico di-Palazzo Brancaccio - confluì nel GOI nel 1958.
Al tempo, nessuno contestò all’avvenuta “fusioneâ€, la presenza degli alti dignitari scozzesi nelle logge di sorelle massoni, tutto di pubblico dominio.
Sempre, tra i gruppi che legittimamente o illegittimamente , si richiamavano a “Piazza del Gesù ferianoâ€, ebbe grande scalpore , dieci anni prima, siamo nel 1948 l’affissione e la diffusione nelle grandi città d’Italia diretto alle Sorelle a firma Agata Astuni 3∴ della
GRANDE LOGGIA MASSONICA DELLE DAME
DEL RITO MODERNO DI ADOZIONE (RIFORMATO)
SOTTO GLI AUSPICI DEL SUPREMO CONSIGLIO
UNIVERSALE DELLA MASSONERIA
DEL RITO DI YORK E SCOZZESE
ANTICO ED ACCETTATO (CONGLOBATO) - ROMA
Gran Maestro: CONTE PIETRO ASTUNI MESSINEO 33∴e Gran Maestro Aggiunto: Marchese Enrico Spasiano di Sarno 33∴
La Sorella era figlia del gran maestro.
Uno dei pochi fratelli del legittimo Supremo Consiglio del RITO SCOZZESE ANTICO ED ACCETTATO di PIAZZA DEL GESU’ FERANO.
Gran Loggia Femminile, che lavorava accanto alla GRAN LOGGIA UNIFICATA ITALIANA DELLA MASSONERIA DEL RITO DI YORK E SCOZZESE ANTICO ED ACCETTATO (CONGLOBATO) – ROMA. Denominazione assunta dal 20 APRILE 1947, per differenziarsi dalla fungaia Massonica in Italia, dopo la “Liberazione di Romaâ€.
Riportiamo interamente il manifesto:
“DONNE ITALIANE, SORELLE∴
Dopo la spaventosa tempesta della guerra che ci ha strappato lembi di carne viva, dopo i lutti dei nostri cuori e le sventure della nostra Patria, gli Italiani non si riconoscono Fratelli nel nome della Gran Madre comune e si dilaniano sanguinosi in lotte fazione.
SORELLE∴ DONNE ITALIANE TUTTE
Leviamoci non per gridare il nostro sdegno e la nostra disperazione, ma per tendere le mani e l’animo ad un’opera di bene.
Nel nome di colore che non sono più, nel nome degli Innocenti che si affacciano alla vita, per tutti i dolori e per tutte le lagrime delle madri, delle sorelle, delle figlie, delle spose, armate soltanto d’amore, gettiamoci tra i contendenti e gridiamo loro: Fratelli, Fratelli nostri, via l’odio e il furore, pace!
In ogni casa, presso ogni focolare, vicino ad ogni capezzale, nelle scuole e nelle fabbriche, nei negozi e per le vie, Donne d’Italia, Sorelle di dolore e d’amore, diciamo la nostra parola, gettiamo la nostra invocazione, gridiamo la nostra passione: Uomini, fratelli d’Italia, amatevi! Pace fratelli!
E così sia!
Per le RR. Loggie Femminili d’Italia AGATA ASTUNI 3∴â€
Le Sorelle si riunivano e lavoravano, separatamente dagli uomini e conseguivano fino al Terzo Grado.
Scriveva il Gran Maestro CONTE PIETRO ASTUNI MESSINEO 33∴nel 1958:
…†La donna, dunque, maturatasi ha portato in Massoneria le sue virtù fondamentali, che la distinguano da quelle maschili, completate dalle virtù acquisite e nobilitate, in questi ultimi tempi, dalla coscienza profonda patriottica e da convinzioni di natura squisitamente politica.
Per queste ragioni, le passioni turbinose, il bisogno di dedizione e di sacrificio, la sentimentalità che sono pertinenti alle donne, sono oggi disciplinate, direi quasi, frenate: cosicché esse, selezionate – come del resto si procede per i profani che chiedono l’accessit – portano alla Massoneria quelle doti tese verso l’Umanità, la Patria, la Giustizia in un equilibrio veramente benefico.
Si pensi che quando l’Umanità si è appressata alle vette la donna ha mostrato fedeltà e devozione alle opere edificanti dell’uomo. Oggi, le opere edificanti nell’Ordine Massonico non sono solo dell’uomo, ma anche della donna sorella, non concorrente.â€
La presenza delle Donne nella ricostituita “casa Madre ferianaâ€, che prendeva la denominazione di
MASSONERIA UNIVERSALE
SERENISSIMA GRAN LOGGIA NAZIONALE ITALIANA
DEGLI ANTICHI LIBERI ACCETTATI MASSONI
di R.S.A.A, Comunione di PIAZZA del GESU’ n°47 - Roma
(denominazione del tempo)
che dopo la scissione avvenuta nel suo interno nel 1961, diede vita alla più numerosa Obbedienza Mista europea e ad altre di entità molto più piccole, pur rimanendo ufficialmente d’essenza maschile diversamente dal DIRITTO UMANO. Nella “Massoneria Mista†o “Co-Masonry†le donne sono ammesse allo stesso titolo degli uomini, e non ha nulla in comune con la “Massoneria d’Adozioneâ€.
Il primo gruppo sotto la guida del Gran Maestro Tito Ceccherini, con atto notarile del 13 giugno 1964, si costituì in associazione civile democratica con il titolo di "MASSONERIA UNIVERSALE di RITO SCOZZESE ANTICO ed ACCETTATO -SERENISSIMA GRAN LOGGIA NAZIONALE ITALIANA degli AA. LL. AA. MM. - COMUNIONE ITALIANA", e richiamava la propria storica discendenza e legittimità al Gruppo di Manfredi De Franchis (Via dei Gracchi) che con atto notarile del 9 febbraio 1948 , aveva adottato il titolo di: "MASSONERIA di RITO SCOZZESE ANTICO ed ACCETTATO per l'ITALIA.
I contrasti Massonici che ne seguirono, tra i due gruppi, giunsero anche in sedi giudiziarie. Il Dr. Pietro Piacentini e il Dr. Tito Ceccherini diffidano i Signori Giovanni Ghinazzi, il Dr. Alessandro Lagi e l'Avv. Enzo Milone all'uso del nome " SERENISSIMA GRAN LOGGIA NAZIONALE ITALIANA degli AA.LL.AA.MM o MASSONERIA UNIVERSALE di RITO SCOZZESE ANTICO ed ACCETTATO - COMUNIONE ITALIANA". Diffida del 27 giugno 1967 notificata il 30 giugno 1967.
Dopo un tentativo bonario di risanare il tutto, ad opera dell'Avv. Vincenzo Milone, il Generale Ghinazzi, si tutela e costituisce l'Associazione denominata "CENTRO SOCIOLOGICO ITALIANO (C.S.I.).
Con rogito notarile del dott. Vittorio Torina notaio in Roma in data 26 Febbraio 1968, rep. N° 47757 racc. 1758, registrato a Roma al 1° Ufficio Atti Pubblici il 7 Marzo 1968 al n° 3025 vol. 950, in prosieguo chiamato anche "CENTRO SOCIOLOGICO ITALIANO di ROMA".
La svolta nella Serenissima, come abbiamo scritto, non avviene, alla fine del 1955, con la confluenza in essa del Gruppo Massonico che faceva capo a GIUSEPPE ZUCCARELLO, vecchio 33 del Supremo Consiglio della FEDERAZIONE MASSONICA UNIVERSALE di R.S.A.ed A. (Costituitasi nel 1945), come erroneamente scrivono tutti gli storici di massoneria , errore imperdonabile per gli “eredi†o chi si richiama a Piazza del Gesù n.47.
Questa famiglia, che già aveva statuito l’ iniziabilità delle donne nel 1953, - ma non ne detiene la primogenitura - era quasi esclusivamente costituita da Fratelli e Sorelle siciliani. Essa aveva avuto Sede prima in Via Sardegna, poi in Viale delle Milizie e infine in Viale Regina Margherita al n. 270.
L’uomo che ne fu il fautore per una presenza femminile stabile nei Templi, in una Comunione Massonica solo di uomini che vantava e aveva riconoscimenti del Rito Scozzese internazionale, fu il Gran Maestro Fr. Tito Ceccherini della
SERENISSIMA GRAN LOGGIA NAZIONALE ITALIANA
DEGLI ANTICHI LIBERI E ACCETTATI MASSONI
GRANDE ORIENTE SIMBOLICO DELLA NAZIONE ITALIANA SEDENTE IN ROMA – Piazza del Gesù N°47
(denominazione del tempo)
nella stessa, vi era un gruppo di donne capeggiato dalla giornalista Sor∴ GIOVANNA OLMI, ascoltata amica e collaboratrice del Gran Maestro ,la prima donna a coprire ruoli direttivi entro la Serenissima.
Dal suo impegno e con l’aiuto di un’altra Sorella, attivissima anche ai giorni nostri, la Sor. TERESA LEONE DE MAGISTRIS, sposa dell’Avv. ENZO MILONE, il 20 Giugno 1957 E.V., nacque la Loggia esclusivamente femminile la R∴L∴:â€TERESA CONFALONIERI“ all’Oriente di NAPOLI.

L'italia un teatrino REALE :)

 
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Vittorio Emanuele: ‘I poteri occulti contro di me. La puttana di ieri sera deve avermi fatto il malocchio’
di Marco Vicari
Conferenza stampa di Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia: ‘Contro di me poteri occulti. La puttana di ieri sera deve avermi fatto il malocchio’
(nella foto: Vittorio Emanuele con uno di quei nuovi fans della monarchia che lo seguono ovunque)
Contro il re ci sarebbero dunque dei poteri occulti. Alcuni parlano del fantomatico cavaliere puttaniere, altri del drago biscazziere, altri degli gnomi nel telefono che si divertono a intercettare
In effetti in questi mesi ci sono stati duri attacchi a casa Savoia, la famiglia reale che tanto ha fatto per l’Italia. Tipo: rilanciare l’immagine del porto di Brindisi:
"Stanco del solito fascismo? Fuggi da Brindisi! Porto di Brindisi: per una fuga regale!"
I Savoia sono fuggiti dall’Italia quando c’era il fascismo e sono rientrati col governo Berlusconi. Han detto: ‘Caspita: Non è cambiato nulla!’
Sono fuggiti lasciando l’Italia in preda al fascismo, ma poi sono rientrati perche’ abbiamo MODIFICATO LA COSTITUZIONE per loro. Gia’: art 1 "L’Italia e’ una monarchia fondata sui videopoker truccati"
Abbiamo fatto proprio bene a ritoccare la Costituzione per poterli riavere in Italia. Appena ha saputo che rientrava il principe, la Bella Addormentata si è presa un Valium come rinforzìno
Giorni fa la conferenza stampa di Vittorio Emanuele. 3 file di monarchici a salutarlo: hanno teso il braccio destro in alto e poi sono subito fuggiti
(E’ possibile che nel 2006 esistano ancora i monarchci? Lo sanno che, oggi come oggi, perfino la regina Elisabetta al discount non ha più i suoi 4 cavalli a tirarle il carrello?)
Vittorio Emanuele ha detto: ‘Voglio parlarvi di giustizia. Ieri sera ne parlavo con il gatto con gli stivali…’
E poi di nuovo: ‘Voglio parlarvi della mia fiducia nella giustizia: ho proposto ai miei giudici di guidare il mio calesse’
Poi e’ tornato sui poteri occulti . La massoneria sarebbe contro Vittorio Emanuele: infatti da quando e’ rientrato, non si capacita di come non gli abbiano ancora rinnovato la tessera della P2
Sulle intercettazioni che lo riguardano Vittorio Emanuele avrebbe invece detto: ‘Le intercettazioni estrapolate dal contesto danno un senso diverso da quello che avevo detto. Quando sui giudici francesi dico ‘Li ho fregati’ , stavo in realtà facendo una citazione medievale che non rispecchiava il mio pensiero’
Durante la conferenza stampa Vittorio Emanuele ha sparato a un lampadario per una lite (Vittorio Emanuele aveva chiesto al lampadario di spegnersi ma questo non voleva farlo). Morto un giornalista 19enne per un proiettile sbucato dal nulla
… Precisiamo questa storia per chi non la sapesse: all’isola di cavallo Vittorio Emanuele spara a un suo amico. Poco piu’ in la’ muore per un proiettile un 19enne tedesco che dormiva nella sua barca. (La mia teoria: il 19 enne si è sparato da solo, non appena si e’ accorto che aveva così vicino Vittorio Emanuele)
Su questa storia tempo fa è emersa una intercettazione in cui Vittorio Emanuele dice dei giudici francesi che lo hanno giudicato: ‘Li ho fregati’…Dall’Italia sono partite richieste alla Francia: ‘Riaprite l’inchiesta!’. Ma la Francia ha risposto: ‘Abbiamo gia’ la Gioconda e Monica Bellucci. Vittorio Emanuele potete tenervelo’.
Su questa storia Vittorio Emanuele e’ stato prosciolto 2 volte in Francia. Infatti in conferenza stampa ha detto ai giornalisti: ‘Il proiettile che ha preso il ragazo non era il mio. Era un proiettile che il ragazzo aveva conosciuto poco prima in discoteca e che lui stesso aveva invitato poi sulla barca’
P2, traffici internazionali d’armi, e un19 enne che muore in circostanze misteriose, proprio vicino a dove lui ha appena sparato…. I giornalisti non dovrebbero andare a sentire le sue "conferenze stampa" dove dice di essere perseguitato dai poteri occulti. Perchè è umiliante: per loro riportare certe cose e per noi venirle a sapere… Intanto gli Ufo hanno fatto sapere: ‘E’ vero perseguitiamo Vittorio Emanuele. Appena gli abbiamo dato la licenza per i videopoker su Marte, la nostra civiltà è scomparsa’
Marco Vicari

Italy's Black Prince:Terror War Against the Nation-State

  
This article appears in the February 4, 2005 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.
Italy's Black Prince:
Terror War Against the Nation-State
by Allen Douglas
The Black Prince and the Sea Devils:
The Story of Valerio Borghese and the
Elite Units of the Decima Mas
by Jack Greene and Alessandro Massignani
Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2004 284 pages, hardcover, $27.50
The career of the Roman "Black Prince," Junio Valerio Borghese, gruesomely illustrates how virtually all modern "international terrorism" and all assassinations of heads of state and government such as President John F. Kennedy, former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro, or the numerous attempts on France's President Charles de Gaulle, derive from the postwar Nazi International, sponsored by the Anglo-American-led Synarchy and its intelligence services. To trace all the ramifications of that career, is to open a door onto the centuries-old highest level of the financial oligarchy—the Synarchy: the aristocratic families of the "black nobility," the Sovereign Military Order of the Knights of Malta, and the heirs of what Pope John Paul I called the "ancients" of Venice.
The fascist Borghese founded Mussolini's elite naval warfare squadron, which he turned into a savage irregular warfare unit in northern Italy by the end of World War II. Picked up by Allen Dulles, James Jesus Angleton, and other anti-Franklin Delano Roosevelt operatives of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Borghese and his men would be involved in every major postwar coup attempt or terrorist outbreak in Italy until 1970, when he fled to Spain after the failed coup attempt most closely associated with his name. From Italy, and then while in Spain, he maintained connections all over Europe and with the bloody Operation Condor torture-and-murder syndicate in Ibero-America. An examination of Borghese's career enables one to peer beneath the surface of terrorism and spectacular assassinations, into the netherworld whence these actions are launched: where international high finance; ancient aristocratic families; pro-fascist elements of the Curia of the Catholic Church; leading fascists of the Hitler-Mussolini era; and the Anglo-American intelligence services, in particular those of NATO, are all unified in a war against the modern nation-state.
The British and U.S. intelligence services' files on Borghese are still classified, as are the Borghese family archives in the Vatican after 1922, when Mussolini seized power. The present book is the first biography of Borghese in English. When correlated with other recent exposés of Gladio, the post-World War II NATO "stay-behind" network in Europe, and when all are situated within the work of Lyndon LaRouche and his associates on the Synarchy, it is a notable contribution to unmasking international terrorism, though the book's authors are perhaps not always aware of the full implications of what they present.1
Borghese belonged to a principal family of Rome's ostensibly Catholic "black nobility," many members of which claim descent from the elite of the Roman Empire. Numerous Popes and cardinals came from the Borghese and allied families, such as the Pallavicini, the Colonna, and the Orsini; these families maintained enormous power into the 20th Century, and still today, in the Curia, the administration of the Vatican. Their faction within the Church helped construct the infamous "rat-line"—run, in part, through monasteries and convents—which spirited thousands of Fascists and Nazis out of Europe after the war, into Ibero-America, Asia, and the Middle East.
Whether the Borgheses indeed originated with the Roman Empire, as they claim, or only rose in the early 16th Century, as records suggest, they could boast of one Pope, Paul V (Camillo Borghese, reigned 1605-21), and several cardinals, while a Borghese prince married Napoleon's sister. They lost their fortune in the 19th Century, and thus the 20th Century saw Junio Valerio Borghese going to war.
In the first half of the book, naval warfare specialists Greene and Massignani recount the development of Italian naval irregular warfare on the eve of World War II, which involved light craft, frogmen, and sabotage. Borghese was an innovator in this field, beginning with his sabotage efforts for Franco during the Spanish Civil War of the late 1930s. He founded Mussolini's naval special warfare unit, the Decima MAS, commonly known as the X MAS. (MAS was originally an acronym for Motoscafi Anti Sommergibili, anti-submarine motorboats, but soon became the generic term for any light craft.)
The X MAS was a kind of personal squadron of Italy's Venice-centered oligarchy, staffed by officers from leading noble families. One of them was the nephew of Italy's royal House of Savoy, Prince Aimone of Savoy, the Duke of Aosta. The X MAS thus mirrored the oligarchical coloring of the OSS, where the leadership was so dominated by bluebloods, such as Wall Street's pro-fascist Allen Dulles, that it earned the sobriquet "Oh So Social." The two organizations were destined to collaborate closely.
Its aristocratic pedigree enabled the X MAS to operate as largely independent from Mussolini. As Greene and Massignani note, "Key personnel inside the X MAS were of noble stock, and this enabled them to win the support of top-level officers. It also made it possible for them to be in direct contact with the companies that supplied and developed craft, new weapons, and equipment for the flotilla."
Soon after taking power in mid-1943, the new royalist Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies. The royalists captured Mussolini in July, and held him in a remote prison in the Appenine Mountains. He was freed in a daring raid (so the story goes), led by Hitler's chief commando, Otto Skorzeny, who was later to become, like Borghese, a kingpin of postwar international terrorism. The Nazis disbanded Italy's army and sank most of its navy, so that they could not be used against them, but some diehards, notably Borghese and his X MAS, chose to fight on for fascism. Many other Italians were organized by Italy's political parties, including the Communist Party, into partisan warfare bands, which fought both the Germans and Mussolini's 1943-45 Nazi-run rump Salò Republic in northern Italy. Hitler's henchman for the German occupation of northern Italy, SS Gen. Karl Wolff (formerly Himmler's private secretary), ordered Borghese and his X MAS to move onto land, where they became infamous for anti-partisan warfare, including the systematic use of torture and the summary execution of Italian civilians as a "lesson" to the partisans. Greene and Massignani report that in the 600 days of the Salò Republic, the X MAS raised a force of 50,000 men, and that in the bloody civil war which followed the armistice, probably more Italians died than in the entire war before then.
The X MAS was nominally committed to the Salò Republic; however, it never swore allegiance to Salò, and never flew any flag but its own. Reports flooded back to Mussolini that Borghese was maintaining contact with all sides, so Il Duce had Borghese arrested in early 1944, though he soon released him. Indeed, Borghese had either established contact or worked with: the SS security service (Sicherheitsdienst), with which he worked closely; the Abwehr (German army counterintelligence); the Italian royalist government; British Secret Intelligence Service; James Jesus Angleton, chief of the OSS counter-espionage branch in Italy; and Allen Dulles, OSS Berne, Switzerland station chief. He also met several times with SS General Wolff.
Wolff and Dulles plotted the Anglo-American redeployment of fascist operatives after the war, among them Borghese. Indeed, Wolff declared, "Where the person of Borghese and his Decima Mas is concerned, I have spoken several times . . . with a representative of Mr. Dulles." In late 1944, Rome's black aristocracy asked the Allied military governor in Italy, Vice Adm. Ellery Stone, to intervene in favor of the "terrible boy," Junio Valerio. A friend of the Borghese family and lover of a Roman baroness, Stone needed little convincing. As the partisans closed in on Borghese in May 1945, Stone instructed Angleton to warn him, which the latter did personally. On May 19, the Americans formally arrested Borghese, thus saving him from scheduled execution by a partisan firing squad.
A Brief Hiatus
The Americans and the British showed a keen interest in the X MAS wartime activities, especially its Vega battalion, which had operated behind enemy lines. As one X MAS leader put it, foreshadowing Borghese's later deployment as part of Gladio, "For the Allies we were important because we had infiltrated the Communist bands, we knew their secrets and tactics and therefore developed the first anti-guerrilla procedures. . . . They wanted to know how we carried out the anti-communist war. . . . They wanted to exploit our knowledge." The Germans had also developed "stay-behind" units to function behind Allied lines in Italy, and the X MAS were almost certainly part of that operation as well. Several members of the X MAS were taken to the United States for debriefing.
Borghese's friends in high places ensured that the Allies would clear him of war crimes. The Italian government, however, demanded that the Allies hand him over for trial in Milan in late 1945. His friends again intervened, and his trial was transferred to Rome, where Dulles, Angleton, et al. had ensured that many of the old Fascist bureaucrats remained in office, and where the courts were much more conservative. After two years in prison, he was finally found guilty in early 1949 of collaborating with the Nazis (though not in war crimes) and sentenced to 12 years in prison. As one frustrated observer put it, "The crimes of Borghese's band were too obvious, and the verdict had to be life imprisonment. But the court, through a scandalous application of extenuating circumstances, pardons, and remissions, reduced the sentence." The judge then decided he had served enough time, and released him, an action that would have been politically impossible before Britain's Winston Churchill announced the beginning of the Cold War with his 1946 "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri.
Borghese's new career was about to begin.
A Universal Fascist
Shortly after his release from prison, Borghese became president of the Italian Social Movement (MSI) party, composed largely of former Fascists. The MSI was a mixture of "national" and "international" ("universal") fascists. Borghese was committed to the latter outlook, which today is openly espoused by neo-con Michael Ledeen, himself a protégé of a Mussolini Cabinet minister, the Venetian oligarch Vittorio Cini. Cini, in turn, was a key collaborator of the real architect of Mussolini's regime, its longtime Finance Minister, the Venetian Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata.
Greene and Massignani describe Borghese's universal fascism and its plans for a Europe free of nation-states, but "unified" under NATO: "Fascism in the postwar era was different from its pre-war variety. Although it had splintered into many different factions, it had two powerful drives. One was that it was anti-communist. It was this element that made Borghese acceptable to the mainstream parties and national secret services. He was ultimately pro-NATO, as was the rest of this wing of fascism. The other one was the realization that in the postwar environment no single European nation could stand up to the two superpowers, and hence, that Europe would be a third force. That is, Europe would be `opposed to the twin imperialisms of international communism and international finance capitalism, both of which were perceived as being materialistic, exploitative, dehumanizing' " (emphasis in original).
Borghese's "united Europe" was the scheme promoted, from the early 1920s on, by his fellow oligarch, the Venetian Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, which became an explicit goal of the Synarchist International in the 1920s and 1930s. Today, the seed crystal of that "united Europe" has become the Maastricht Treaty-generated European Union and its European Central Bank. The same vision of a united Europe had also inspired Hjalmar Schacht, the financial architect of Hitler's regime, though Schacht viewed Hitler's conquest of Europe as the pathway to achieve it. It was also the vision for which the Synarchy deployed one of its most notorious agents of the 20th Century, Alexander Helphand Parvus. Parvus first financed the Bolshevik Revolution, and then, after it was victorious, became the most ferocious "anti-Bolshevik," proclaiming that only a "united Europe" could stop the communist menace.
Between the wars, this "united Europe" scheme was momentarily eclipsed by the "national fascisms" of Mussolini, Salazar, Franco, and Hitler, though all were installed by the same Europe-based, London-centered Synarchy. But, after the war, write Greene and Massignani, Borghese's universal fascism was the wave of the future, as well as the incubator of international terrorism. "In Italy, it was the Fascist faction that possessed the many international ties that stretched between Franco's Spain, South America, and South Africa. It was from this faction, too, that many of the acts of terrorism of the `Black International' sprung" (emphasis added).
NATO, Gladio, and International Terrorism
Postwar Italian politics may appear to be a wilderness of mirrors, with its rapid changes of government, multiple coup attempts, and spectacular outbreaks of terrorism. Going back to the Nazi occupation of northern Italy during World War II, however, to examine the various British, American, and Nazi actors and their respective ties to different Italian factions, the reality quickly becomes apparent: that the Anglo-American Synarchists merely replaced—and to a great extent subsumed—the Nazis and Mussolini's Fascists as the would-be fascist occupying power, locked in mortal struggle against those Italian patriots, both "conservatives" of the Christian Democracy and "leftists" of the Italian Communist Party, who wished to establish a sovereign Italy.
The battle for a sovereign Italy centered on economic policy. In 1950, forces around wartime partisan leader, later industrialist Enrico Mattei effected a radical shift within the ruling Christian Democracy, away from free-market policies toward a dirigistic program of rapid industrial growth. With an extraordinary series of state-sponsored corporations, and projects such as the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (Southern Italy Development Fund) based on the model of U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt's Tennessee Valley Authority, Italy experienced an economic miracle, with annual growth of over 7% for almost a decade. A linchpin of this was the newly founded national oil company, ENI, which Mattei headed in a war for energy independence against the synarchists' Seven Sisters.
Enraged at Italy's developing sovereignty, the Anglo-Americans deployed terrorism and assassinations to stop it. Borghese's activities run like a black dye through all of this history, until he fled to Spain in 1970. Let us now examine the scene in which he was to be so prominent an actor.
Already during World War II, Allen Dulles and other Anglo-American Synarchists, who had sponsored both Mussolini and Hitler in the first place, were trying to negotiate a peace with the Nazis which would leave them in power, sans Hitler and a handful of others. This Nazi puppet-regime would then ally with the British and the United States to conquer the Soviet Union, establishing a Synarchist world empire. Dulles's negotiating partner SS General Wolff said that he wanted "to build a bridge to the West," which would entail handing northern Italy over to the Allied military forces, but with German troops remaining in place, as "part of the proposed police force of the Western powers against Russia."2
U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, by contrast, wanted to crush the fascist regimes, and foresaw a postwar world in which the colonial empires of all the European powers, starting with the British, would be abolished, and the United States and the Soviet Union—wartime allies—would cooperate in a grand program of global economic growth, into which the rest of the world would be drawn as well.
Dulles and his fellow Synarchists did not achieve their full scheme, but they did establish NATO as an occupation authority for Europe, which prepared for war against the Soviet Union. Lord Bertrand Russell's early 1946 call for pre-emptive nuclear warfare against the Soviet Union is typical. In the name of "fighting communism," Europe would be kept under AngloAllen Dulles American domination through NATO, and any and all means would be authorized toward that goal. Upon FDR's death in April 1945, the Synarchist puppet President Harry S Truman adopted these "anti-communist" schemes, which led immediately to the Cold War.
When the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949, a secret clause in its treaty specified that each nation that wished to join must first establish a "national security authority" to fight communism, including through the deployment of clandestine citizen cadres. This demand grew out of a secret committee set up by the British and the U.S. within the Atlantic Pact, the forerunner of NATO. Truman's National Security Council issued directives authorizing the Armed Forces to use military force against Communist Parties, which commanded strong popular support in several European countries as a result of the war, even if those parties gained participation in government through elections. For this purpose, NATO and the Anglo-American intelligence services set up "stay-behind" units in all European countries.
According to Italian Gen. Paolo Inzerilli, who commanded Italy's Gladio unit from 1974-86, the Clandestine Planning Committee (CPC) and its Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) were the "interface between NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) and the Secret Services of the member states as far as the problems of non-orthodox warfare were concerned." The CPC, said Inzerilli, was dominated by an inner executive group of the United States, Britain, and France, while the ACC was essentially a technical committee to coordinate expertise in explosives, "repression," or related problems of clandestine warfare. Italian Gen. Gerardo Serravalle testified that the members of the CPC were the officers responsible for the stay-behind apparatus in the various European countries, and that "At the stay-behind meetings representatives of the CIA were always present," as well as "members of the U.S. Forces Europe Command."
The mid-1970s U.S. Congressional investigative committee under Sen. Frank Church, which examined illicit actions by U.S. intelligence services and the military, found that the Pentagon had requested the CIA's covert branch, the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), to take the point in establishing stay-behind armies in Europe. The early plans were focussed on the Soviet Union, as the Church report noted: "Until 1950 OPC's paramilitary activities (also referred to as preventive action) were limited to plans and preparations for stay-behind nets in the event of future war. Requested by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, these projected OPC operations focussed on Western Europe and were designed to support NATO forces against Soviet attack." However, the Pentagon soon went much further. A Joint Chiefs of Staff directive of May 14, 1952 set up "Operation Demagnetize," in which the CIA and the military secret services were instructed to reduce the "magnetic attraction" of the large Communist Parties of Italy and France through all means, including "political, paramilitary and psychological operations." The directive stated, "The limitation of the strength of the Communists in Italy and France is a top priority objective. This objective has to be reached by the employment of all means. The Italian and French government may know nothing of the plan `Demagnetize,' for it is clear that the plan can interfere with their respective national sovereignty" (emphasis added).
Operationally, the stay-behind units were run by the military secret services of each NATO nation, as directed by the CPC/ACC. Some light was shed on Pentagon and NATO thinking of this time in a Pentagon field manual, found along with the lists of members of the elite Propaganda Due (P2) freemasonic lodge in P2 Grand Master Licio Gelli's villa in Arezzo, Tuscany in 1981. Although issued in 1970, Field Manual 30-31B (FM 30-31B) reflected earlier Pentagon and NATO planning. It emphasized that military and other secret service leaders in each country should be recruited as U.S. (or NATO) agents: "The success of internal stabilisation operations, which are promoted in the context of strategies for internal defence by the U.S. military secret service, depends to a large extent on the understanding between the U.S. personnel and the personnel of the host country. The recruitment of senior members of the secret service of the host country as long time agents is thus especially important."
This process began already in 1944-45, when the Anglo-American synarchists re-constructed Italy's military secret service and its military police, the Carabinieri. Some of the key individuals whom they installed or sponsored later turned up as members of P2, from where they oversaw the terrorism and assassinations of the late 1960s and 1970s, as well as the cover-ups. Like Borghese, some of these leaders had been recruited by Angleton himself. One of them was Federico Umberto D'Amato, chief of the UAR, a secret section of the Interior Ministry which coordinated the terrorist actions under NATO direction, in conjunction with the military secret services.3
Furthermore, stated the FM 30-31B, "There may be times when Host Country Governments show passivity or indecision in the face of communist subversion and according to the interpretation of the U.S. secret services do not react with sufficient effectiveness. Most often such situations come about when the revolutionaries temporarily renounce the use of force and thus hope to gain an advantage, as the leaders of the host country wrongly consider the situation to be secure. U.S. army intelligence must have the means of launching special operations which will convince Host Country Governments and public opinion of the reality of the insurgent danger." FM 30-31B was issued in 1970; coup attempts against the Italian government under precisely the circumstances it describes, were launched using Gladio personnel (including Borghese) that year, and three more times through 1974. The manual stressed, "These special operations must remain strictly secret. Only those persons who are acting against the revolutionary uprising shall know of the involvement of the U.S. Army in the internal affairs of an allied country. The fact, that the involvement of forces of the U.S. military goes deeper shall not become known under any circumstances."4
The British Role
As in virtually everything to do with imperial strategies, the relevant U.S. circles were being carefully guided by their senior partners, the British, under the old rubric, "British brains and American brawn." Gladio was modelled on the actions of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) behind enemy lines during World War II, which had been created by the British Ministry of Defence (MOD) in 1940 under orders from Churchill to "set Europe ablaze." In charge of the SOE was Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton, who said, "We have to organize movements in enemy-occupied territory comparable to the Sinn Fein movement in Ireland, to the Chinese Guerrillas now operating against Japan, to the Spanish Irregulars who played a notable part in Wellington's campaign or—one might as well admit it—to the organizations which the Nazis themselves have developed so remarkably in almost every country in the world" (emphasis added).
The SOE was closed down at war's end and replaced by the Special Air Services (SAS), which helped Britain's foreign secret service, MI6, to train the stay-behind armies of Europe. Gladio specialist Daniele Ganser of the Center for Security Studies at Zurich Technical University observed, "Many within the stay-behind community regarded the British to be the best in the field of secret warfare, more experienced than the military officers of the U.S."
The British set up a base for training stay-behind units at Ft. Monckton outside Portsmouth, England, and another in Sardinia. One of the stay-behind operatives trained at Ft. Monckton recalled, "We were made to do exercises, going out in the dead of night and pretending to blow up trains in the railway stations without the stationmaster or the porters seeing you. We crept about and pretended to lay charges on the right part of the railway engine with a view to blowing it up." In the Gladio-coordinated blind terror which ravaged Italy from 1969 through 1980, trains and railway stations were to be a favorite target, notably the 1974 bombing of the Rome-Munich Italicus Express, which killed 12 and injured 48, and the explosion in the Bologna rail station in August 1980, which killed 85 and seriously injured or maimed 200. Lyndon LaRouche first emphasized within hours of the Madrid train bombings of March 11, 2001 which killed 200 and wounded thousands more, that they were not the work of "Islamic terrorists," but followed the pattern of the 1980 Bologna bombing.
Vincenzo Vinciguerra, an Italian neo-fascist terrorist who was jailed for life and who had been bitter about the secret service's "manipulation" of neo-fascist groups ever since 1945, explained how Gladio (and any sister organizations) worked: "You had to attack civilians, the people, women, children, innocent people, unknown people far removed from any political game. The reason was quite simple. They were supposed to force these people, the Italian public, to turn to the State to ask for greater security. This is the political logic that lies behind all the massacres and the bombings which remain unpunished, because the State cannot convict itself or declare itself responsible for what happened."
After Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti exposed the existence of Gladio in 1990, the BBC's "Newsedition" undertook its own examination of Gladio. It reported in April 1991, "Britain's role in setting up stay-behinds throughout Europe was absolutely fundamental."
More crucial than the stay-behinds, were the secretive bodies which coordinated them, such as P2. Here, too, the British led the way. Already in 1944-45, the British set up a proto-P2 masonic lodge composed of House of Savoy monarchists, aristocrats, and Mussolini loyalists. A Jan. 2, 1945 OSS report noted: "The lodge is under British authority and will request their political and economic aid, things which the members cannot get through their respective parties without exposing themselves to accusations of being paid by the British."
NATO's Italian Theater
OSS official James Jesus Angleton saved Borghese in 1945, and then set up the clandestine structure in the Italian military and secret services, which produced the Italian section of Gladio. Angleton was a devout Anglophile and a pro-fascist, who had spent much of his boyhood in Italy, where his father, James Hugh Angleton, owned the Italian subsidiary of National Cash Register. The outspokenly pro-Hitler, pro-Mussolini senior Angleton also headed the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Italy, and had extensive contacts with Mussolini's intelligence services. Some accounts report that he was a business partner of Allen Dulles. Both he and his son were to work for the special counterespionage unit of OSS, X-2, which had been set up at the demand of the British. Though it was nominally an American organization, the headquarters of X-2 for all of Europe, and even most of the globe, was London. X-2 was trained and de facto run throughout the war by the British, as its operatives were dispatched across Europe. From late 1943 through the first half of 1944, Lt. Col. James Hugh Angleton was X-2's liaison to Marshal Pietro Badoglio and other leaders of the Italian army, and to the army's intelligence service, building upon his excellent contacts in pre-war Italy.
The junior Angleton landed in Italy as an X-2 operative in October 1944. Borghese was one of his informants/agents from shortly thereafter, until the Italian government demanded that the OSS turn him over for prosecution. The U.S. mandated that the "operational resources" of the Italian police and all of the military intelligence and secret services be put at the disposal of X-2, which was led by Angleton. This, naturally, set the pattern for decades to come. Bespeaking his patronage by Dulles and the British, young Angleton rose from chief of the X-2 unit in Rome, to chief of all OSS counterespionage in Italy. By age 28, he was chief of all secret activity, intelligence as well as counterintelligence, in Italy for the Strategic Services Unit, the short-lived successor to OSS, and predecessor to the operational section of the CIA, which was established in 1947. In this he was aided immensely by the fact that many patriotic OSS officers, such as Max Corvo, head of OSS operations in Italy from 1943-45 and later a friend of Lyndon LaRouche, had been purged by the Dulles faction the day after FDR's death.
Essential to Angleton's activities, to the establishment of the first stay-behind units in Italy, and to the organization of the Vatican-linked "rat-lines" which smuggled fascists out of Europe at war's end, was the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM). The Rome-based SMOM was a nominally Catholic organization with membership drawn from the highest ranks of the European oligarchy, in particular Italy's black nobility. The SMOM awarded Angleton one of its highest decorations in 1946. A member of the "Black Prince's" family, S. Giacomo, Prince Borghese, had been a Bailiff Grand Cross of Honor of Devotion in the SMOM since 1932, while P2 founder Licio Gelli and several of his top members, including secret service heads, also belonged.
By 1949 Angleton was a special assistant to CIA chief Adm. Roscoe Hillenkoetter, and by 1955, CIA chief Allen Dulles (1953-61) had appointed him to head the counterintelligence department of the CIA. He held that post until he was fired by CIA chief William Colby in 1974, after having done untold damage to U.S. intelligence capabilities.5
As Angleton rose in U.S. intelligence, maintaining his close ties to Italy, NATO was constructing the foundations of Gladio. Under NSC directives issued in 1949 and 1950, the CIA helped the Italian police set up secret units of counterinsurgency specialists, largely drawn from veterans of Mussolini's secret police. A new military intelligence agency, SIFAR, was organized under the direction of a covert American intelligence operative, Carmel Offie, nicknamed "the godfather." Simultaneously, Borghese was organizing paramilitary units for use against the PCI, in coordination with CIA operatives under the purview of Angleton (who was formally assigned to Italy by Allen Dulles when Dulles became CIA chief in 1953). On Dec. 2, 1951, Borghese was named honorary president of the MSI, and in a speech to the party's convention, proclaimed that the MSI could not be "conscientious objectors" if the Cold War turned hot, as he expected. That same month, two MSI members travelled to NATO headquarters in Paris to swear their organization's allegiance to NATO. By 1952, the NATO-directed "Operation Demagnetize" was in place, and SIFAR was directed to adopt political and psychological operations against the PCI, including the covert use of armed force, to diminish the PCI's influence in all fields. The U.S. poured a staggering $4 billion into "anti-communist" Italy between 1948 and 1953.
Borghese and his old X MAS cadre figured prominently in these plans. Indeed, some people in U.S. intelligence had briefly toyed with the idea of promoting Borghese as a new King of Italy, until an uproar from the House of Savoy and its supporters forced them to drop the idea. The royalists and the MSI were often allies, and Borghese's X MAS had sometimes worked with the royalist Osoppo brigade during 1943-45. Greene and Massignani observe that, "Interestingly enough, the core of the future Gladio stay-behind organization started with the Osoppo partisans." Since Borghese's X MAS was also a chief recruiting ground for the early Gladio units, the wartime collaboration clearly continued.
In 1953, Borghese led some 500 MSI volunteers, among others, to launch an uprising in the north Adriatic city of Trieste, a city which was claimed by both Italy and Yugoslavia. Under the slogan "To Trieste with Valerio Borghese," Borghese re-enacted the 1919 march on Fiume by the fascist (and Martinist freemason) Gabriele D'Annunzio, a precursor to Mussolini's 1922 march on Rome. The neo-fascists acted on behalf of the "Committee for the Defense of Italians of Trieste and Istria," whose weapons were delivered by the Italian secret services. The following year, Trieste was returned to Italy.
In 1955, Borghese became president of the union of former soldiers of the Salò Republic, a key recruiting ground for Gladio. He was later to become one of the leaders of the "Tricolor Committee for the Italianity of the Alto Adige." The Alto Adige, or South Tyrol, in Italy saw one of the earliest known uses of stay-behind units. Though Italian territory, the area was German-speaking, and a fruitful area for promoting ethnic conflict.
In 1956, NATO formally established Gladio. According to documents discovered in Italy in 1990, Gladio's forces there were divided into 40 main groups, 10 specialized in sabotage, 6 each in espionage, propaganda, evasion and escape tactics, and 12 in guerrilla activities. A special Gladio training camp was set up on Sardinia, off Italy's western coast, run by the Americans and the British.
That same year, 1956, U.S. Ambassador to Italy Clare Booth Luce—a Dame of Malta and the wife of Time and Life magazine publisher Henry Luce, a key sponsor of the fascist Congress for Cultural Freedom—"recommended" a fellow SMOM member, Gen. Giovanni De Lorenzo, as the new head of SIFAR. In 1962, the CIA helped install De Lorenzo as head of the Carabinieri, while he still maintained control over SIFAR. He began purging officers deemed not sufficiently "anti-communist," in either his eyes or or those of U.S. military attaché Vernon Walters.
CIA Rome station chief William Harvey, meanwhile, was recruiting "action teams" to throw bombs and attack leftists. These teams launched an attack on a peaceful demonstration in Rome in 1963, leaving 200 people injured and heavy damage to part of the city. The action was later linked to Gladio, in testimony by a general of the secret service.
In 1963, Borghese became president of the Banco di Credito Commerciale e Industriale, a very high-paying "ceremonial post" which was designed to build up his capabilities. The bank had been the very first one owned by the Sicilian financier Michele Sindona, a Fascist during World War II, who later laundered heroin funds for the Sicilian mafia, and then became a power in P2. Borghese's bank was involved with a "vast sector" of conservative economic interests, including the son of Dominican Republic dictator Rafael Trujillo, Franco's Spain, and reactionary circles in the Vatican and the Christian Democratic Party. Ultimately the bank collapsed, but Borghese got off almost scot-free. "What is significant," write Greene and Massignani, "is that Borghese clearly had many contacts on a national as well as an international scale. These connections extended to very high levels. It also appears that the financial wherewithal that he needed to survive may have come from such sources after the end of the war." The authors also note that his career closely parallels that of former SS commando Otto Skorzeny in Spain.
Series of Coups
From 1962 to 1964, the Synarchy initiated a phase change in international affairs with the Cuban Missiles Crisis, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy (and Enrico Mattei), the attempts on France's President Charles de Gaulle, and the launching of the war in Vietnam and the youth rock-drug-sex counterculture, among other things. Italy was not exempt.
As Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1964 was negotiating his first government with Socialist participation, the synarchists unleashed a coup threat under the name "Plan Solo." Its chief public figure was State President Antonio Segni, and Borghese was a protagonist.
The usual accounts of Gladio-related coup threats invariably emphasize Moro's "opening to the left" as the reason for them. However, there is another reason, internal to Italy itself (in addition to the global ramifications of a coup in Italy), but one which is entirely coherent with the Synarchy's attempt to stop Italy's economic development. This other dimension emerges clearly in the account of Plan Solo by EIR counterterrorism and Italian affairs expert Claudio Celani: "Segni, a right-wing Christian Democrat, was manipulated by an intelligence officer, Col. Renzo Rocca, head of the economic division of SIFAR, the military secret service. Rocca (who, after his stint at SIFAR went to work at the automaker FIAT in Turin [of the oligarchical Agnelli family—ed.]) reported to Segni that the financial and economic establishment predicted a catastrophic economic crisis, if the Socialists joined the government. In reality, a few large monopolies (in the hands of the same families who had supported Mussolini's regime) feared that the new government would introduce reforms to break their power in real estate, energy, finance, and economic planning."
Advised by Rocca, Segni called the head of SIFAR, Gen. Giovanni de Lorenzo, and asked him to prepare a list of political leaders to be rounded up in case of an insurgency. De Lorenzo prepared "Plan Solo," which included a list of 731 individuals to be interned at the Gladio camp in Sardinia. Greene and Massignani observe, "Supporting the Carabinieri were politically sanitized civilians largely made up of former Decima Mas, paratroopers, and soldiers and sailors of the RSI [Salò Republic]." "Borghese was De Lorenzo's friend" and was scheduled to personally participate in the coup, according to Remo Orlandini, a top Borghese collaborator and heir to a shipbuilding empire. The coup did not eventuate, leaving a very "angry Borghese."
In early May 1965, a meeting took place at the Parco Dei Principi Hotel in Rome, which Italian prosecutors consider the planning meeting for the 1969-74 "Strategy of Tension." It was sponsored by an institute run by the chief of the general staff of Italy's armed forces, on the theme of "Revolutionary Warfare." Participants plotted how the alleged threat by the PCI must be forestalled by "counterrevolutionary war." (The PCI's vote totals were generally rising through the second half of the 1960s.) Present were leaders of the fascist terror groups, Avanguardia Nazionale (AN) and Ordine Nuovo (ON), pro-fascist journalists, the military, and various secret services. One of the fascist journalists present was Guido Giannettini, also an operative of the Italian secret services, who four years earlier had taught a seminar at the U.S. Naval Academy on "The Techniques and Prospects of a Coup." Though Borghese himself was not present, his lieutenant Stefano Delle Chiaie, the nominal chief of AN, was. Delle Chiaie had probably been recruited by the UAR secret unit of Italy's Interior Ministry as early as 1960, and was to be Borghese's chief lieutenant in the 1970 coup plot.
During the 1960s through his coup attempt in 1970, Borghese either founded or was intimately involved in at least three fascist terror organizations: Delle Chiaie's AN; the ON; and the Fronte Nazionale (FN), which Borghese founded in 1968 for the sole purpose, according to a document of SID (as SIFAR was renamed after 1965), "to subvert the institutions of the state by means of a coup." Two of these were represented at the Parco Dei Principi meeting. All three were run by operatives of NATO or Italy's clandestine services, notably the UAR and SIFAR/SID. Borghese lieutenant Delle Chiaie was almost certainly a UAR agent, and "AN itself was suspected of being the creation of UAR." Greene and Massignani report that "many members of the FN, ON, and AN had been trained in disinformation and guerrilla warfare at the special [NATO] camp in Sardinia," while ON bomber Vincenzo Vinciguerra charged that the "right-wing movements such as AN or ON were not only connected with Italian and NATO secret services, but manned by them."
NATO interventions were not limited to Italy. In Greece in 1967, despite a wave of terror, the left-of-center Center Union under former Prime Minister George Papandreou was expected to return to power. On the night of April 20-21, 1967, the Greek military pulled a coup. It involved the Greek stay-behind army, LOK, and was based on the Prometheus plan, a NATO contingency plan for combatting a "communist insurgency." The coup was partially financed by P2's Michele Sindona, and, before long, Italians were being sent to Greece for paramilitary training.
By 1968, Gladio had stepped up its training at the NATO base in Sardinia. "Within a few years, 4,000 graduates had been placed in strategic posts. At least 139 arms caches, including some at Carabinieri barracks, were at their disposal," reported Arthur E. Rowse, who has examined Gladio's Italian operations in depth. Terrorism exploded in Italy, with 147 attacks in 1968, another 398 in 1969, and peaked at 2,498 in 1978. Borghese's efforts were a key part of this.
One of the first members of the FN, Borghese's project for a state "beyond the center, right and left," was P2 boss and Knight of Malta Licio Gelli. Like Borghese, Gelli had fought for Franco and Mussolini, and was recruited by SIFAR in the 1950s. Gelli was the "main intermediary" between the CIA and De Lorenzo.
In the FN, Borghese was known as "the Commander," and he established "action groups" all over the country. The FN (like the AN) had a two-part structure: "A" groups, which were the public side of FN, and clandestine "B" groups, whose existence was usually unknown even to the members of their respective A groups. The B groups were to be used in terrorism, in the "Strategy of Tension" aimed at producing a change in the Italian government, which exploded with the Piazza Fontana massacre on Dec. 12, 1969, in which 16 were killed and 58 wounded. Members of the Borghese-connected ON were arrested on suspicion of the crime, but cover-ups run by P2 and the secret services ensured their release.
The terror and coup attempts escalated after U.S. President Nixon took office in 1969. His National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger issued orders to Licio Gelli through Kissinger's deputy, Gen. Alexander Haig, and Gelli maintained many high-level contacts in the U.S. Republican Party. The synarchist Kissinger was bitterly opposed to a sovereign Italy. With the Socialist Party in the government at the time, the United States opened the financial spigots to "anti-communist" forces—including the neo-Fascist MSI—and poured in $10 million in 1970 alone. "The money funneled to [U.S. Ambassador Graham] Martin came through the Vatican banker and Borghese's friend and patron, Sindona," observe Greene and Massignani.
On June 1, 1970, Borghese appointed Delle Chiaie to head the "B" groups, and moved forward with plans for a coup. U.S. Ambassador Martin handled some of the funding, through his chief contact, Gen. Vito Miceli, who took over as head of the SID in October 1970. Before he became head of the SID, Miceli had met with Borghese several times at the home of Remo Orlandini, Borghese lieutenant and shipbuilding heir. Martin was no ordinary diplomatic appointee: The fiercely right-wing Colonel Martin had just come from the Embassy in Thailand, where he had strong-armed the Thai government into joining the United States in Vietnam, and he would leave Italy in 1973 to take up the post in Saigon. During 1970, Martin maintained multiple liaisons with Borghese, including through FN operative Pier Talenti, who owned a bus company that would be utilized in the coup attempt, and through probable CIA operative Hugh Fenwich, who was meeting with Orlandini.
Borghese set up the political and military headquarters for the coup in Rome, the military one at one of Orlandini's shipyards. On the night of Dec. 7, 1970, a group of 50 AN paramilitaries led by Delle Chiaie was let into the Interior Ministry's armory at the instruction of Angleton's old recruit, UAR head Federico D'Amato. According to newspaper accounts, Angleton himself arrived in Rome just before the coup attempt, and left just afterwards. Other troops moved into place in Rome, Milan, and elsewhere, and the mafia in Calabria was scheduled to don Carabinieri uniforms and play a role. Borghese prepared a statement to be read on TV to justify the coup, and he intended for Italian troops to be sent to Vietnam. At the last minute, he received a phone call and called off the coup.
Borghese fled to Franco's Spain, where his activities until his death in 1974 remain mysterious. It is known that he and Delle Chiaie met dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet in Chile on April 29, 1974. Also present was the head of Chilean police intelligence, Col. Jorge Carrasco, a protagonist in Operation Condor's tortures and murder. Borghese died in Spain in 1974. Delle Chiaie said that he was poisoned, apparently because investigations into the 1970 coup were under way in Italy. After Franco's death the following year, Delle Chiaie left for Chile, to play a key role in Operation Condor, then continued that work in Bolivia, in conjunction with the infamous Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie.
NATO's Assassination Bureau
The extent of terrorism, assassinations, and the re-shaping of Europe's political landscape through Gladio and related, NATO-directed units is stunning.
However, a vital caveat must be added here. The apparatus behind the "strategy of tension" terror that destabilized Europe over much of the Cold War era, was first and foremost a private synarchist apparatus embedded in the NATO and national secret service organizations, including "official" clandestine agencies like Gladio. These "parallel" networks, populated by veterans of the wartime Fascist and Nazi apparatus, and associated with secret societies like P-2, and fronts like Rosa dei Venti and Nuclei di Difesa dello Stato, at times had their agents posted in top positions in the "official" structures, creating the dangerously tempting but false appearance that the official agencies per se—including NATO—were directing the terror/destabilization programs.
Confusion on this point is both dangerous and understandable. When the P-2 membership list was revealed in the early 1980s, following the death of banker Roberto Calvi, it became clear that the secret lodge had penetrated virtually the entire security apparatus and political party structures of Italy and several other countries of Europe and Ibero-America.
The carnage carried out by this "parallel" apparatus was stunning. In Italy alone, the chief theater of Gladio warfare, there were 14,591 "acts of violence with a political motivation," according to Italian Sen. Giovanni Pellegrino, head of the Parliamentary Committee on the Failed Identification of the Authors of Terrorist Massacres ("Terrorism Committee," in operation 1994-2001, which looked into both Gladio and the P2 lodge). "It may be worth remembering that these `acts' have left behind 491 dead and 1,181 injured and maimed, figures of a war, with no parallel in any other European country."
Besides NATO's Gladio base in Sardinia, logistical support for Gladio in Italy and France was run out of a NATO front in dictator Antonio de Oliveira Salazar's Portugal, Aginter Press, which also ran the stay-behind units there. It was headed by a former member of the anti-de Gaulle, pro-fascist Secret Army Organization (OAS), Yves Guerin Serac, who moved to Portugal after de Gaulle surrendered Algeria. Said Guerin Serac, belying the goals of his synarchist masters, "After the OAS I fled to Portugal to carry on the fight and expand it to its proper dimensions—which is to say, a planetary dimension." He outlined his plan to "defeat communism," using NATO-organized "communist terrorism" as the excuse:
"In the first phase of our political activity we must create chaos in all structures of the regime. Two forms of terrorism can provoke such a situation: The blind terrorism (committing massacres indiscriminately which cause a large number of victims), and the selective terrorism (eliminate chosen persons). This destruction of the state must be carried out as much as possible under the cover of `communist activities.' After that, we must intervene at the heart of the military, the juridical power and the church, in order to influence popular opinion, suggest a solution, and clearly demonstrate the weakness of the present legal apparatus. . . . Popular opinion must be polarized in such a way, that we are being represented as the only instrument capable of saving the nation. It is obvious that we will need considerable financial resources to carry out such operations."
Aginter Press's representative in Italy, according to the ON's Vincenzo Vinciguerra, was Stefano Delle Chiaie. Delle Chiaie "allegedly carried out well over a thousand bloodthirsty attacks, including an estimated 50 murders in Spain," according to Daniele Ganser.
In assassinations within Portugal or its colonies, Aginter Press worked with the Portuguese secret service, PIDE. According to Portuguese journalists, it was involved in the assassination of Eduardo Mondlane, president of the Mozambican Liberation Front (Frelimo) in 1969, and of Amilcar Cabral, national liberation leader in Guinea-Bissau in 1973. And, according to the most recent revelations from former Italian Sen. Sergio Flamigni, the "parallel" apparatus coordinated the kidnap and assassination of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro through its Red Brigades unit on March 16, 1978, the day on which a PCI-supported DC government under Giulio Andreotti was finally going to be sworn in.
Were the Synarchist networks infiltrated into the NATO and Gladio structures involved in other assassinations of heads of state or government, as well?
The Nov. 22, 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy was coordinated by the Rome and New Orleans-headquartered Permindex corporation, which French intelligence, SDECE, discovered had also put up $200,000 for an attempt on de Gaulle. Even a cursory examination of the hard-core fascist outlook and connections of most of the Permindex/CMC personnel, their numerous ties to high-level Anglo-American intelligence, along with their financial connections, leaves no doubt that Permindex and its Rome-based arm, Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC), were part of the parallel NATO/Gladio structure.
Permindex was registered in Berne, Switzerland, Dulles's old stomping grounds. It was chaired by a high-ranking veteran of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) and the OSS, the Canada-based lawyer and financier, Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, the majority shareholder in Permindex (who also owned 50% of CMC). Its board was a mélange of devout "anti-communists," aristocrats, and fascists of various intelligence pedigrees. These included Count Guitierez di Spadafora, former undersecretary of agriculture to Mussolini, secretary of a British-sponsored Sicilian separatist movement, and in-law of Hjalmar Schacht, the master financier of the postwar Nazi International; Carlo d'Amelio, a Rome attorney who oversaw the financial holdings of the House of Savoy, and, according to some accounts, also of the Pallavicini family, and was the founding president of the CMC; Giuseppe Zigiotti, head of the Fascist National Association for Militia Arms; several other wartime fascists; and former OSS London and SOE veteran Col. Clay Shaw, the operations officer for the assassination.
Permindex was chaired by Canada's Bloomfield, while its international arm, CMC, was based in Rome, and Clay Shaw's firm in New Orleans, International Trade Mart, was a subsidiary of Permindex/CMC. According to documents released through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), OSS veteran Shaw worked for the CIA, as well. There was ample evidence of Shaw's involvement in the assassination, for which he was indicted by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison. Notably, one of the names found in Shaw's personal phone book was that of Princess Marcella Borghese, a member of the Black Prince's family. And one of the lower-level figures in the ambit of the plot, Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby (who assassinated patsy Lee Harvey Oswald), charged repeatedly in letters from jail, that "the Nazis and the Fascists were behind the Kennedy murder." According to the highly credible Torbitt manuscript, "Ruby was much more knowledgeable about the conspiracy than most."
Huge financial resources flowed through Permindex/CMC for no commercial purpose. Some of these funds, at least, were provided through banks which had earlier financed the Nazis, including one intimately associated with Allen Dulles from the time of his 1930s work with Nazi cartels, through to his 1953-61 stint as CIA chief. Some hints of where the money was going could be found in French and Italian press reports that CMC official Ferenc Nagy, the fiercely anti-communist former Prime Minister of Hungary, was financing Jacques Soustelle and the OAS, along with other European fascist movements; or in New Orleans District Attorney Garrison's observation about "Shaw's secret life as an Agency [CIA] man trying to bring Fascism back to Italy."6
NATO units were also involved in at least some of the numerous assassination attempts on France's President Charles de Gaulle in 1962-63, which was no doubt a factor in de Gaulle's withdrawing France from NATO's military command in 1966. France, after all, had been a key target of NATO's "Operation Demagnetize" in the 1950s, and the "anti-communist," bitterly anti-de Gaulle OAS operatives like Guerin Serac, were natural partners of NATO. Adm. Pierre Lacoste, director of the France's military secret service DGSE (1982-85), admitted after Andreotti had exposed Gladio's existence in 1990, that some "terrorist actions" against de Gaulle and his plans to liberate Algeria were carried out by groups involving "a limited number of people" from the French Gladio organization!
A five-year investigation by France's SDECE intelligence agency of a 1962 assassination plot against de Gaulle found that the assassination had been planned in the Brussels headquarters of NATO by a specific group of British and French generals, who employed former fascists for the planned wetwork.
And then, there is the case of Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme, who was assassinated on Feb. 28, 1986 in Stockholm. While there is no hard proof that parallel Gladio networks were involved, it has been suspected by Swedish investigative journalists. On April 28, 1992, Sweden's top daily, Dagens Nyheter, carried the headline: "A Top-Secret Intelligence Network Within NATO Is Behind the Death of Olof Palme." Journalist Goran Beckerus charged that the operative branch of NATO's Allied Clandestine Committee, known by its initials SOPS, oversaw the assassination under the code name "Operation Tree."
The Aristocracy and the Knights of Malta
In order to discover the real authors of international terrorism, we must move into territory at which Greene and Massignani only hint.
Time and again, Italian investigators of Gladio and P2 have suggested that the evidence before them was only the superficial tracings of a far-reaching, well-established power structure's activity. For instance, Senator Pellegrino, head of the Italian Parliament's "Terrorism Committee," is convinced that P2 Grand Master Gelli was the front man for hidden circles of far greater power; that if P2 were a "port," then Gelli, who has recently resurfaced to brag that he is "running the country," would be merely the "Port Authority." Who, or what, constitutes this greater power? From outside the country, it is the Anglo-American synarchists. But Gladio and the embedded "parallel Gladio" could not possibly function within Italy only by recruiting leaders of secret services; its protection had to involve some of the most powerful forces inside Italy itself.
Greene and Massignani note that the X MAS—which became a key component of Gladio—counted among its leadership a number of Italy's top aristocrats, though they name only two: the "Black Prince" himself, and the claimant to the throne of Italy, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta. In fact, the Duke was favored by many of Rome's black nobility over Victor Emmanuel III, who reigned from 1900-45, and who therefore was King during the era of Mussolini, who was nominally the King's prime minister. The recognized leader of Italy's black nobility, Princess Elvina Pallavicini, once proclaimed, "The Duke of Aosta would have been much better, but now we are stuck with Victor Emmanuel." How many other aristocrats among the X MAS leadership also became key figures, like Borghese, in NATO's Gladio organization?
It is certain, that aristocrats played vital roles in one of the "parallel" Gladio's most infamous operations, the kidnapping and assassination of Aldo Moro. Looked at more carefully, that is no real surprise: Members of the most powerful international organization of the world's aristocracy, the SMOM, played essential roles in the establishment of the Vatican/British intelligence/CIA "rat-lines" and other crucial "anti-communist" activities at the end of World War II. Allen Dulles and James Angleton were SMOM members. Numerous SMOM members were also prominent in the P2 lodge; however, of the two organizations, the SMOM is incomparably the more senior and powerful; in fact, from available evidence, P2 is more appropriately thought of as an "operational" spin-off of the SMOM. Let us briefly look at the role of these aristocrats in the Moro assassination, and then in more detail at the SMOM itself.
The Gladio structure was named after the short Roman sword, gladio. When Aldo Moro was killed on May 9, 1978, ostensibly by the Red Brigades, he was dumped outside a Roman stadium where gladiators used to fight to the death. The symbolic connection was clear, as emphasized by investigative journalist and sometime mouthpiece for elements within the SID, Mino Pecorelli. The Red Brigades leader in charge of the operation was Mario Moretti. Former Senator Flamigni has documented in a recent book, that Moretti was a protégé almost from childhood of an important aristocratic family, the Casati Stampa. The Marchesa Annamaria Casati Stampa kept several neo-Fascist youth as lovers, one of whom was probably Moretti, whose high school education she paid for. Under Gladio direction, the neo-Fascist Moretti later turned into a "leftist" and headed the Red Brigades.7 Connections to Fascism ran deep in the Casati Stampa family: her husband's uncle, Alessandro, had been a minister in Mussolini's first government, and then, when Mussolini was dumped, became a minister in the first royalist government.
The closest friend of the Casati Stampa family was Liberal Party Sen. Giorgio Bergamasco. Bergamasco, in turn, was one of the founders of the Committee of Democratic Resistance, led by Piedmontese aristocrat Count Edgardo Sogno Rata del Vallino. Sogno had fought for Franco during the Spanish Civil War, and then for Mussolini, and in 1943 went over to the British SOE. He was also on the payroll of Allen Dulles for years for 10 million liras a month, and his Committee became another nucleus of the extended Gladio organization. Sogno led an attempted coup in 1974, which was foiled by Defense Minister Giulio Andreotti. Flamigni demonstrated in his book how the hardline Moretti-led faction of the Red Brigades was in reality run by Sogno's NATO-controlled organization.
Shortly after Moro's assassination, LaRouche's associates in Italy published a pamphlet, "Who Killed Aldo Moro?" which drew attention to the oligarchical Caetani family in Rome, near whose palace Moro's body had been found. Later investigations by others charged that the actual head of Gladio was the English aristocrat Hubert Howard, a British intelligence official in World War II and for decades afterwards, who had married Princess Lelia Caetani, daughter of Roffredo Caetani, 17th Duke of Sermoneta. Howard and his wife lived in the Caetani palace, as did one Igor Markevich, a double or triple agent of Western, Israeli, and Soviet intelligence services. He and Howard were leaders of high-level "esoteric" masonry, and, according to some accounts, had led the "negotiations" with the Red Brigades for the freedom of Moro—a convenient cover for constant liaison. British intelligence veteran Howard was also named by some as the secret head of Gladio. The account is credible. Howard was a member of one of the most powerful families in Britain, the Dukes of Norfolk, and the Catholic Howards had had intimate connections with the Italian aristocracy, particularly of Venice, since at least the 18th Century. His mother, for instance, was a member of the powerful Giustiniani family of Venice and Genoa, which claimed descent from Emperor Justinian. One Howard had been the Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati outside Rome in the 19th Century, a post held a couple of centuries earlier by a Caetani. Although long a power in the Church—Benedetto Caetani was crowned Pope Boniface VIII at the end of the 13th Century—the Caetani were part of the nominally "enlightened" wing of Italy's aristocracy by the 20th Century, and still wielded great influence under Mussolini and afterwards.
No account of the Italian aristocracy's role in promoting fascism and terrorism can omit the role of Princess Elvina Pallavicini. As head of the integrist international association of Catholic nobility, "Noblesse et Tradition," Pallavicini was a chief sponsor, both in Rome and worldwide, of the schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, who was excommunicated by Pope John Paul II in 1988. Until her recent death, the Princess was also a chief sponsor of neo-Fascist groups in Italy, including setting the stage for the emergence of former porn star Alessandra Mussolini, granddaughter of Il Duce, as the candidate for an electoral coalition of neo-Fascist parties.
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Wherever one turns in investigating P2, Gladio, the "black aristocracy," international terrorism, or the Nazi International, one encounters the SMOM—the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, known as "the Knights of St. John" or the "Knights of Malta."
They were omnipresent in the establishment of the financial and human infrastructure of modern international terrorism already during World War II, and immediately thereafter. SMOM member Baron Luigi Parilli, an industrialist with high-level connections into both Hitler's SS and SD in Italy, and to Mussolini's intelligence services, was the main liaison between SS Gen. Karl Wolff and Allen Dulles in Berne. SMOM bestowed one of its highest awards, Gran Croce Al Merito Con Placca, on U.S. Ambassador to Italy Ellery Stone, who had saved Borghese, and who became a postwar vice-president of the ITT corporation, which helped organize the Sept. 11, 1973 overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende and the installation of dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet. The SMOM awarded its Croce Al Merito Seconda Classe to Italy's OSS chief James Jesus Angleton in 1946, around the same time it honored his boss, Allen Dulles. The following year, it bestowed the Gran Croce al Merito con Placca upon Hitler's Eastern Front intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen, one of only four recipients of this award at the time. Gehlen's brother was the secretary to Thun Hohenstein, one of the five-member ruling Sovereign Council of the order. As head of the Institute for Associated Emigrations, Hohenstein printed some 2,000 passports, which were used to relocate leading Nazis to safe hiding places around the world.
Other leading Knights included CIA chiefs Allen Dulles, John McCone, and William Casey. Nazi International figure Otto Skorzeny was a Knight, as was businessman J. Peter Grace, who used the SMOM's diplomatic immunity as a cover for Iran-Contra activities.
Numerous leaders of Italy's military intelligence organization were members of both SMOM and P2, including Gen. Giuseppe Santovito (former head of SISMI, which replaced SID after 1977), Adm. Giovanni Torrisi, Chief of the General Staff of the Army, and Gen. Giovanni Allavena, head of SIFAR. Another key P2 member who was a Knight was Count Umberto Ortolani, a member of the SMOM's ruling inner council, and a veteran of Mussolini's counterespionage service. Some say he was the real brains behind P2, and he did sponsor the entrance of P2 boss Licio Gelli into the SMOM. Ortolani was a financier who, among other things, owned the second-largest bank in Uruguay, where he commanded enormous influence; the fascist Gelli had been in exile in Ibero-America until higher powers brought him back to Italy in the early 1960s to set up what became the P2 lodge.
As with any organization, not all of its members are guilty, and sometimes not even witting of the organization's crimes. In this case, however, given the nature of the beast, that would be relatively rare. Besides the repeated surfacing of SMOM members in terrorist-related activities near the end of World War II, one of their more recent operations illustrates the organization's essential nature.
In 1978, following hard upon the assassinations of Dresdner Bank head Jürgen Ponto, German industrialist Hanns-Martin Schleyer, and Aldo Moro, the Knights of Malta were caught red-handed coordinating an assassination operation against Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. LaRouche was the intellectual author of the Bremen summit of that year, where French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, and British Prime Minister James Callaghan (the last under duress) signed the Bremen Communiqué, which announced the formation of the European Monetary System. The EMS, in the words of one West German official, was intended to be "the seed crystal of a new world monetary system." Bremen struck horror into the hearts of the world's oligarchy. Said one senior officer of the Banque Bruxelles-Lambert, owned by the Belgian Rothschilds, "It is recognized that it was LaRouche's program that went through at Bremen. If it goes through now, certain important financial centers are going to lose their power. A lot of people are not going to like that." The director of a Knights-run institute in Belgium was more succinct: "LaRouche is the first enemy of the London group." In New York, Knight Henry S. Bloch, director of Warburg, Pincus investment bank, whose hands investigators discovered to be holding many of the strings of the plot, proclaimed LaRouche to be "very dangerous," and pointedly compared him to Malcolm X, assassinated in 1965.
In their investigations of the SMOM, LaRouche's associates "discovered to their surprise that the mere mention of its name inspires awe and terror in the minds of highly placed government officials, central bankers, senior military and business leaders, and senior diplomatic and intelligence executives," as recorded in a pamphlet issued by the LaRouche organization at the time, "The `Black International' Terrorist Assassination Plot to Kill Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr." The pamphlet further reported, "The power that the Order concentrates is primarily financial, through direct control of most of the Western world's leading investment houses" and far, far more. The pamphlet also noted, "A second source of power is an absolutely unmatched intelligence capability." Which is to say, the SMOM is a leading organizational arm of the Synarchy, bringing together the world's leading aristocrats, financiers, and particularly military and intelligence officials. Its members yearn for the ultramontane world which existed before the rise of sovereign nation-states during the Renaissance, which meant a loss of power and privilege of their families. To them, that vanished world is as if yesterday. Indeed, it has by no means entirely disappeared, but lives on, centered—like the Knights themselves—on the Venetian-descended "independent central banks" of virtually every nation in the world, as LaRouche has emphasized.
The Knights of St. John were founded in the late 11th Century, and rose to prominence in the First Crusade of 1095. In 1120, Pope Urban II officially recognized them as a military religious order, and for centuries they remained one of the most powerful military forces in Christendom, first from their headquarters on the island of Rhodes, and then on Malta, from which they were finally driven by Napoleon in the late 18th Century. The Knights were recognized as a sovereign state by a Hapsburg Emperor in the 16th Century. They remain a sovereign state, run from their headquarters at 68 Via Condotti in Rome. They maintain their own fleet of aircraft, have diplomatic relations with 92 nations as well as the United Nations and the Holy See, and enjoy diplomatic immunity. The order is entirely Roman Catholic, and its higher ranks must document an aristocratic lineage and coat-of-arms of at least three centuries. The Grand Master of the order is both a secular prince, and a cardinal of the Church. Reflecting its history, its membership is still heavily comprised of individuals with a military or intelligence background. Pope Pius XII ordered an investigation of this nominally Catholic organization in the 1950s. The Papal Commission charged, among other things, that the Order should not have the sovereignty of a state, and ordered modifications of the SMOM "to bring them into conformity with decisions of the Holy See." However, Pius XII died before the Order could be fully reined in.
In addition to the Roman Catholic SMOM, there are four Protestant orders of the Knights, all founded within the last 150 years or so, and all run by ruling houses of Europe. The Roman Catholic and Protestant orders effectively merged on Nov. 26, 1963, four days after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The Sovereign Head of the British Knights is Queen Elizabeth, while the Netherlands Knights were headed until his death by the former SS official, Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, consort of Queen Juliana.
In 1927, the Rome-based SMOM authorized the establishment of an American chapter, whose members did not have to prove their aristocratic lineage. Its Treasurer and lay controller was John J. Raskob, the bitterly anti-FDR head of the Democratic National Committee, who in 1934 helped finance a coup attempt against Roosevelt. Its Grand Protector and Spiritual Advisor was Cardinal Francis Spellman of New York, one of whose closest Cold War associates was Time/Life publisher and Congress for Cultural Freedom co-founder Henry Luce.
Another Knight, who played a profound role in Italy's postwar financial, economic and political history was Prince Massimo Spada, the leading lay financier of the Vatican's Institute for Religious Works, commonly called the "Vatican Bank." Spada gave the mafia-connected heroin launderer and later P2 financier Michele Sindona his entrée into the Vatican's finances, which, given the tax-sheltered, sovereign status of the Church within Italy (as negotiated in the 1929 Concordat between Mussolini and the Holy See), was invaluable for running all kinds of dirty operations.
However, in examining the Vatican, one must always be careful to ask, "Whose Vatican? That of all the modern popes? Or that of the black aristocracy?" And to really unravel that question, insofar as it intersects Ortolani, Gelli, Calvi, Spada, and their "Vatican-connected" associates, and the deeper, "permanent" infrastructure of terror in Italy, one must delve deeply into history, particularly that of Venice, to understand the enormous power still wielded by those whom Pope John Paul I, called "the ancients," during the time he was Patriarch of Venice. After all, as LaRouche has stressed, those "ancients" of Venice have given us the modern Anglo-Dutch parliamentary system, with its privately controlled central banks, and the Synarchy's present drive for world rule. Under Anglo-American direction, those Venetian "ancients" also brought Mussolini to power in the first place, and then organized the financial world of the Vatican, into which Ortolani, Gelli, Calvi et al. were inserted.
The Legacy of History: The Venetian Factor
In 1582, the 40 or so families which controlled the vast fortunes and far-flung intelligence capabilities of Venice, split into two factions: the nuovi (the "new" houses, or families) and the vecchi (the "old" houses). On the surface, the appellations seemed to refer to those families ennobled since the serrata, the closing of the Grand Council in 1297, who were called the nuovi; whereas those who had already held titles of nobility, were the vecchi. In fact, the upheaval was the result of the establishment of sovereign nation-states for the first time in history, as a consequence of the Renaissance. The city-state of Venice, never more than 200,000 people, could not stand against the new powers that were coming into being, founded to promote the Common Good of their citizenry; the sheer numbers, the science and technology, the military power, were too much for even the powerful and devious masters of La Serenissima (as Venice is famously called).
The nuovi realized that, notwithstanding the bloody religious warfare which Venice had unleashed in Europe following the failure of the League of Cambrai to defeat Venice in 1511, its days were ultimately numbered. They took several strategic actions. First, under the leadership of Paolo Sarpi, they created the philosophy of empiricism, as a sense-certainty-based fraud whose purpose was to destroy the creative method of Platonic hypothesizing. Second, also under Sarpi's leadership, they launched a fierce war against the Vatican, posing as the bastion of "enlightened" Europe against obscurantist Rome. Third, they brought the newly emerging Protestant powers England and Holland (whose rise came largely thanks to Venice itself), into what had always been the cornerstone of Venice's fortunes—its trade with the East Indies. The Venetians founded the British East India Company in 1600 (from a merger of the England-based Venice Company and the Turkey Company) and the Dutch East India Company in 1602, and the wealth derived from this trade helped create or enrich a number of great aristocratic families in both countries, along the Venetian model. And, as LaRouche has often emphasized, the British East India Company became the foremost power in the world in 1763, in the wake of the British-rigged Seven Years' War among contending European powers, in the classic Venetian "divide and conquer" method. Fourth, they moved much of their fortunes (and even some of their families) north, first into Holland, and then into England, where they created what would be known in the 18th Century as "the Venetian Party." As part of this, they established the famous Wisselbank (Exchange Bank) of Amsterdam in 1609—the most powerful bank in the world—modelled upon their own private, patrician-controlled banks, followed by the Bank of England in 1694, both serving as the models upon which all central banks have been established since then.
In part because of these redeployments, Venice's financial power remained huge well into the 18th Century, as did its legendary spy system, brilliantly chronicled by Friedrich Schiller in his novella Der Geisterseher (The Ghost-Seer), and American intelligence operative James Fenimore Cooper in his novel The Bravo.8 Barings Bank in England, the bank of the British East India Company, for instance, was the vehicle for Venetian funds in Britain, and was at the center of the "Venetian Party," together with the Bank of England.
Napoleon Bonaparte had been partially sponsored and funded by Venetian and Genoese families: The Genoese Princess Pallavicini of that era famously punned that her family owned "la buona parte"—"the best part"—of him. His Corsican family had been retainers for the Genoese and Venetian nobility for centuries; and, as noted above, his favorite sister married a Borghese. When Napoleon's ravages had ended, Count Giovanni Capodistria, a Venetian nobleman acting as a government minister of Russia, almost single-handledly wrote the essential documents issued by the 1814-15 Congress of Vienna, which established the ultra-reactionary Holy Alliance. Capodistria also pulled together the modern nation of Switzerland, in part as a repository for Venetian family funds (fondi), which were also used to found several insurance companies in the late 18th Century. These later included the Riunione Adriatica di Sicurtà (RAS) and the Assicurazioni Generali di Venezia e Trieste.9
At the turn of the 20th Century, the "ancients" of Venice, although diminished, still commanded important financial and intelligence power, both on their own behalf, but also because they deployed as part of the British- (and subsequently Anglo-American-) dominated world which their ancestors had created. In the wake of the split/redeployments of 1582, they cloned themselves and their institutions and methods to dominate northern Protestant, often freemasonic Europe, while they still maintained their power in their historic seats of control in the formerly Hapsburg-ruled southern, more Catholic portions of Europe, in particular in Italy and Spain, and in the Church at Rome. They played a crucial role in organizing the Balkan Wars which laid the immediate basis for World War I, for which Britain's King Edward VII had schemed for decades. In the early 20th Century, a group of Venetian financier patricians, led by Count Piero Foscari of an ancient family of Venetian Doges, established a number of companies and banks. Chief among the latter, was the Banca Commerciale Italiana (BCI), and in particular its Venice branch.10
Though Foscari was the undisputed leader of this Venetian group, its most active public figure was Giuseppe Volpi, later known as Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata, after his early-1920s rule of Italian-occupied Libya on behalf of Mussolini. Acting as the point-man for an international financial syndicate including the Bank of England, the Mellons, and the House of Morgan, Volpi organized Mussolini's rise to power, precisely as Schacht did later for those same forces in installing Hitler in Germany. Volpi was Mussolini's Finance Minister from 1925 to July 1928, following which he became a member of the Grand Council of Fascism, and, in 1934, chairman of the Industrialists Association. He designed Mussolini's economic doctrine of corporatism along the model originally laid down by Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1842-1909), the founder of the Synarchy of Empire movement, and the inspiration for the Martinist freemasonic lodges through which the modern Synarchy was organized. Nominally a tripartite pact among corporations, the state, and labor, it was basically rule by corporations, i.e., private financiers.
In 1929, Volpi oversaw the famous Concordat between Italy and the Vatican, in which, among other things, Italy recognized the Vatican as a sovereign state, and paid financial compensation for the Papal States in central Italy which it had taken over in the second half of the 19th Century. The compensation was 1,550 billion liras, a sizeable sum at the time. One Bernardino Nogara was chosen, seemingly "out of the blue," to manage this fortune. The prominent American diplomat George Kennan wrote in his Memoirs: 1925-1950 about the extraordinary power commanded by Nogara: "A so-called `mystery man,' an Italian banker by the name of Bernardino Nogara, had been granted sole control by the papacy over the entire fortune of $92.1 million the church had received from the Lateran treaty. . . . No Vatican official, not even the Pope himself was allowed veto power over Nogara's decision. Nor would the banker permit any religious or doctrinal policies of the church to stand in his way. . . . Never before in modern Church history had anyone been granted such sweeping authority by the church, not even popes themselves, with all their supposed infallibility, let alone a layman, and non-Catholic (Jewish), as in Nogara's case." His impact on the Church may also be judged by the epitaph delivered upon his death in 1958 by the head of the SMOM in America, New York's Cardinal Spellman: "Next to Jesus Christ, the greatest thing to happen to the Catholic Church is Bernardino Nogara."
Whether or not he was Jewish, the "mystery man" was no mystery at all. Nogara had been managing director for a Venetian firm run by Foscari, Volpi, et al. in the Ottoman Empire already back in 1901. Reflecting his Venetian ties, Nogara became Italy's representative on the Ottoman Debt Council, a sort of IMF for the Ottoman Empire, whose purpose was to bleed it and carve it up. The British sponsored freemasonic lodges in Salonika, from which the "Young Turks" were organized to oust the Sultan. The freemason Volpi was intimately involved in the coup, as, undoubtedly, was Nogara. Nogara was the head of the BCI branch in Istanbul, and was Volpi's chief intelligence agent in the Ottoman Empire until that empire disappeared in the World War I which Volpi and his friends had done so much to help organize, through the masonic lodges and through Venice's ancient financial and familial ties in the Balkans.
After Nogara had been chosen Delegate of the Special Administration (later known as the Administration of the Holy See Patrimony) to oversee the investment of the wealth flowing from the Concordat, he became vice president of the BCI, upon whose postwar premises the P2 lodge would be founded. Nogara established intimate financial relations with the cream of the Synarchy, including the Paris and London Rothschilds, Crédit Suisse, Hambros Bank in London, J.P. Morgan Bank, and the Bankers Trust Company in New York, and the Paris-centered Banque de Paris et des Pay Bas (Paribas), a stronghold of the Synarchy in France in the interwar and postwar years. He also promoted a cadre of uomini di fiducia, "men of confidence," Vatican lay Catholic or even non-Catholic financiers, who would oversee the enormous new Vatican holdings. Nogara bought large or controlling interests in dozens of major banks, utilities, insurance companies, and industrial corporations, even as he reorganized previous Vatican holdings, such as the "Catholic banks" which were generally Catholic-owned, and which did business with the Church and its officials, as opposed to the "secular" banks.
The most important of these "men of confidence" was Prince Massimo Spada (a Vatican title), who had been inducted as a Knight of Malta in 1944. Spada either chaired or sat on the board of an astounding array of the holdings Nogara purchased. Noting only a few of the more important (and their capital), as of the late 1960s, these included: He was vice-president of the Banco di Roma (one of Italy's largest banks, historically associated with Rome's black nobility), and sat on the board of its Swiss subsidiary; Italy's biggest domestic gas company, Società Italiana per il Gas (37,412 million liras); president of the Trieste-based Riunione Adriatica di Sicurtà insurance company (4.320 billion liras); vice president and managing director of the L'Assicuratrice Italiana; vice president of both the Unione Subalpina di Assicurazioni and of the Lavoro e Sicurtà (750 million liras); Shell Italiana, the Italian subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell (129 billion liras invested in Italy); vice president of the Istituto Bancario Italiano (10 billion liras) and the Credito Commerciale di Cremona (2 billion liras); board member of the Banca Privata Finanzaria; board member of the huge financial holding companies, Società Meridionale Finanziaria (122 billion liras) and the Istituto Centrale Finanziario (150 million liras); vice president of the Finanzaria Industriale e Commerciale; president of the Banca Cattolica del Veneto (3 billion liras); board of directors of FINSIDER, a state-controlled holding company (195 billion liras), which is part of IRI, the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale, formed during the Fascist regime, which constituted the country's largest cartel and controlled the biggest shipyards; the Italia shipping line; Alitalia airlines; Alfa Romeo; and the entire telephone system. FINSIDER produced at the time over 90% of Italy's steel and was the backbone of IRI. Spada was also a board member or executive of dozens more banks, insurance, and industrial companies. In 1963 he was appointed Privy Chamberlain of Sword and Cape, one of the highest of all Vatican titles, one also held by his brother Filippo.11
With all of this enormous power, and despite his leading position in the Catholic Church, Spada sponsored the rise of Michele Sindona as one of the Vatican's "men of confidence." His choice was most peculiar, not only because Sindona had been a Fascist during the war, but because during that time he had made connections (through American OSS-connected mobster Vito Genovese) to the Inzerillo and Gambino crime families, for whom he laundered heroin money.
Reviewing the picture sketched above, we thus find that an intricate financial web originally woven by Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata and his Venetian aristocratic friends and associates such as Bernardino Nogara, had grown by 1960 to include Michele Sindona, who financed one of Gladio's most important assets, the "Black Prince" Borghese. Sindona also "was one of the channels, perhaps one of the most important, to back up" the attempted coups of 1970-74, as Greene and Massignani put it. Sindona later sponsored the rise of Banco Ambrosiano's Roberto Calvi, the P2 financier who was found hanging under Blackfriars Bridge in London in 1982, in a ritualistic masonic murder. And, when the P2 financial scandals exploded, one of those arrested as a key figure in them, was Massimo Spada, the protégé of Volpi's friend Nogara.
The membership of the ostensibly Catholic—and therefore ostensibly anti-freemasonic—Rome-centered SMOM overlapped with the freemasonic, presumably "anti-clerical" P2 lodge; they were the "twins" of Italy's Venice-centered oligarchy.
The privately run international monetary system is now collapsing, and the desperate financial oligarchy is trying to consolidate a new, worldwide fascism, driven by new waves of terror, such as 9/11 and the March 11, 2004 train bombings in Madrid. In this context, much of the superstructure of Gladio is finally being exposed by those opposed to this new fascism. Those exposés are essential. But, we must go still deeper, to lift the veil from "the ancients," and through them from the Synarchy to which they have given birth, of which they remain a crucial component.
[1] The material in this review which directly concerns Borghese is almost entirely drawn from Greene and Massignani. Additional material on Gladio can be found in Daniele Ganser's book, NATO's Secret Armies (London, 2005), "Secret Warfare: Gladio," Arthur E. Rowse's "Gladio: The Secret U.S. War to Subvert Italian Democracy," and work by LaRouche and his associates. The latter includes "Strategy of Tension: The Case of Italy," an indispensable four-part series by Claudio Celani, first published in EIR, and "Terror's Legacy: Schacht, Skorzeny, Allen Dulles" by Michael Liebig. These two articles were republished, together with overviews by LaRouche, and numerous other studies, in the Special Report, The Synarchist Resurgence Behind the Madrid Train Bombing of March 11, 2004, issued by the LaRouche in 2004 campaign committee.
[2] Charles Higham, American Swastika (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1985), p. 198.
[3] Sen. Giovanni Pellegrino, who chaired the 1994-2001 Italian parliamentary committee investigating both the Gladio-orchestrated terrorism, and how Italy's secret services covered them up, said that D'Amato "was an old Anglo-American agent, whose career started soon after the Liberation under James Angleton." Under Angleton's protection, said Pellegrino, "D'Amato became superintendent of the Special Secretary of the Atlantic Pact, the most strategic officer of our apparatus, as it is the connection between NATO and the U.S.A." From its founding at the end of the war, the UAR was filled with hundreds of former officials of Mussolini's Salò Republic. D'Amato headed it from 1968-74, the period of NATO's "Strategy of Tension."
[4] Since no English original of FM 30-31B was ever found, but only Italian translations of parts of it (during the raid on Gelli's villa), some investigators query whether such a Pentagon manual ever existed. However, the Italian passages are entirely coherent with other Pentagon documents of the same general era, such as the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff's infamous Operation Northwoods plan, which called for unleashing terrorism against the domestic United States, among other clandestine provocations.
[5] Angleton and his associates in the OSS/CIA had a lifelong fascination with the Trust, the joint Anglo-American/Soviet intelligence operation which featured the use of double and triple agents. These were actually used by the Synarchists to manipulate both the Western powers and the Soviets against the nation-state, toward a kind of global condominium. It is not accidental that the "legendary" CIA counterintelligence chief Angleton somehow missed noticing that his mentor and his decades-long close friend Kim Philby was a "Soviet" (read: Trust) agent. Keeping up his part in the charade, Philby announced from Moscow that he had "enjoyed playing Angleton and Dulles." Angleton and Dulles maintained deep contacts with the "internationalist" wing of the Soviet intelligence establishment, just as they did with the "universal fascists" like Borghese. The shared goal was the destruction of nation-states in favor of world imperial rule. Many of Angleton's "fascist" assets in the postwar era turned out to be Soviet assets, as well.
[6] When the CMC first started up in Rome, its chief public figure, the pro-fascist former Prime Minister of Hungary, Ferenc Nagy, announced that it had major financial backing, including from J. Henry Schroder Bank and the Seligman Bank in Basel. The Seligman Bank was a large stockholder of the CMC, and its principal, Hans Seligman, sat on the boards of both the CMC and Permindex. With J. Henry Schroder, Nagy had spilled the beans on a most sensitive institution, and the bank was quick to deny his claim. J. Henry Schroder Bank had been intimately involved in the Dulles/Nazi financial deals from the 1930s, and, as CIA chief, Dulles maintained $50 million in "contingency funds" at Schroder under his sole control. See William F. Wertz, Jr., "The Plot Against FDR: A Model for Bush's Pinochet Plan Today," EIR, Jan. 21, 2005.
For further details on Permindex/CMC, including its finances, see a January 1970 manuscript by William Torbitt; New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison's book, On the Trail of the Assassins; and the account in the 1992 edition of the book, Dope, Inc.: The Book That Drove Kissinger Crazy, by the authors of Executive Intelligence Review. EIR maintained a close relationship with Garrison until his death in 1992. The Italian left-wing daily Paese Sera also ran a series on CMC/Permindex in March 1967, exposing it as a shell for huge sums of money that had nothing to do with "commerce," naming some of its elite banking connections, and profiling its board members as Anglo-American intelligence-connected ex-Fascists and fanatical right-wingers. Earlier scandals regarding CMC/Permindex had caused an uproar in Parliament and elsewhere, which forced CMC/Permindex to leave Rome for Johannesburg in 1962, the year before the entity orchestrated the Kennedy assassination. Garrison observed that the Italian government had expelled CMC/Permindex for "subversive intelligence activity."
[7] The role of NATO in running the Red Brigades is documented by Claudio Celani in "The Sphinx and the Gladiators: How the Head of the Red Brigades was an Agent of NATO-Controlled Fascist Circles," EIR, Jan. 21, 2005, based in large measure on a recent book by former Sen. Sergio Flamigni, La Sfinge delle Brigate Rosse (The Sphinx of the Red Brigades).
[8] The extraordinary financial power which Venice still commanded in the 18th Century was documented by the Venetian nobleman Carlo Antonio Marin, historian of Venice Frederick Lane, and others. Its European-wide cultural warfare and espionage system was also still highly effective, as evidenced in the international campaign of the Paris-based Venetian Abbot Antonio Conti to attempt to destroy the reputation of the great scientist Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. An agent of Venice's ruling Council of Ten, Count Cagliostro (Joseph Balsamo) organized the 1785 "Affair of the Queen's Necklace," the scandal which, as Napoleon observed, was the opening act of the French Revolution, an event financed and run out of Britain. Still another notorious Venetian spy of the same era was Casanova, who reported directly to the inner Three of the hooded, black-robed Council of Ten. The scarlet-robed chief of the Three was known as the Inquisitor, and in Venice it was understood that "The Ten will send you to the torture chamber, but the Three will send you to your grave."
Schiller chose to set his masterful portrayal of the methods of the Venetian intelligence service, as well as its Europe-wide reach, in the 18th Century; he clearly was not writing of a merely "historical" matter, nor was the patriotic American intelligence agent James Fenimore Cooper, in his portrait written several decades later, though Cooper set his tale centuries earlier. During the American Revolution, Venice put its still-considerable fleet at the service of the British.
[9] One of the notable financiers of Borghese in-law Napoleon was the Venetian Salomon Morpurgo, who later founded the Assicurazioni Generali di Venezia e Trieste (General Insurance Company of Venice and Trieste). Generali has been ruled ever since by a kind of central committee of Europe's financier and aristocratic oligarchy. On the board of Generali and its sister insurance company, Riunione Adriatica di Sicurtà (RAS), over recent decades, one finds such names as Giustiniani, Orsini, Luzzatto (an old Venetian family), Rothschild, the Duke of Alba (whose ancestor laid waste to the Netherlands for Philip II of Spain), and Doria (Genoese financiers of the Hapsburgs). The president of the RAS at one point was Sindona's sponsor, Prince Massimo Spada, while Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata chaired the Generali from 1938-43. Had the 1964 coup been successful, the plotters planned to install Cesare Merzagora, chairman of Generali from 1968-79. Generali's chairman today is Antoine Bernheim, a senior partner of Lazard Frères, and member of one of the four families which control Lazard, a mainstay of the international Synarchy. Bernheim's daughter married Prince Orsini.
Generali and RAS are merely two important strands of a much larger web of families and finance, but they illustrate the directions in which one must look to discover the "port" behind the "Port Authority" guarded by P2 boss Licio Gelli, as Senator Pellegrino insightfully put it.
[10] The activities of Foscari, Volpi, et al. as the product of centuries-long Venetian operations in the Ottoman Empire, are elaborated in The Roots of the Trust, by Allen and Rachel Douglas (unpublished ms., 688 pages, 1997).
[11] The partial list of Spada's corporate offices is taken from Conrado Pallenberg, The Vatican Finances, (London: Peter Owen, 1971).

L 'ideale tradito della P2?Ma tradito da chi?Dalla Loggia Monte Carlo?

  
I RAPPORTI INTERNAZIONALI DELLA P2
Lo studio dei rapporti internazionali della Loggia P2 e dell'attività di Licio Gelli in tale contesto
non può che essere di circoscritte dimensioni in considerazione della difficoltà, per non dire della
impossibilità, per la Commissione, di indagare su queste situazioni che trovano sviluppo al di
fuori delle frontiere nazionali. Né si può sottacere che la presenza di Licio Gelli in paesi stranieri
non ha lasciato praticamente traccia, con riferimento evidentemente al periodo antecedente al
sequestro di Castiglion Fibocchi, presso gli archivi delle nostre ambasciate, nonostante di essa
esistano numerose ed autorevoli testimonianze che tutte convergono ad indicare l'intrinseca
dimestichezza di questo cittadino italiano con personaggi stranieri di altissimo livello politico.
Muovendo da queste premesse, la Commissione è in grado di affermare, in base ai documenti
ed alle testimonianze in suo possesso, che il rilievo dell'attività internazionale del Maestro
Venerabile è di segno certamente non inferiore a quello della sua presenza italiana, anche se
l'analisi di questo versante della sua personalità non può essere in pari modo approfondito per le
oggettive ragioni già indicate.
Si pone in primo luogo, come dato di sicura constatazione, che Licio Gelli pervenne ad inserire
l'organizzazione da lui guidata in più ampio contesto organizzativo di respiro internazionale.
Rilievo questo che si pone del resto in armonia con la natura in certo qual senso internazionale
della massoneria, la quale, come abbiamo già rilevato, aspira a porsi e concretamente si muove
come un'organizzazione che, assumendo a sua base premesse filosofiche di portata generale, tende
a stabilire legami fra gli affiliati che travalicano le frontiere. Nell'ambito di questa dimensione
sovranazionale, Licio Gelli appare interessato a due iniziative la cui esistenza è documentata in
modo certo. La prima è la cosiddetta Loggia di Montecarlo, per la cui esistenza la Commissione è
in possesso di scarsi, ma inequivocabili elementi documentali. E’ agli atti un modulo di iscrizione
(le indicazioni sono in tre lingue e cioè nell'ordine: inglese, francese ed italiano), per un Comitato
esecutivo massonico che aveva sede nel Principato di Monaco e che dal contestuale riepilogo delle
finalità associative risulta porsi come una sorta di organizzazione di livello superiore rispetto alle
tradizionali strutture massoniche. La finalità reale dell'organismo traspare dal documento, pur
condito dagli abituali generici richiami a superiori motivazioni, nel quale è dato leggere: «...scopo è
quello di realizzare...una forza di governo universale...» ed ancora: «...La Massoneria è l'organismo più
qualificato a governare, perciò se non governa manca alla sua vera ragion d'essere...».
Schede di iscrizione già compilate e corrispondenza agli atti dimostrano che il Comitato di
Montecarlo ebbe pratica attuazione, superando la fase progettuale; ma non ci è dato di sapere
quale consistenza esso venne a raggiungere. In sede interpretativa si può affermare che esso si
pose certamente come un momento qualificante dell'operazione piduista; e particolare interesse
suscita la circostanza che ad esso Licio Gelli pose mano in quel periodo, alla fine degli anni
Settanta, che abbiamo indicato come contrassegnato da un inizio di incrinamento del potere del
Venerabile Maestro. In questa prospettiva l'iniziativa di creare una organizzazione posta a ridosso
dei confini nazionali, ma al di fuori della portata delle autorità italiane, potrebbe inserirsi come
elemento di arricchimento e conferma al quadro delineato.
Altra iniziativa di respiro internazionale è quella dell'ONPAM, una istituzione a carattere
sovranazionale rivolta con particolare riferimento ai paesi dell'America latina, la cui esistenza è
documentata in modo certo e il cui significato appare, allo stato degli atti, ancor più difficile da
interpretare.
La Commissione è in possesso di una tessera intestata a Roberto Calvi, rilasciata nel 1975 e
sottoscritta da Licio Gelli in qualità di Segretario. Si ha inoltre notizia che al Gamberini era stato
affidato il compito di tenere i contatti tra l'organizzazione ed il Grande Oriente. Risulta che di
questa organizzazione esiste ampia documentazione nel materiale sequestrato presso la villa
uruguaiana di Licio Gelli e certo la sua conoscenza aprirebbe squarci di notevole interesse su tutta
la vicenda della Loggia P2, la cui dimensione internazionale, una volta conosciuta in modo meno
sommario, consentirebbe una valutazione più completa del valore politico di questa
organizzazione, che del resto era stato intuito dall'ispettore Santillo nella sua terza nota
informativa.
Appare infine dalla documentazione che il Venerabile della Loggia P2 godeva egli stesso di un
prestigio internazionale proprio nell'ambiente massonico. Non solo egli era infatti tramite dei
rapporti tra la massoneria italiana e quella argentina, ma già nel
1968 appare accreditato presso il Grande Oriente quale garante di amicizia di una loggia estera,
elemento questo che conferma la precocità della carriera massonìca di Licio Gelli, ampiamente
analizzata nel capitolo primo.
L'attività personale di Licio Gelli del resto appare sicuramente documentata come ampiamente
proiettata fuori dell'Italia, attraverso una fitta rete di contatti, anche esterni alla massoneria, tutti di
alto livello per il rango delle personalità con le quali il Venerabile intratteneva rapporti. In questo
senso l'epistolario rinvenuto apre uno spaccato, parziale ma efficace, delle relazioni che Licio Gelli
intratteneva con un’opera di continuo contatto e costante aggiornamento; ne emerge il ritratto di
un accorto professionista nell'arte dei rapporti sociali, comunque non certo confinabile
all'interpretazione di uno spregiudicato arrampicatore sociale, come dal tono generale delle lettere
si evince in modo non equivoco.
L'ambito di interessi di Licio Gelli appare in questo panorama rivolto eminentemente ai paesi
d'oltre Atlantico. Sicure e documentate sono le relazioni di Gelli con i paesi del Sudamerica ed in
particolare l'Argentina, paese nel quale egli era in relazione con l'ammiraglio Massera, ma
soprattutto con Peron e il suo entourage, nel quale grande rilievo aveva Lopez Rega, interessato
anch’egli alla iniziativa dell'ONPAM.
Giancarlo Elia Valori1, iscritto alla Loggia P2 e da questa espulso, ha testimoniato di aver ricevuto
una confidenza del Presidente Frondizi, che si domandava quale ruolo un privato cittadino
svolgesse per i Servizi segreti italiani ed argentini. In proposito di estremo interesse è la
deposizione del generale Grassini, Direttore del SISDE, il quale davanti alla Commissione ha
dichiarato: «...Non avevamo nessun rapporto con i Servizi dell'America latina...Sapendo bene che Gelli
aveva grandissime possibilità per quanto riguarda l'Argentina, gli chiesi se mi poteva mettere in contatto
con gli argentini. Egli aderì a questa richiesta e l'indomani mattina puntualmente il Capo del Servizio
argentino in Italia, all'Ambasciata argentina in Italia, si presentò nel mio ufficio, dicendosi pronto a
collaborare per qualsiasi cosa. Da quel momento nacque un contatto perenne e continuo tra il nostro Servizio
e il Servizio argentino, che si impegnò anche a fare da tramite tra noi ed i Servizi degli altri paesi
dell'America latina dove erano stati segnalati dei fuoriusciti, fu impostato quindi un sistema idoneo per la
ricerca di questi fuoriusciti».
Si ricorda al proposito che Gelli ricopriva un incarico ufficiale presso l'Ambasciata argentina in
Italia in qualità di consigliere economico e in tale veste intratteneva rapporti con autorità italiane,
in particolare in occasione di visite di Stato.
Altra importante direttrice degli interessi di Licio Gelli è costituita dagli Stati Uniti, per ì quali
appare accertato un solido legame con Philip Guarino in relazione alla vicenda Sindona. Gelli si
mette a disposizione di Guarino, membro del comitato organizzatore della campagnia elettorale
del Presidente Reagan, e da questi viene invitato all'insediamento del nuovo Presidente
americano.
Certo è che, come la vicenda degli affidavit raccolti in favore di Sindona ampiamente dimostra,
Licio Gelli era in contatto con gli ambienti politici e finanziari che costituivano il retroterra del
finanziere siciliano con una rete di rapporti di livello altamente qualificato.
La componente affaristica, assolutamente da non sottovalutare nella interpretazione del
personaggio Gelli, non gli impediva peraltro di avere contatti con la Romania, paese con il quale
l'azienda di Gelli aveva instaurato un importante rapporto di collaborazione produttiva.
Gli elementi esposti, pur nella loro sommarietà, consentono alla Commissione di affermare che la
dimensione del personaggio Gelli, sotto il profilo indagato, è certamente di peso non minore
1 Uscito indenne dalla tempesta della P2, ricoprirà incarichi importanti nell’amministrazione pubblica, fino a diventare
presidente della Società Autostrade. (La nota è nostra).
rispetto a quello pure rilevante già documentato con riferimento al nostro Paese. Se l'articolazione
dei rapporti e delle conoscenze è necessariamente conosciuta, allo stato degli atti, in modo
sommario, quello che appare sicuro in questo contesto è non solo il rilievo assunto dal Venerabile
della Loggia P2, ma soprattutto, oltre la dimensione affaristica pur rilevante, il valore politico
indubitabile che le relazioni intrattenute denunciano.
Displaying entries 56 - 60 of 85    Previous Page | Next Page
Copyright © 2006,Leo Young All rights reserved.
 

21st of December 2012

 

SECRET CABALISTIC CALCULATIONS OF THE BOOK OF THE LAW by Simen Midgard

 
These are the cabalistic calculations of  Norwegian occultist Simen Midgard on the  famous secret number and code given by satanist A.Crowley in  the BOOK OF THE LAW. The result is:
OF COLD DEATH STAND STRONG
(Whatever that means...)
Simen claims to have been the Dark Master who influenced the birth of Black Metal in Norway. This is a perverse and very satanic form of music now very popular with the youth. Frater Simen Midgard was the Oslo OTO Caliphate Master in the 80's working for the American illuminati spreading the black arts and satanic propaganda.

Lon Milo Duquette says:LEO TOGETHER WE WILL RULE THE WORLD!

 
Since 1975 W.Bro.Lon Milo Duquette now  a 32 o of the A.A.S.R. as been a national and international governing officer of ORDO TEMPLI ORIENTIS,one of the most influential black magic societies of the ORDO ILLUMINATORUM ,constantly serving the  NEW WORLD ORDER since their foundation.

OCCHIO ARRIVA "POLIFEMO" IL VICE DI "MAULANA SHAYKH ABDUL HADI" PALAZZI

 
MASSONERIA, VATICANO E SERVIZI IN SPY STORY A POTENZA
LE RIVELAZIONI DI 'POLIFEMO' SU TANTI MISTERI D'ITALIA (di Mario Restaino)
(ANSA) - POTENZA, 10 MAG - Dodici ore di interrogatorio per ripercorrere misteri e storie italiane (come la morte di Ilaria Alpi, la strage di Ustica e la scomparsa di Emanuela Orlandi) e per aprire scenari finora sconosciuti al grande pubblico, come presunte ''operazioni fasulle'' dei servizi segreti, la massoneria di qua e anche di la' del Tevere, le estrazioni di petrolio ''in nero'' in Basilicata, e altro ancora. Massimo Pizza - nome in codice Polifemo, il ''consulente'' arrestato sabato scorso nell' inchiesta su truffe ad imprenditori, coordinata dal pm di Potenza, Henry John Woodcock - e' stato interrogato due volte, nell' aprile scorso, e ha fatto affermazioni pesanti. Tutte da verificare, ma pesanti. Ecco alcune delle dichiarazioni di Pizza.
ILARIA ALPI - ''E' vittima della sua superficialita' al 100 per cento'', dice Pizza, perche' quel giorno ''lei doveva trovarsi a bordo della nave Garibaldi. L' hanno ammazzata i somali. I mandanti? Le voci concrete, totali ed assolute - ha aggiunto - erano che avesse scoperto il passaggio strategico di materiale importantissimo, piccolo ed occultabile'', cioe' di uranio. Partito da dove? Forse dalla Basilicata?
''USTICA UNA SPINA NEL CUORE'' - E' il titolo (ripreso da una frase di Francesco Cossiga) del film per realizzare il quale Pizza ha fatto da ''consulente storico''. Il film doveva servire a ''far venire veramente fuori che cosa avesse determinato l' incidente'' e le ''reticenze generali ed assolute dei vertici istituzionali dello Stato''. Il Dc9 Itavia - racconta Pizza, citando fonti arabe - ''l' hanno abbattuto gli italiani'' in una sera di guerra fra aerei libici, americani e italiani, con il Governo italiano che avvisa il leader libico, Gheddafi - in volo verso Belgrado - che gli americani vogliono abbatterlo.
EMANUELA ORLANDI - ''Non c' e' mai stata nessuna attivita' di indagine seria su questa cosa. E' stata un'attivita' vergognosa. Cose che non interessano, quindi non se ne parla''.
OPERAZIONE ''FASULLE'' DEI SERVIZI SEGRETI - Pizza le definisce anche ''farlocche, gonfiate'', e ''se ne vanno un sacco di soldi, tanti'', che finiscono nelle tasche degli agenti. E vengono da fondi riservati, a cui si attinge senza controlli. Fausto Del Vecchio (arrestato dal gip di Potenza, Alberto Iannuzzi, nell' ambito dell' inchiesta), quando era nel Sisde, secondo Pizza, aveva ''un tenore di vita sui 25-30 mila euro al mese''.
MASSONERIA E 'MASSONERIA VATICANA' - Pizza ne parla a proposito di monsignor Francesco Camaldo, con cui dice di avere rapporti personali stretti, e del collaboratore di un altro prelato (a sua volta collaboratore del Sisde). Con Camaldo - dal quale i politici lucani vanno a lamentarsi ''terrorizzati'' da alcune inchieste che li coinvolgono - Pizza ha uno ''scambio fruttuoso di notizie''. Il prelato si sarebbe mosso ''per distruggere'' una loggia massonica, ''che puo' togliere seguaci e puo' distogliere soprattutto soldi e capitali da un' altra loggia massonica''. Pizza descrive Camaldo come molto influente e ricorda che, ai funerali di Giovanni Paolo secondo, era in prima fila (con il compagno) il famoso stilista che gli confeziona le tuniche, mentre importanti Capi di Stato erano dietro. Pizza sottolinea il potere della massoneria italiana, a cui appartengono persone di ogni settore, compresi magistrati, rappresentanti delle forze dell' ordine e anche cardinali: secondo lui, la Basilicata ha una loggia massonica importante, di cui sono soci anche uomini politici. Poi descrive il vero potere: ''Ci sono personaggi che non contano niente, hanno incarichi e non contano niente e persone che assolutamente non hanno incarichi e contano tantissimo. Non e' l' incarico che hai - spiega - e' il centro di potere a cui sei collegato''.
I FONDI DEL 'CENTRO DI POTERE' - Secondo Pizza, proprio il centro di potere che ''viene finanziato in Basilicata e che a sua volta finanzia mezza Italia, si finanzia con i soldi in nero che vengono dallo sfruttamento in nero del petrolio'' e da operazioni legate ai rifiuti e all' acqua. ''Si estrae petrolio in nero'', dice lapidariamente Pizza al pm. Ovviamente, rispetto al centro di potere finanziato in Basilicata, ''Roma e' estremamente presente e pressante''.
LA SOMALIA, ''UN GROSSO BUCO NERO'' - Pizza racconta i suoi profondi legami col Paese africano e ha organizzato personalmente (pagandola con ''soldi che mi sono arrivati'') la Conferenza di pace. Vuole tornare a Mogadiscio per trovare alcuni archivi e ''gestire'' le informazioni che contengono, ma numerose forze anche italiane si oppongono, evidentemente, a tale progetto. La Somalia e' un luogo dove ''l' anarchia e' assoluta e totale'', con ''interessi incredibili'' che si incrociano con i disegni del terrorismo: costruire una bomba ''sporca'' che farebbe ''due, tre milioni di morti''.
A PROPOSITO DI SOMALIA... - Pizza parla dei mille miliardi di vecchie lire della cooperazione internazionale, dal 1988 al 1991. I soldi li hanno presi ''i politici italiani'' o per traffici illeciti. Chi ha paura quindi dei dossier di Mogadiscio? ''Anche padri della patria'', dice Pizza.
IL GENERALE AIDID E'... - ''Morto, ucciso'', dice Pizza. ''E' morto e sepolto'', assicura, nonostante sia fra le persone da ricercare a livello internazionale: ''Avra' sterminato 200, 300 mila persone'', sottolinea ''Polifemo''.
AUTORITRATTO - Nei due interrogatori, Pizza si definisce rappresentante del Governo somalo, ''agente provocatore'', consulente storico, consulente, bibliografo, ''scambiatore di notizie'', analista, venditore di informazioni e anche ''truffatore ma non musulmano'', quando ricorda che e' stato vicepresidente dell'Associazione musulmana italiana. (ANSA). RES 10-MAG-06 13:39 NNNN

Dimitri Buffa e il falso Sceicco Sionista Palazzi

Posted on Sunday, October 8, 2006 at 09:24PM by Registered Commenter[Your Name Here] | CommentsPost a Comment
From: DIMITRI FASTWEB
Sent: Saturday, July 01, 2006 9:37 PM
Subject: R: lettera di chiarificazione sia a proposito di Palazzi sia a proposito di chi si ostina seminare zizzania tra noi due
ALLA CORTESE ATTENZIONE DEL GRAN MAESTRO SUFI DEGLI HELVETI JERRAHI GABRIELE MANDEL KHAN

DA PARTE DI DIMITRI BUFFA

ROMA 1 LUGLIO 2006
Carissimo maestro,
apprendo dalla tua giustamente irata lettera dell’ennesimo increscioso incidente diffamatorio in cui mio malgrado questo Palazzi mi avrebbe coinvolto. Chiarisco fin da ora che qualunque cosa lui abbia pubblicato sul suo sito
http://www.amislam.com/organizzazioni.htm> io proprio non posso farci niente e anzi mando questa lettera afinchè tu la possa trasmettere ufficialmente sia alla tua tariqa in Italia sia a quella in Turchia perché sia ben chiaro che con questo signore a parte alcuni rapporti di lavoro giornalistico e qualche occasione conviviale, io certo non ho mai avuto nulla a che spartire.
Io non ho nulla contro il governo turco di cui anzi mi sono onorato di essere stato ospite lo scorso anno al meeting delle religioni ad Antakya e tanto meno ho nulla contro la tua tariqa, di cui io anzi sarei onoratissimo di appartenere.
Spero che con questa lettera sia chiarita la mia imbarazzante posizione dovuta solo all’essermi fidato di qualcuno di cui non mi sarei dovuto fidare. Porgo le mie scuse a chi si è sentito offeso per la mia leggerezza nella frequentazione in oggetto ma ciò detto, io che cosa potevo farci se questo signore mette i suoi deliri su internet e mi coinvolge? E se qualcun altro amplifica le sue cose rimettendole in altri siti internet di vari estremisti islamici o nazisti di qui all’infinito?
Io prendo le distanze, riaffermo e ribadisco la mia simpatia e la mia amicizia, per Te, per i sufi Jerrahi e per il governo turco. Di più non posso fare e lascio questo documento a futura memoria, Vi prego tutti di credere nella mia buona fede e chi mi vorrà sentire a voce potrà telefonarmi al 339 7408556.

In fede Dimitri Buffa

Nella foto ricordo il falso Sceicco Palazzi ,il giornalista corrotto Dimitri Buffa,Fioravanti,la Mambro
Dario Dimitri Buffa è un giornalista freelance che ha stabilito uno splendido rapporto di simbiosi con Abdul Hadi Palazzi, sicuramente basato anche su affinità caratteriali. Ricorda per intenderci il rapporto tra gli anemoni di mare e il pesce pagliaccio, che da una parte è protetto dal al veleno degli anemoni - a cui è immune - mentre dall'altra li nutre con i suoi scarti. Insomma, Palazzi emana i suoi proclami e Buffa li pubblica sulla stampa di destra, presentati come scoop sul terrorismo provenienti direttamente da fonti islamiche.
Eterno adolescente, nato nel 1960, si descrive come "tifoso Laziale" e impegnato in "una gavetta pressoché infinita e ancora in progress", interessato soprattutto a "come fare i soldi in democrazia e conservarli." È stato candidato occasionale del Partito Radicale, con un singolare programma che mescola marijuana e "tematiche anticristiane":
"fare dichiarare la marijuana droga legale sia a scopo terapeutico sia a scopo ricreativo, fondare un giornale per gli utenti di droghe leggere, sensibilizzare i non cattolici, i pagani e i laici in genere su tematiche anticristiane e non piagnone su scienza, coscienza e altro".
Buffa ha lavorato per Il Secolo d'Italia, organo dell'ex-MSI, e poi come fantasioso "giornalista investigativo" di Italia settimanale, la defunta rivista di Marcello Veneziani a cavallo tra "destra sociale" e integralismo cattolico. Un suo articolo su questa rivista conteneva le presunte e semiserie «liste di proscrizione della destra»; e per questo scritto, nell’aprile ’94, Buffa venne querelato da Agostino Cordova e condannato a tre mesi di carcere e al pagamento di 30 milioni.
Ed ora vi voglio mostrare due e-mail che ho purtroppo ricevuto questa estate durante una nostra iniziativa di beneficienza dall' Istituto Culturale delle Comunita' Islamica Italiana del falso Sceicco Palazzi:
Date: Mon, 24 Jul 2006 14:54:36 +0200
From: "Istituto Culturale della Comunita' Islamica Italiana" Add to Address Book
To: gabriele.mandel@fastwebnet.it
CC: leoyoung
Subject: E chi pensa ad aiutare Israele aggredita?
Ovviamente le richieste di aiuti sono SEMPRE E SOLO A FAVORE DEL LIBANO. A mandare aiuti agli Israeliani vittime di un tremendo attacco terroristico ed impegnati in un combattimento per la sopravvivenza del loro Stato non pensa mai nessuno... Quando si parla di CARITA' A SENSO UNICO...
Kalim
Poi successivamente non contenti della situazione rincarano la dose in Inglese con la seguente:
From: "Istituto Culturale della Comunita' Islamica Italiana" Add to Address Book
To: "leo young"
CC: eheath@sikora.co.uk
Subjec: Kirby Lodge 2818 and Satanism...
If you oppose Zionism, are associated with a leading demonic sponsor of terrorism like the Emir of Qatar and circulate the ugliest lies against the Mashaykh of Tasawwuf, the only possible explanation for this behavior of yours is that YOU THE REAL SATANIST, although you do not realize it.
May Allah guide you to the right path and to a sincere repentance.
Kalim
in data sabato 22 luglio 2006, alle ore 23.07, il nostro amico e illustre Fratello Gabriele Mandel Khan aveva scritto:
>
Amici stimati, ricevo e trasmetto. Qualora si rendesse necessario a giorni riceverò anche l'indirizzo della Banca. Cordiali saluti, Mandel
Amici, salute a tutti voi. Conoscete il dramma che decine di migliaia di
libanesi vivono.
Sono rifugiati nelle scuole attorno a noi e mancano di tutto. Noi cerchiamo
di dar loro un po' di cibo, latte, medicine, un minimo di conforto igienico.
Calcoliamo che le necessità quotidiana di una famiglia sia di 10 dollari (8
euri). Quelli di voi, libanesi o no, che vogliono aiutarli, possono inviare
il loro dono alla Banca SGBL, conto corrente 001-004-361-236446-01-3. Grazie
per tutto l'aiuto che ci vorrete dare, Nayla Butros Sehnaoui.
Lo "Sceicco" Palazzi dai suoi amici Sionisti della potentissima Loggia B'NAI B'RITH di Detroit,satanisti e burattinai del NUOVO ORDINE MONDIALE
 
 

ARTICLES 36-45

 

RASPUTIN, IL SANTO PECCATORE di Roberto Negrini

Posted on Wednesday, October 11, 2006 at 08:37PM

RASPUTIN, IL SANTO PECCATORE
Estasi, magia e illuminismo sociale nel crepuscolo dell’Impero russo
di ROBERTO NEGRINI
Pubblicato unitamente ai 3 Box sul mensile
I Misteri n°5, Luglio 1995.
Troppo spesso un metodo storiografico miope, unilaterale o parzialistico impedisce di applicare all’analisi degli eventi storici criteri adeguati a esplorarne la complessità. In particolare la lettura esclusivamente sociologica, economica, politica o religiosa di avvenimenti e personaggi chiave da cui sono scaturiti crocevia o decisioni determinanti lascia spazio a piccole e grandi zone d’ombra, scomode, inquietanti, ma di enorme interesse per lo studioso multidisciplinare e libero da pregiudizi accademici. Esempio paradigmatico ne è la transazione dall’Impero sacrale degli Zar a quello comunista sovietico, nelle cui pieghe ritroviamo l’oscura e dimenticata protagonista di quell’ora fatale del nostro secolo: la spiritualità magica russa e i suoi strani, evanescenti interpreti. Una comparata analisi di quelle pluriformi fenomenologie sociali, religiose, etnologiche e magico-esoteriche compresenti nell’area dell’Impero zarista a cavallo fra Otto e Novecento aspetta ancora di essere scritta. Nell’intrecciarsi traumatico di una contraddittoria serie di influenze che raccordavano l’assolutismo teologico della più rigida ortodossia all’illuminismo razionalistico introdotto da Caterina la Grande, in un territorio comprendente parte dell’Europa e larga parte dell’Asia si videro coesistere sopravvivenze sciamaniche e teologia bizantina, feudalesimo medievale e rivoluzione industriale, immense ricchezze individuali e indicibili povertà collettive. Un coacervo dal quale ebbe paradossalmente vita la più monumentale costruzione sociale materialistica di tutti i tempi.
Il mito della Terza Roma
“Caro amico, dirò ancora una volta: è spaventosa la nuvola che sta sopra la Russia, disgrazia e tristezza immense, buio senza schiarite, un illimitato mare di lacrime e di sangue. Cosa dire? Non ci sono parole, orrore indescrivibile. So che tutti vogliono da te la guerra, anche i fedeli, non sapendo che sarà la rovina ... Tu sei lo Zar, il padre del popolo, non permettere che i pazzi vincano e perdano il popolo e se stessi. Ecco, si vincerà la Germania; ma la Russia? A pensarci, non c’è vittima più pietosa in tutti i secoli, è sommersa nel sangue, grande è il disastro, infinita la tristezzaâ€.
Con queste accorate parole dirette allo Zar di tutte le Russie Nicola II, cariche di enfasi profetica e vergate con mano malferma dal suo letto di ospedale a Tjumen nel luglio 1914, il monaco “maledetto†Grigorij Rasputin tentava per l’ultima volta di arrestare la catena di eventi che era sul punto di travolgere e sconvolgere l’Europa.
Soltanto poche settimane prima, il 28 giugno (15 giugno secondo il calendario Giuliano ancora vigente in Russia a quell’epoca), a Sarajevo il terrorista serbo Gavrilo Prinzip aveva ucciso in un attentato l’arciduca d’Austria Francesco Ferdinando, erede al trono asburgico e sua moglie. La conseguente dichiarazione di guerra alla Serbia da parte dell’Austria, forte della sua alleanza con la Germania di Guglielmo II, aveva rapidamente trascinato lo Zar verso la mobilitazione generale a favore degli alleati serbi, nonostante il già precario equilibrio interno dell’Impero. E proprio in quei giorni, con una sincronicità che ebbe tutto il sapore del complotto, lo stregone Rasputin, la cui enorme influenza a corte già più volte aveva esautorato i piani guerrafondai dell’estrema destra politica e religiosa, era caduto vittima di un attentato durante una visita al suo paese nativo nella zona della Siberia occidentale.
Travestita da mendicante, Chionija Guseva, una mistica fanatica e debole di mente discepola del predicatore e ieromonaco ultranazionalista Jliodor (Sergei Trufanov), aveva atteso per due intere settimane l’arrivo di Rasputin e infine era riuscita ad avvicinarlo e pugnalarlo a tradimento al grido di “ho ucciso l’Anticristo!â€. Nonostante la gravissima ferita al ventre la tempra fisica eccezionale e forse gli strani poteri del monaco-contadino ebbero la meglio e dopo il trasporto al vicino ospedale di Tjumen l’“Anticristo†superò la crisi e sopravvisse. La forzata lontananza dalla corte non gli permise però di raggiungere, come invece tante volte era accaduto, la mente e il cuore dello Zar e nonostante i suoi ripetuti appelli, le sue lettere, i suoi frenetici telegrammi a Pietroburgo l’Impero zarista aprì l’ultimo capitolo della propria storia mentre in Europa si accendevano i bagliori del primo conflitto mondiale.
Si narra infatti che Nicola II, che pure per quasi un decennio aveva prepotentemente subito il fascino magnetico di Rasputin fino ad eleggerlo a proprio consigliere personale, abbia strappato con rabbia l’ultimo telegramma dell’amico convalescente che ancora lo implorava di desistere dalla guerra. In quel frangente le influenze di gran parte della Duma (il Parlamento russo), dell’aristocrazia e dell’esercito prevalsero e, forse per la prima volta nella sua sfortunata carriera di autocrate amletico, Nicola Romanov ritenne di dover pienamente incarnare il mito imperiale del “sovrano vittorioso†ereditato dai suoi avi. Forse in quel rigurgito di orgoglio militare, e in qualche modo religioso, che lo spingeva a contare su una guerra vittoriosa come strumento di riaffermazione della propria sovranità teocratica, egli rilesse o ricordò le parole, ben diverse, che un altro monaco visionario, Filoteo di Pskov, aveva inviato in un’epistola, 300 anni prima, al granduca di Mosca Basilio III (1505-1533): “la Chiesa dell’antica Roma cadde per la sua eresia; le porte della seconda Roma, Costantinopoli, furono abbattute dalle asce dei turchi infedeli; ma la Chiesa di Mosca, la nuova Roma, risplende più del sole su tutto l’universo. Tu sei il sovrano ecumenico, tu devi reggere le redini del governo nel timore di Dio; abbi timore di Lui che te le ha affidate. Due Rome sono cadute, ma la terza rimane salda in piedi; una quarta non vi sarà. Il tuo Regno Cristiano non sarà mai dato ad alcun altro sovranoâ€.
Secondo i teologi ortodossi russi, quindi, la Prima Roma aveva portato nel mondo il Cristianesimo e la sua legge incarnando l’autorità del Padre; poi era caduta nell’eresia e la luce della retta dottrina, il Verbo-Logos o Figlio, si era incarnata, dopo lo scisma della Chiesa Orientale, in Costantinopoli, la Seconda Roma; infine quando Costantinopoli “per la sua corruzione†era caduta in mani islamiche (1453) lo Spirito Santo aveva trovato una sua incorporazione nella Terza Roma: Mosca, dalla quale si sarebbe irradiato nel mondo il culto ortodosso e santificante dell’Impero Perfetto. E quando nel 1547 Ivan IV “il terribileâ€, successore di Basilio III, si era consolidato nel titolo di Zar (interpretato dai russi come l’equivalente del Basileus bizantino) e successivamente il Metropolita di Mosca era stato nominato Patriarca l’idea-forza della Terza Roma aveva trovato nell’anima russa una completa sanzione storica.
Eretici, riformatori e visionari nel nome della Grande Madre
All’inasprimento istituzionale di ogni ortodossia vengono sempre a contrapporsi atteggiamenti alternativi ed eretici. Anche nell’ambito dell’ortodossia russa già dagli anni precedenti alla salita al trono di Ivan IV si erano delineate due principali tendenze religiose sensibilmente diverse tra loro.
La prima di queste, detta dei Giuseppiniti dal nome del principale sostenitore Josif Sanin, Superiore del monastero di Volotsk, sosteneva la necessità teologica e politica di una stretta alleanza fra Chiesa e Trono, autorità spirituale e potere secolare, con la conseguente enfasi sull’unità dogmatica e sul formalismo ritualistico. La Terza Roma doveva riflettere il modello teocratico già rappresentato da Bisanzio e dai Papi e ogni forma eretica di libero approccio al sacro andava decisamente repressa.
L’opposta tendenza, definita dei Non Possidenti e capeggiata dal monaco vagante Nilo di Sorks, un mistico esicasta che aveva soggiornato per qualche tempo presso il monastero del Monte Athos, propugnava l’assoluta separazione della dimensione religiosa da quella mondana, la totale autonomia dei monaci dal potere politico, la necessità etica di un’equa distribuzione delle ricchezze e un libero approccio alle Sacre Scritture articolato sull’esperienza mistica e individuale del divino.
Per evidenti motivi di opportunità politica la corrente giuseppinita trovò più largo consenso presso i granduchi di Mosca - divenuti “Zar di tutte le Russie†- e conseguentemente verso la metà del secolo XVII, con l’avvento della dinastia dei Romanov, venne accelerato un processo di irrigidimento politico-religioso che portò infine a una piena e dichiarata nazionalizzazione della Chiesa russa. Pietro III Romanov il Grande fu proclamato di fatto capo assoluto della Chiesa e il Patriarcato di Mosca venne abolito per essere sostituito da un “Santo Sinodo†di vescovi eletti e controllati dallo Zar.
Ma nel Seicento le condizioni storiche e geografiche della Terza Roma erano profondamente diverse da quelle dei modelli bizantini e occidentali che erano maturate sull’onda portante dell’Impero Romano. Di fatto la stretta e forzata coesione fra l’aristocrazia guerriera di Mosca e la multiforme spiritualità cristiano-ortodossa portò fatalmente a un indebolimento di entrambe; la reazione dei Non possidenti contro il Patriarca Nikon (1605-1681), che aveva spianato la strada alla teocrazia bizantineggiante dei Romanov, si concretizzò infatti in un autentico scisma, con la separazione dalla Chiesa russa di un vasto movimento dissidente di ispirazione mistica noto come i Vecchi Credenti.
La dottrina di questa dissidenza, che si diffuse dapprima fra le classi più libere e intraprendenti come i mercanti, i contadini dell’est e del nord e i cosacchi, enfatizzava sia un ritorno alle radici slave del culto cristiano ortodosso, sia una rinnovata forma di intimismo religioso e un radicale rifiuto delle influenze greche e bizantine nel rito e nella prassi sociale, aprendo così la strada alla proliferazione di ulteriori e ben più radicali movimenti e sette, sempre più orientati verso una spiritualità slegata da ogni margine dogmatico o formalismo istituzionale. Andrej Amal’rick, uno dei più interessanti fra gli storici sovietici dissidenti, ricorda che “le prime sette sorsero in Russia a cavallo dei secoli XVII e XVIII. Anche prima vivevano in Russia adepti di sette diverse che subivano influenze provenienti principalmente dalla Lituania e dalla Svezia, ma a causa della predilezione delle masse per l’aspetto rituale della religione ebbero poca risonanza prima dell’effervescenza suscitata dallo scisma. Lo stato in cui l’uomo si sente sottoposto a una volontà non umana, in cui ha visioni e proferisce parole incoerenti, era noto già da tempo nella Russia pagana e ‘profeti’ e ‘profetesse’ di campagna cadevano in trances isteriche. Generalmente si attribuivano queste manifestazioni a forze demoniache, ma dalla fine del secolo XVII alcuni di tali profeti cominciarono ad assicurare che erano ispirati dallo Spirito Santo†(Rasputin, il “monaco nero†e la corte dell’ultimo Zar, Einaudi 1984).
La rivolta contro la sclerosi dogmatica e burocratica dell’ortodossia ufficiale generò le migliori condizioni per il riaffiorare di arcaici retaggi cultuali di carattere sciamanico pre-cristiano e di influenze, mai del tutto sopite, risalenti ai precedenti secoli di dominazione tartara. La trance, l’estasi, la danza sfrenata, la possessione mistica, le varie tecniche per indurre un superamento, anche violento, del normale stato di coscienza attraverso il dolore o il piacere estremi emersero (o riemersero) enfaticamente nella fenomenologia religiosa; si caratterizzarono così forme estreme e dirette di rapporto con lo Spirito Santo, cioè con quell’aspetto del divino che più di ogni altro, nonostante il travestimento cristiano, rifletteva l’arcaica eredità della Grande Madre Cosmica, il più antico fra gli Archetipi del Sacro.
Patrona della Terza Roma era la Vergine Maria e fin dall’epoca dei teologi gnostici le correnti illuminate ed eretiche del Cristianesimo, sia orientale che occidentale, avevano assimilato il suo simbolismo femminino - ricalcato sui culti materni pre-cristiani - al mito dello Spirito Santo, terza Persona della Trinità cristiana. I mistici russi, e in particolare quelli dissidenti, tesero così a identificare lo “spirito di illuminazione†con l’abbraccio estatico e ambiguamente erotico della Grande Madre, sviluppando forme di culto personali o collettive in cui la diretta identificazione con il Divino veniva ricercata attraverso l’esaltazione emozionale e la danza dionisiaca. E spesso tale processo venne spinto fino al parossismo orgiastico carnale, inteso come formula rettificatrice e liberatoria dalla “schiavitù dei sensiâ€.
Le figure più caratteristiche di questo particolare scenario furono gli staretz, monaci laici itineranti dotati di virtù profetiche e spesso taumaturgiche che, vivendo dell’elemosina dei fedeli, vagavano di paese in paese predicando le più diverse dottrine. E se molti di loro erano malati di mente o fanatici invasati e deliranti le cui follie venivano interpretate dalla superstizione popolare come segni di elezione, altri dimostrarono di possedere autentiche facoltà sovranormali e crearono movimenti o sette in cui sono ravvisabili interessanti elementi di carattere magico o sciamanico e contenuti e tecniche di un qualche valore iniziatico.
La prima e probabilmente più significativa tra queste sette fu quella della “gente di Dioâ€, detta dei Christi o Chlysty, fondata nel Seicento nell’Alto Volga dallo staretz Danilo Filippovic che, secondo la leggenda, aveva gettato nel fiume tutte le sacre scritture cristiane dichiarando che “per la salvezza occorre un unico libro: Libro d’oro, Libro di vita, Libro-colomba, Il Signore Spirito Santo stessoâ€.
Dalla seconda metà del Settecento, con l’introduzione a corte della cultura illuministica voluta da Caterina la Grande, anche fra le classi colte e presso una certa aristocrazia iniziarono a diffondersi forme di religiosità alternativa e tendenze filosofiche ereticali, dovute principalmente all’influenza delle correnti illuminate e iniziatiche europee, soprattutto massoniche. Tanto che - come lamenta un autore contemporaneo evidentemente di parte come Nicholas Zernov, teologo ortodosso e professore di teologia ecumenica alla Drew University (USA) - “nella seconda metà del secolo XVIII le classi più elevate della popolazione russa incominciarono a disertare la loro Chiesa in cerca di altri sistemi di vita e alcuni si allontanarono completamente dalla fede e dalla morale cristiana. Alcuni si consideravano discepoli di Voltaire, altri entravano nella Massoneria. Il numero di questi disertori fu in un primo tempo piuttosto ristretto, ma tutti appartenevano all’aristocrazia e a poco a poco i loro princìpi incominciarono a penetrare nelle classi inferiori†(Il Cristianesimo orientale, Mondadori 1990).
Così il medesimo spirito di libertà e alterità spirituale che animava le pratiche popolari e contadine dei Chlysty si reificò e diede i suoi frutti attraverso pensatori e filosofi, spesso di ampio respiro, che fino all’alba del nostro secolo fecero sentire le loro voci. Essi tentarono di conciliare nell’anima russa l’eroica rivolta del libero pensiero contro la plumbea oppressione di una religiosità sclerotizzata e malata di autoritarismo con la difesa dei valori più autentici dell’anima slava, mistica e sensuale a un tempo. Il romanziere simbolista Dmitrij Merezkovsky (1865-1941), il mistico pansessualista Vasilij Rozanov (1856-1919) - le cui dottrine magico-sessuali possono essere affiancate a quelle di P.B. Randolph e di Aleister Crowley - e lo stesso tormentato Lev Tolstoj sono esempi emblematici di questo sommovimento, in cui il rifiuto dell’assolutismo sia morale che filosofico e sociale apriva le porte a una concezione magica del mondo. Un’interazione tra diversificate influenze che contribuì più di quanto gli storici razionalisti vogliano ammettere a generare l’humus collettivo di un generale e catartico ribaltamento di valori di cui la rivoluzione socio-economica non rappresentò che l’ultimo stadio.
L’economista e il contadino-sciamano alleati per la pace
Tra il 1904 e il 1905 la stabilità politica interna dell’Impero zarista era stata fortemente scossa dalla sconfitta nell’infausta guerra contro il Giappone. Questo disastro militare, oltre ad aver frustrato le mire espansionistiche di Nicola II verso l’Oriente, aveva favorito l’azione destabilizzatrice dei primi Soviet, portando alla sanguinosa rivolta popolare del gennaio 1905 e alla nascita di un effimero Parlamento, la Duma.
Grande protagonista del delicato momento politico era stato il ministro delle finanze e successivamente Primo ministro conte Sergeij Jul’evic Witte, autentico genio economico e massone di larghe vedute. A Witte, elevato a dirigere il Ministero delle finanze già sotto Alessandro III, andava il merito della grande industrializzazione russa di fine secolo, con la promozione soprattutto di acciaierie e di campi petroliferi, nonché l’attuazione della grande ferrovia transiberiana e la riforma monetaria a sistema aureo che permise fortunate transazioni con banche straniere. Il progetto politico di Witte, che ben presto trovò l’ostilità dell’aristocrazia fondiaria e dello stesso Zar, era di evitare l’inasprimento dei conflitti di classe e i conseguenti pericoli di crollo dell’intero sistema imperiale attraverso una serie di graduali riforme economiche. Per questo sia nel 1904 che successivamente nel 1914 egli si dimostrò ostile alla guerra, nella quale vedeva soltanto un grande pericolo di indebolimento sociale, oltre che di disagio economico e politico. Mentre di contro la corrotta struttura burocratica dell’aristocrazia non intendeva rinunciare ai propri privilegi economici e si stringeva intorno allo Zar alimentando in tutti i modi la sua pur già notevole miopia politica.
Altro grande protagonista di questo scenario fu il misterioso monaco-sciamano, Grigorij Jefimovic Rasputin.
Nato a Pokrovskoe nella Siberia occidentale a est degli Urali, probabilmente nel gennaio 1864, da una famiglia di contadini, Grigorij dimostrò fin dall’infanzia di essere dotato di strane facoltà precognitive e di misteriose capacità di comunicazione con la natura e con il mondo animale.
Dopo una gioventù dedita alle risse, alla vodka e soprattutto ai piaceri carnali aveva subito una repentina trasformazione spirituale in seguito a un pellegrinaggio al monastero di Verchotur’e - nella regione di Ekaterinburg, oggi Sverdlovsk - noto come centro di aggregazione locale dei Chlysty. E’ quindi molto probabile, anche se non del tutto dimostrato, che il turbolento e sensuale mugik (contadino) abbia realizzato la sua strana svolta esistenziale attraverso la partecipazione ai misteri di questa setta. Fatto sta che da quel momento iniziò una serie di pellegrinaggi che, attraverso i luoghi sacri e i principali monasteri della Russia, lo condusse fino al monte Athos e a Gerusalemme. Lo accompagnavano ovunque una crescente fama di santo staretz e l’eco dei suoi prodigiosi poteri ipnotici, taumaturgici e profetici.
Se pure i suoi maestri spirituali erano stati i Chlysty, Rasputin sicuramente estremizzò e superò le loro pratiche e dottrine fino ad articolare una propria originale forma di religiosità sciamanica, di cui la danza, il sesso e a un certo punto anche l’ebbrezza alcolica furono le componenti base per lo scatenamento di un travolgente potere personale. In particolare l’enorme ascendente che egli sempre esercitò sulle donne di ogni età e condizione sociale ricorda da vicino alcune forme di stregoneria sessuale tipiche della tradizione tantrica indo-tibetana e cinese e nell’area etnica cui egli appartenne trovano forse l’uguale soltanto nell’analoga, anche se più raffinata, personalità di George Gurdjieff.
Dal momento della sua apparizione a corte, nel novembre 1905, Rasputin conquistò la completa fiducia e devozione dei sovrani, delle loro giovani figlie e in particolare del piccolo Aleksej, erede al trono, le cui continue emorragie emofiliache parevano sanabili esclusivamente dalle magnetiche mani del taumaturgo. I miracolosi interventi con cui Rasputin salvò più volte la vita dello Zarevic sono ampiamente documentati e lo stesso Aleksej, secondo una testimonianza diretta, poco dopo la morte dello staretz ebbe a dire: “adesso mi curano e pregano per me, ma non serve a niente. Lui invece mi portava una mela, mi faceva una carezza là dove io avevo male e subito stavo meglioâ€.
Ben presto la fama del monaco-stregone divenne enorme ed enorme fu il suo potere di influenzamento sullo Zar e soprattutto sulla zarina Alexandra, che su di lui concentrò tutto il suo mistico fanatismo, tanto che si disse ne fosse divenuta l’amante.
La pur vasta letteratura, soprattutto scandalistica e diffamatoria, su Rasputin ha sempre enfatizzato la sua immagine di astuto ciarlatano semianalfabeta ed erotomane, ma una più accurata analisi, libera da pregiudizi storici e religiosi e basata su quanto ci raccontano i documenti dell’epoca, favorevoli e non, ci presenta una realtà ben più sfaccettata.
“Sono venuto a portarvi la Voce della nostra Santa Madre Terra e a insegnarvi il beato segreto che essa mi ha trasmesso circa la santificazione mediante il peccatoâ€: in queste parole di Rasputin è racchiuso il senso più profondo della sua opera e probabilmente di tutta la sua vita. Egli volle, sempre e ovunque, cavalcare la tigre di un mondo politico e religioso in sfacelo, carico di ipocrisie, menzogne, crudeltà e “peccati†di ogni genere. Di tutto questo egli fece il proprio strumento per offrire sia al popolo che all’aristocrazia una via di scambio e di reciproca redenzione sociale e spirituale.
Per più di un decennio il “santo diavoloâ€, come molti religiosi lo chiamavano, manovrò le menti e i corpi dei teocrati di Pietroburgo, consolando le nevrosi ossessive di Alexandra e istruendo lo Zar ad ascoltare il cuore piuttosto che la ragione - imbrigliata com’era nella ferrea logica dell’autocrazia - tanto da riuscire a ritardare la crisi bellica di almeno due anni. Nel frattempo beneficò e spesso guarì da malattie fisiche e psichiche decine e decine di persone, soprattutto fra gli aristocratici, pur non dimenticando, quando e come poteva, di porgere il suo aiuto agli innumerevoli diseredati che gli si rivolgevano. Quando accettò denaro da amici abbienti fu solo per distribuirlo generosamente a chi ne era bisognoso e la sua figura ben presto divenne una sorta di ponte gettato fra lo Zar e il suo popolo.
Con una strategia basata più sull’istinto naturale che su un pensiero strutturato, a lui probabilmente estraneo, Rasputin promosse attraverso manovre e amicizie, in particolare femminili, una formula politica improntata al pluralismo e alla tolleranza sociale e religiosa, soprattutto verso le classi e le categorie sociali maggiormente penalizzate come i contadini e gli Ebrei. Le sue operazioni politiche sembrarono, così, perfettamente sintonizzate con le profetiche vedute del conte Witte, il massone illuminato che, allontanato dal potere fin dal 1906, fu forse uno dei pochissimi a comprendere realmente lo staretz e, pur senza esserne soggiogato, gli fu amico devoto. Witte giunse infatti a dire nell’estate del 1914, mentre nonostante gli sforzi suoi e di Rasputin la Russia stava inesorabilmente avviandosi verso la guerra: “esiste un solo uomo oggi in grado di sbrogliare la complessa situazione politica ... e quello è Rasputinâ€.
Profezia e catastrofe
Lo zar Nicola II, isolato fisicamente dal suo consigliere a causa prima dell’attentato allo staretz nel 1914, poi dei suoi impegni al fronte, divenne succube di altre influenze e neppure l’alleanza tra l’illuminismo massonico di Witte e i poteri sciamanici di Rasputin poté evitare l’ultimo atto della tragica saga imperiale russa.
In Rasputin e nella sua capacità di assommare e trasmutare tutti i peccati e le cattive coscienze della “nuova†Roma si consumò la possibile opzione di una terza via per la cibernetica della storia, una via altra, diversa e forse superiore rispetto sia alla senescenza teocratica dei nobili reazionari, sia a quel nascente ed effimero astro incarnato da un altro “monacoâ€, laico, gelido, spietato e totalitario, che portava il nome di Vladimir Il’ic Ul’Janov: Lenin.
In una lettera scritta allo Zar il 18 aprile 1916 Rasputin aveva preconizzato in questi termini la propria morte: “sento che devo morire prima dell’anno nuovo. Voglio fare presente però al popolo russo, al Babbo, alla Madre della Russia e ai Ragazzi che se io sarò ucciso da comuni assassini, e specialmente dai miei fratelli contadini russi, tu, Zar di Russia, non avere paura, resta sul tuo trono e governa ... Ma se io verrò ucciso dai nobili le loro mani resteranno macchiate dal mio sangue ... Zar della terra di Russia, se tu odi il suono della campana che ti dice che Grigorij è stato ucciso devi sapere questo. Se sono stati i tuoi parenti che hanno provocato la mia morte allora nessuno della tua famiglia, cioè nessuno dei tuoi figli o dei tuoi parenti, rimarrà vivo per più di due anni. Essi saranno uccisi dal popolo russoâ€.
La romanzesca morte di Rasputin nel dicembre 1916, che tra veleni e pallottole apparentemente inefficaci finì per terrorizzare gli aristocratici attentatori, capeggiati appunto da un parente di Nicola II, precedette di soli pochi mesi l’abdicazione dello Zar e lo sterminio della famiglia Romanov da parte dei Bolscevichi, proprio come lo staretz aveva previsto. Nella località di Ekaterinburg, a breve distanza dal misterioso monastero dei Chlysty da cui il cammino dell’“Anticristo†era iniziato, il sangue degli ultimi teocrati cristiani segnò il tramonto della Terza Roma, e nessuno saprà mai quale corso avrebbe avuto la nostra storia se la voce appassionata e sensuale della Santa Madre Terra fosse stata ascoltata dai “Signori della guerra e della fedeâ€.
BOX 1
I Chlysty, gli Illuminati della Carne
Il movimento dei Chlysty, o “gente di Dioâ€, che ha avuto una sua importanza fino ai primi decenni del Novecento, rappresentò in Russia una vera e propria religione nella religione, organizzata come società segreta secondo un modello che presenta forti analogie con alcune sette medievali europee quali quelle degli Adamiti, dei Luciferiani, dei Fratelli del Libero Spirito o degli stessi Catari, tutte decisamente pervase da un’intensa connotazione paganeggiante e, per molti versi, dionisiaca.
Lo storico Mircea Eliade ci ricorda l’esistenza nella Russia del XIX e del XX secolo di altri movimenti mistico-erotici, fra cui gli Innocentisti che, nell’estatica ricerca rituale della “purezza adamica delle originiâ€, vivevano “in caverne sotterranee, praticamente nudi e impegnati esclusivamente in rapporti sessuali indiscriminati, sperando in tal modo che la redenzione venisse loro dall’enormità dei loro peccati†(Occultismo, stregoneria e mode culturali, Sansoni 1982). Ma i Chlysty furono indubbiamente il primo e il più articolato, oltre che il più longevo, fra questi modelli meta-religiosi e nonostante le cruente persecuzioni della Chiesa ufficiale e del potere imperiale la loro influenza socio-politica fu enorme e giunse fino a penetrare negli ambienti aristocratici di Mosca e Pietroburgo.
Presso la gente di Dio la morte del “vecchio Adamo†e la rinascita della divinità interiore dovevano essere realizzate attraverso una violenta forma catartica di spersonalizzazione collettiva, in cui gli istinti di piacere e di dolore venivano artificialmente esasperati fino al raggiungimento di una dimensione estatica, in virtù della quale lo Spirito Santo scendeva a incarnarsi negli adepti e nelle adepte. E alla rigorosa morale esteriore - che comprendeva la proibizione dell’uso di bevande fermentate e la totale astensione da ogni manifestazione mondana e soprattutto dal sesso, anche tra coniugi - veniva così combinata una precisa e codificata utilizzazione dell’ebbrezza e dell’erotismo orgiastico, intesi come tecnica estatica di collegamento con il divino.
I rituali, celebrati nel cuore della notte, implicavano grandi cerchi concentrici di danzatori e danzatrici, che nella crescente esaltazione del movimento giungevano a un furore pandemico, stracciandosi le bianche vesti rituali, flagellandosi a sangue e infine gettandosi gli uni sugli altri in una sfrenata orgia dei sensi. Un processo drammatico e liberatorio attraverso il quale le energie del “peccato†si esaurivano e i fedeli, uomini e donne, diventavano “puri†veicoli del Santo Spirito, manifestando visioni e profezie.
Nei punti di più alta tensione gli adepti ritenevano di raggiungere la personificazione del Cristo (da cui la denominazione di Chrysti, mutatasi poi in Chlysty), mentre le profetesse, che spesso gestivano il culto costituendone il principale polo di attrazione, assumevano l’identità della Vergine Maria, divenendo rappresentazioni viventi della Grande Madre Terra rigenerata dallo Spirito delle origini e simboleggiata dall’arcaico sigillo sciamanico della croce a otto bracci.
BOX 2
La corte dei miracoli
Nikolaij Aleksandrovic Romanov, figlio di Alessandro III e Zar regnante dal 1896 con il nome di Nicola II, incarnò gli aspetti più deteriori dell’aristocrazia russa del suo tempo. Di carattere debole e superficiale, sostanzialmente pavido ma capace di pur ottusa rigidità autocratica, governò di fatto subendo la costante influenza dei vari gruppi di potere e delle personalità che lo circondavano, oscillando costantemente da una posizione all’altra senza mai - come egli stesso confessò - “riflettere troppo su nullaâ€. Soprattutto ebbe potere su di lui la mistica e nevrotica moglie, la zarina Alexandra Fedorovna, che pure lo amò teneramente e ne fu riamata fino alla morte.
Intanto nell’epoca in cui ormai si annunciavano il tramonto della teocrazia russa e la tragica apocalisse dei suoi ultimi, sfortunati teocrati si assisteva a una paradossale convivenza, sia a corte che in certi ambienti aristocratici, tra la formale difesa della più autocratica ortodossia e la sempre maggiore indulgenza verso dimensioni eretiche e magiche del sacro. I principali interessi di Alexandra infatti, e quindi di Nicola, erano la religione e un certo malato pseudo-misticismo tendente a proiettarsi verso le peggiori forme di religiosità “occultaâ€. Perciò alcune fazioni di astuti cortigiani e di familiari intriganti erano solite introdurre a corte ogni sorta di “santiâ€, predicatori e “folli di Dio†allo scopo di servirsene per influenzare le azioni e le decisioni dei regnanti. I quali li accolsero soprattutto per poter rimediare all’assenza di un figlio maschio e poi, quando nel 1904 nacque finalmente lo zarevic Aleksej, erede al trono, per poter guarire quest’ultimo da una perniciosa forma ereditaria di emofilia.
In tutto quel periodo alla corte di Carskoe Selo vicino a Pietroburgo, la residenza estiva dove la famiglia reale viveva gran parte dell’anno in volontario isolamento, furono ricevuti e ospitati decine di strani personaggi, spesso folli o pericolosamente esaltati, come l’ex macellaio balbuziente e probabilmente pazzo Mitja Kozel’skij, che fu presentato a corte insieme al suo protettore Sergei Nilus. Scopo di Nilus era diventare consigliere spirituale dello Zar e pochi anni dopo questo mistico fanatico, e sedicente professore, sarebbe diventato famoso per la “denuncia†di un allucinante complotto ebraico per la conquista del mondo, delineato in un falso documento di presunta origine ebraico-massonica conosciuto come i “Protocolli dei Savi Anziani di Sionâ€, la cui prima edizione Nilus curò e commentò nel 1904. E’ tristemente nota la successiva strumentalizzazione dei Protocolli da parte di forze politiche antisemite e soprattutto del regime nazista, che ne fece uno degli alibi fondamentali per la sistematica persecuzione e lo sterminio degli Ebrei.
Fra tanto squallore non va dimenticata la pur fugace presenza a corte di personaggi di ben diversa levatura, quali l’occultista e massone francese Papus (Gerard Encausse) - Gran Maestro dell’Ordine Martinista e alto dignitario di alcuni tra i principali Ordini illuministici europei - e il suo amico e fratello spirituale Philippe Nozier che dal 1902 al 1905 visitò varie volte Carskoe Selo. In questo caso fu la pochezza spirituale dei sovrani a disgustare l’aristocratica sensibilità di Papus, che dopo aver tentato di coinvolgere Nicola II in una Loggia sperimentale martinista - come risulta da alcuni documenti conservati da questo Ordine - tornò in Francia affermando: “quella gente è pazza; sono alla mercé del primo furfante che sappia accattivarsi le loro ossessioni; stanno scivolando verso l’abissoâ€. Philippe invece, sicuramente più mistico, reazionario e vicino alla sensibilità dei Romanov, acquisì per breve tempo una discreta influenza, ma alla fine, nel 1905, su pressioni della polizia segreta e di alcuni cortigiani legati alla fazione di Nilus e Mitija, venne allontanato dalla Russia, non senza aver lasciato ai sovrani il viatico di una profezia: un altro amico sarebbe venuto che avrebbe parlato loro “di Dioâ€.
Soltanto pochi mesi dopo, attraverso una serie di contatti mediati dall’Archimandrita dell’Accademia teologica di Pietroburgo, il primo novembre 1905 un nuovo staretz veniva di fatto presentato a corte: il suo nome era Grigorij Rasputin e la strana parabola del suo destino si sarebbe sovrapposta a quella dei Romanov e della Russia per i successivi 11 anni. Lo scopo di chi lo introdusse presso i sovrani era quello di farne un ulteriore, docile strumento di controllo sulla famiglia reale: speranze che furono amaramente frustrate dai poteri e dalla statura psicologica assolutamente indipendente e incontrollabile del “santo diavoloâ€.
BOX 3
L’allucinante morte dello stregone
La notte tra il 16 e il 17 dicembre 1916 il giovane principe Feliks Jusupov, figlio omosessuale di una parente dei Romanov già a suo tempo allontanata da corte per la sua ostilità a Rasputin, attirò quest’ultimo nel proprio palazzo per un colloquio privato che risultò invece un mortale tranello.
Jusupov offrì allo staretz biscotti imbottiti di cianuro e Madera avvelenato. Rasputin per due ore mangiò e bevve avidamente, come suo solito, senza dare alcun segno di malessere e fissando con aria di sfida il suo assassino inorridito. Alla fine il principe, sconvolto, estrasse un'arma e sparò al cuore del “diavoloâ€, che stramazzò al suolo. Sopraggiunsero allora i complici del giovane, ma poco dopo il loro arrivo Rasputin, ancora vivo, balzò in piedi e riuscì a fuggire dall’edificio. Inseguito dai congiurati, fu abbattuto con diversi colpi di pistola da Vladimir Puriskevic, deputato di estrema destra della Duma. Il corpo martoriato dello stregone fu legato e avvolto in una coperta e quindi gettato nelle acque gelide del Neva.
Quando alcuni giorni dopo il cadavere fu ripescato si dovette constatare che Rasputin si era “risvegliato†in acqua ed era riuscito a liberare una mano dalle corde assumendo una posizione benedicente. La morte definitiva era sopravvenuta per affogamento.

Supreme Magus leaves the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (The UK illuminati )

Posted on Wednesday, October 11, 2006 

In June 2005 e.v

an historic event took place in the secretive world of the illuminati.

 

The Supreme Magus of the English illuminati known as the SRIA , leaves his office for the first time in history.This naturaly happens after the OTO satanic infiltration of Bro.Simon Kane and Frater Rui Gabirro's black magic practices are finaly exposed to the rest of the British illuminati.This episode forced the SRIA Metropolitan College in London to shut for one month! But check for yourself  the official reasons instead in this rare illuminati document.Bro.Simon Kane and Bro.Rui Gabirro are no longer members of the SRIA.

 

REVEALING THE PERVERSE PRACTICES OF GARDNERIAN WITCHCRAFT

Posted on Tuesday, October 10, 2006 

You must have often wondered how the New World Order manipulates poor ignorant kids towards the devil using low forms of magic and witchcraft.
So experience for yourself the Book of Shadows
Gardnerian Traditional Witchcraft Part I

 

A.1. Casting the Circle (1949)
It is most convenient to mark the circle with chalk, paint or otherwise, to show where it is; but marks on the carpet may be utilized. Furniture may be placed to indicate the bounds.
The only circle that matters is the one drawn before every ceremony with either a duly consecrated Magic Sword or an Athame. The circle is usually nine feet in diameter, unless made for some very special purpose. There are two outer circles, each six inches apart, so the third circle has a diameter of eleven feet.
1 Having chosen a place proper, take the sickle or scimitar of Art or a Witch's Athame, if thou mayest obtain it, and stick it into the center, then take a cord, and 'twere well to use the Cable Tow for this, and loop it over the Instrument, four and one half feet, and so trace out the circumference of the circle, which must be traced either with the Sword, or the knife with the black hilt, or it be of little avail, but ever leave open a door towards the North. Make in all 3 circles, one with in the other, and write names of power between these.
2 First draw circle with Magic Sword or Athame.
3 Consecrate Salt and Water: Touch water with Athame, saying, "I exorcise thee, O creature of Water, that thou cast out from Thee all the impurities and uncleannesses of the Spirits of the World of Phantasm, so they may harm me not, in the names of Aradia and Cernunnos."
4 Touching Salt with Athame, say, "The Blessings of Aradia and Cernunnos be upon this creature of Salt, and let all malignity and hindrance be cast forth hencefrom, and let all good enter herein, for without Thee man cannot live, wherefore I bless thee and invoke thee, that thou mayest aid me."
5 Then put the Salt into the water.
6 Sprinkle with exorcised water.
7 Light candles; say, "I exorcise thee, O Creature of Fire, that every kind of Phantasm may retire from thee, and be unable to harm or deceive in any way, in the names of Aradia and Cernunnos."
8 Caution initiate (if any); warn companions; enter circle and close doors with 3 pentagrams.
9 Proclaim object of working
10 Circumambulate 3 times or more before commencing work.
11 Summon: "I summon, stir, and Call thee up, thou Mighty Ones of the East, South, West, and North."
Salute and draw pentacle with Magic Sword or Athame, the first stroke being from the top down to the left.

A.2. Drawing Down the Moon (1949)
High Priestess stands in front of Altar, assumes Goddess position (arms crossed).
Magus, kneeling in front of her, draws pentacle on her body with Phallus- headed Wand, invokes, "I Invoke and beseech Thee, O mighty Mother of all life and fertility. By seed and root, by stem and bud, by leaf and flower and fruit, by Life and Love, do I invoke Thee to descend into the body of thy servant and High Priestess [name]."
The Moon having been drawn down, i.e., link established, Magus and other men give Fivefold Kiss:
(kissing feet) "Blessed be thy feet, that have brought thee in these ways";
(kissing knees) "Blessed be thy knees, that shall kneel at the sacred altar";
(kissing womb) "Blessed be thy womb, without which we would not be";
(kissing breasts) "Blessed be thy breasts, formed in beauty and in strength";
(kissing lips) "Blessed be thy lips, that shall speak the sacred names." Women all bow.
If there be an initiation, then at this time the Magus and the High Priestess in Goddess position (Arms Crossed) says the Charge while the Initiate stands outside the circle.

A.3. "Lift Up the Veil" [The Charge] (1949)
Magus: "Listen to the words of the Great mother, who of old was also called among men Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine, Aphrodite, Cerridwen, Diana, Arianrhod, Bride, and by many other names."
High Priestess: "At mine Altars the youth of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice. "Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and better it be when the moon is full, ye shall assemble in some secret place and adore the spirit of Me who am Queen of all Witcheries and magics.
"There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all sorcery, yet have not won its deepest secrets. To these will I teach things that are yet unknown."
"And ye shall be free from slavery, and as a sign that ye be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites, both men and women, and ye shall dance, sing, feast, make music, and love, all in my praise."
"There is a Secret Door that I have made to establish the way to taste even on earth the elixir of immortality. Say, `Let ecstasy be mine, and joy on earth even to me, To Me,' For I am a gracious Goddess. I give unimaginable joys on earth, certainty, not faith, while in life! And upon death, peace unutterable, rest, and ecstasy, nor do I demand aught in sacrifice."
Magus: "Hear ye the words of the Star Goddess."
High Priestess: "I love you: I yearn for you: pale or purple, veiled or voluptuous."
"I who am all pleasure, and purple and drunkenness of the innermost senses, desire you. Put on the wings, arouse the coiled splendor within you." "Come unto me, for I am the flame that burns in the heart of every man, and the core of every Star."
"Let it be your inmost divine self who art lost in the constant rapture of infinite joy."
"Let the rituals be rightly performed with joy and beauty. Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals. So let there be beauty and strength, leaping laughter, force and fire by within you."
"And if thou sayest, `I have journeyed unto thee, and it availed me not, ' rather shalt thou say, `I called upon thee, and I waited patiently, and Lo, thou wast with me from the beginning,' for they that ever desired me shall ever attain me, even to the end of all desire."
This much of the rites must ever be performed to prepare for any initiation, whether of one degree or of all three.

A.4. The Initiation (1949)
[First Degree]
Magus leaves circle by the doorway, goes to Postulant, and says, "Since there is no other brother here, I must be thy sponsor, as well as priest. I am about to give you a warning. If you are still of the same mind, answer it with these words: `Perfect Love and Perfect Trust.'" Placing the point of the sword to the Postulant's breast, he says, "O thou who standeth on the threshold between the pleasant world of men and the domains of the Dread Lords of the Outer Spaces, hast thou the courage to make the Assay? For I tell thee verily, it were better to rush on my weapon and perish miserably than to make the attempt with fear in thy heart."
Postulant: "I have two Passwords: Perfect Love and Perfect Trust."
Magus drops the sword point, saying, "All who approach with perfect love and perfect trust are doubly welcome."
Going around behind her, he blindfolds her, then putting his left arm around her waist and his right arm around her neck, he pulls her head back, says, "I give you the 3rd password, a Kiss to pass through this dread Door," and pushes her forward with his body, through the doorway and into the circle.
Once inside, he releases her saying, "This is the way all are first brought into the circle."
Magus closes the doorway by drawing the point of the sword across it three times, joining all three circles, saying, "Agla, Azoth, Adonai," then drawing three pentacles to seal it.
Magus guides Postulant to south of altar, and whispers, "Now there is the Ordeal."
Taking a short piece of cord from the altar, he ties it around her right ankle, saying, "Feet neither bound nor free."
Taking a longer cord, he ties her hands together behind her back, then pulls them up, so that the arms form a triangle, and ties the cord around her neck, leaving the end dangling down in front as a Cable Tow.
With the Cable Tow in his left hand and the sword in his right hand, the Magus leads her sunwise around the circle to the east, where he salutes with the sword and proclaims, "Take heed, O Lords of the Watchtowers of the East, (name), properly prepared, will be made a Priestess and a Witch."
Magus leads her similarly to the south, west, and north, making the proclamation at each quarter.
Next, clasping Postulant around the waist with his left arm, and holding the sword erect in his right hand, he makes her circumambulate three times around the circle with a half-running, half-dancing step.
He halts her at the south of the altar, and strikes eleven knells on the bell. He then kneels at her feet, saying, "In other religions the postulant kneels, as the Priests claim supreme power, but in the Art Magical, we are taught to be humble, so we kneel to welcome them and say:
"Blessed be thy feet that have brought thee in these ways." (He kisses her feet.)
"Blessed be thy knees that shall kneel at the sacred altar." (He kisses her knees.)
"Blessed be thy womb, without which we would not be." (He kisses her Organ of Generation.)
"Blessed by thy breasts, formed in beauty and in strength." (He kisses her breasts.)
"Blessed be thy lips, which shall utter the sacred names." (He kisses her lips.)
Take measure thus: height, around forehead, across the heart, and across the genitals.
Magus says, "Be pleased to kneel," and helps her kneel before the altar. He ties the end of the Cable Tow to a ring in the altar, so that the postulant is bent sharply forward, with her head almost touching the floor. He also ties her feet together with the short cord.
Magus strikes three knells on the bell and says, "Art ready to swear that thou wilt always be true to the Art?"
Witch: "I am."
Magus strikes seven knells on the bell and says, "Before ye are sworn, art willing to pass the ordeal and be purified?"
Witch: "I am."
Magus strikes eleven knells on the bell, takes the scourge from the altar, and gives a series of three, seven, nine, and 21 strokes with the scourge across the postulant's buttocks.
Magus says, "Ye have bravely passed the test. Art always ready to help, protect, and defend thy Brothers and Sisters of the Art?"
Witch: "I am."
Magus: "Art armed?"
Witch: "With a knife in my hair."
Magus: "Then on that knife wilt thou swear absolute secrecy?"
Witch: "I will."
Magus: "Then say after me. `I, (name), in the presence of the Mighty Ones, do of my own will and accord, most solemnly swear that I will ever keep secret and never reveal the secrets of the Art, except it be to a proper person, properly prepared, within a circle such as I am now in. All this I swear by my hopes of a future life, mindful that my measure has been taken, and may my weapons turn against me if I break this my solemn oath.'"
Magus now unbinds her feet, unties the Cable Tow from the altar, removes the blindfold, and helps her up to her feet.
Magus says, "I hereby sign thee with the triple sign. "I consecrate thee with oil."
(He anoints her with oil on the womb, the right breast, the left breast, and the womb again.)
"I consecrate thee with wine." (He anoints her with wine in the same pattern.)
"I consecrate thee with my lips" (he kisses her in the same pattern),
"Priestess and Witch." Magus now unbinds her hands and removes the last cord, saying, "Now I Present to thee the Working Tools of a Witch.
"First the Magic Sword. With this, as with the Athame, thou canst form all Magic Circles, dominate, subdue, and punish all rebellious Spirits and Demons, and even persuade the Angels and Geniuses. With this in your hand you are the ruler of the Circle. [Here "kiss" means that the initiate kisses the tool, and the Magus then kisses the Witch being initiated.]
"Next I present the Athame. This is the true Witch's weapon and has all the powers of the Magic Sword [kiss].
"Next I present the White-Handled Knife. Its use is to form all instruments used in the Art. It can only be properly used within a Magic Circle [Kiss].
"Next I present the Wand. Its use is to call up and control certain Angels and geniuses, to whom it would not be mete to use the Magic Sword [Kiss].
"Next I present the pentacles. These are for the purpose of calling up appropriate Spirits [Kiss].
"Next I present the Censer of Incense. This is used to encourage and welcome Good Spirits and to banish Evil Spirits.[kiss]
"Next I present the scourge. This is a sign of power and domination. It is also to cause suffering and purification, for it is written, to learn you must suffer and be purified. Art willing to suffer to learn?"
Witch: "I am.
"[Kiss]
Magus: "Next, and lastly I present the Cords. They are of use to bind the sigils in the Art, the material basis, and to enforce thy will. Also they are necessary in the oath. I Salute thee in the name of Aradia and Cernunnos, Newly made Priestess and Witch."
Magus strikes seven knells on the bell and kisses Witch again, then circumambulates with her, proclaiming to the four quarters, "Hear, ye Mighty Ones, (name) hath been consecrated Priestess and Witch of the Gods."
(Note, if ceremony ends here, close circle with "I thank ye for attending, and I dismiss ye to your pleasant abodes. Hail and farewell." If not, go to next degree.)
[Second Degree]
Magus binds Witch as before, but does not blindfold her, and circumambulates with her, proclaims to the four quarters, "Hear, ye Mighty Ones, (name), a duly consecrated Priestess and Witch, is now properly prepared to be made a High Priestess and Witch Queen."
Magus now leads her thrice around the circle with the half-running, half- dancing step, halts south of the altar, has the Witch kneel, and ties her down to the altar as before.
Magus: "To attain this sublime degree, it is necessary to suffer and be purified. Art ready to suffer to Learn?"
Priestess Witch: "I am."
Magus: "I prepare thee to take the great oath." He strikes three knells on the bell, and again gives the series of three, seven, nine, and 21 strokes with the scourge as before.
Magus: "I now give thee a new name: _______. [kiss]
Magus: "Repeat thy new name after me, I, (name), swear upon my mother's womb and by mine Honor among men and among my brothers and sisters of the Art, that I will never reveal to any at all any of the secrets of the Art, except it be to a worthy person, properly prepared, in the center of a Magic Circle, such as I am now in. This I swear by my hopes of Salvation, my past lives, and my hopes of future ones to come, and I devote myself to utter destruction if I break this my solemn oath. "
Magus kneels, placing left hand under her knees and right hand on her head, thus forming magic link.
Magus: "I hereby will all my power into you." Wills.
Magus now unties her feet, unties the Cable Tow from the altar, and helps the Witch to her feet.
Magus: "I hereby sign and consecrate you with the great Magic Sign. Remember how it is formed and you will always recognize it.
"I consecrate thee with oil." (He anoints her with oil on her womb, right breast, left hip, right hip, left breast, and womb again, thus tracing a point-down pentacle.)
"I consecrate thee with wine." (He anoints her with wine in the same pattern.)
"I consecrate thee with my lips" (he kisses her in the same pattern), "High Priestess and Witch Queen."
Magus now unbinds Witch's hands and removes the cord, saying, "Newly made High Priestess and Witch Queen" [kiss]
"you will now use the working tools in turn. First, the Magic Sword; with it you will scribe the Magic Circle [kiss]
"Secondly, the Athame" (Form Circle) [kiss]
"Thirdly, the White Handled Knife" (use) [kiss]
"Fourthly, the Wand" (Wave to 4 Quarters) [kiss]
"Fifthly, the Pentacle" (Show to 4 Quarters) [kiss]
"Sixthly, the Censer of Incense" (Circle, cense) [kiss]
"Seventhly, the cords; bind me as I bound you.
" Witch binds Magus and ties him to Altar.
Magus: "Learn, in Witchcraft, thou must ever return triple. As I scourged thee, so thou must scourge me, but triple. So where you received 3, return 9; where you received 7, return 21; where you received 9, return 27; where you received 21, return 63."
Witch scourges Magus as instructed, 120 strokes total.
Magus: "Thou hast obeyed the Law. But mark well, when thou receivest good, so equally art bound to return good threefold." Witch now unbinds Magus and helps him to his feet. Magus, taking the new Initiate by the hand and holding the Athame in the other, passes once round the Circle, proclaiming at the Four Quarters,
"Hear, Ye Mighty Ones, (name) hath been duly consecrated High Priestess and Witch Queen."
(Note, if ceremony ends here, close circle with "Hail and farewell." If not go to next degree.)
[Third Degree]
Magus: "Ere we proceed with this sublime degree, I must beg purification at thy hands." High Priestess binds Magus and ties him down to the altar. She circumambulates three times, and scourges Magus with three, seven, nine, and 21 strokes. She then unbinds him and helps him to his feet. Magus now binds the High Priestess and ties her down to the altar. He circumambulates, proclaiming to the four quarters, "Hear, ye mighty Ones, the twice consecrate and Holy (name), High Priestess and Witch Queen, is properly prepared and will now proceed to erect the Sacred Altar." Magus scourges High Priestess with three, seven, nine, and 21 strokes. Cakes and wine may now be taken [see section A.5].
Magus: "Now I must reveal to you a great Mystery." [kiss]. Note: if High Priestess has performed this rite before, omit these words. High Priestess assumes Osiris position.
Magus: "Assist me to erect the Ancient Altar, at which in days past all worshipped, the Great Altar of all things. For in the old times a woman was the Altar. Thus was the altar made and so placed [Priestess lies down in such a way that her vagina is approximately at the center of the circle], and the sacred place was the point within the center of the circle, as we of old times have been taught, that the point within the center is the origin of all things. Therefore should we adore it." [kiss] "Therefore, whom we adore, we also invoke, by the power of the lifted lance." Invokes. "O circle of stars [kiss], whereof our Father is but the younger brother [kiss], "Marvel beyond imagination, soul of infinite space, before whom time is ashamed, the mind bewildered and understanding dark, not unto thee may we attain unless thine image be of love [kiss]. "Therefore, by seed and root, and stem and bud and leaf and flower and fruit do we invoke thee, O, Queen of space, O dew of light, O continuous one of the Heavens [kiss]. "Let it be ever thus, that men speak not of Thee as one, but as none, and let them not speak of thee at all, since thou art continuous, for thou art the point within the circle [kiss], which we adore [kiss], the fount of life without which we would not be [kiss]. "And in this way truly are erected the Holy Twin Pillars Boaz and Jachin [kisses breasts]. In beauty and strength were they erected, to the wonder and glory of all men."
(Eightfold Kiss: 3 points, Lips, 2 Breasts and back to lips; 5 points) "O Secrets of secrets that art hidden in the being of all lives. Not thee do we adore, for that which adoreth is also thou. Thou art that and That am I [kiss]. "I am the flame that burns in every man, and in the core of every star [kiss]. "I am Life and the giver of Life, yet therefore is the knowledge of me the Knowledge of Death [kiss]. "I am alone, the Lord within ourselves whose name is Mystery of Mysteries [kiss]. "Make open the path of intelligence between us. For these truly are the 5 points of fellowship [on the right appears an illuminated diagram of the point-up triangle above the pentacle, the symbol for the third degree], feet to feet, knee to knee, groin to groin, breast to breast, arms around back, lips to lips, by the Great and Holy Names Abracadabra, Aradia, and Cernunnos.
Magus and High Priestess: "Encourage our hearts, Let thy Light crystallize itself in our blood, fulfilling us of Resurrection, for there is no part of us that is not of the Gods."
(Exchange Names.)
Closing the Circle High Priestess Circumambulates, proclaiming, "The twice consecrate High Priestess greets ye Mighty Ones, and dismisseth ye to your pleasant abodes. Hail and Farewell." She draws the banishing pentacle at each quarter.

A.5. Cakes and Wine (1949)
Magus kneels, fills Cup, offers to Witch [she is seated on the altar, holding her athame; Priest kneels before her, holding up the cup]. Witch, holding Athame between palms, places point in cup.
Magus: "As the Athame is the Male, so the Cup is the female; so, conjoined, they bring blessedness."
Witch lays aside Athame, takes Cup in both hands, drinks and gives drink. Magus Holds Paten to Witch, who blesses with Athame, then eats and gives to Eat.
It is said that in olden days ale or mead was often used instead of wine. It is said that spirits or anything can be used so long as it has life.

A.6. The Sabbat Rituals (1949)
November Eve
Walk or slow dance, Magus leading High Priestess, both carrying Phallic wand or broom, people with torches or candles.
Witch chant or song:
"Eko, eko, Azarak Eko, eko, Zomelak Bazabi lacha bachabe Lamac cahi achababe Karrellyos Lamac lamac Bachalyas cabahagy sabalyos Baryolos Lagoz atha cabyolas Samahac atha famolas Hurrahya!"
Form circle.
High Priestess assumes Goddess position.
Magus gives her Fivefold Kiss and is scourged.
All are purified [that is, bound and scourged with forty strokes, as in the initiation rituals].
Magus assumes God position.
High Priestess invokes with Athame: "Dread Lord of the shadows, god of life and the giver of life. Yet is the knowledge of thee the knowledge of death. Open wide, I pray thee, thy gates through which all must pass. Let our dear ones who have gone before, return this night to make merry with us. And when our time comes, as it must, O thou the comforter, the consoler, the giver of peace and rest, we will enter thy realms gladly and unafraid, for we know that when rested and refreshed among our dear ones, we shall be born again by thy grace and the grace of the Great Mother. Let it be in the same place and the same time as our beloved ones, and may we meet and know, and love them again. Descend, we pray thee, upon thy servant and Priest ( name) "
High Priestess gives Fivefold Kiss to Magus.
Initiations if any; all others are purified.
(Note: Couples may purify each other if they will.)
Cakes and Wine.
The Great Rite if possible, either in token or truly.
Dismiss [the guardians, and close down the magic circle; the people then stay to] feast and dance.
February Eve
After usual opening, all are doubly purified [that is, with eighty strokes].
Dance round outside circle,
High Priestess with sword girded on and drawn, phallic wand in left hand.
Enter circle.
Magus assumes God position.
High Priestess gives Fivefold Kiss, invokes: "Dread Lord of death and Resurrection, life and the giver of life, Lord within ourselves, whose name is Mystery of Mysteries, encourage our hearts. Let the light crystalize in our blood, fulfilling us of resurrection, for there is no part of us that is not of the gods. Descend, we pray thee, upon this thy servant and Priest (name)."
All should be purified in sacrifice before him.
He then purifies the High Priestess with his own hands, and others if he will.
Cakes and wine.
Great Rite if possible, in token or real.
Games and dance as the people will.
Dismiss [the guardians, and close down the magic circle; the people then stay to] feast and dance.
May Eve
If possible ride poles, brooms, etc. High Priestess leading, quick dance step, singing
"O do not tell the priests of our arts. For they would call it sin, For we will be in the woods all night A conjuring summer in. And we bring you good news by word of mouth for women, cattle, and corn: The sun is coming up from the south, With oak and ash, and thorn."
Meeting dance if possible.
Form circle as usual, and purify.
High Priestess assumes Goddess position; officers all give her the fivefold kiss.
She purifies all.
High Priestess again assumes Goddess position.
Magus invokes, draws down moon, "I invoke thee and call upon thee, O mighty Mother of us all, bringer of all fruitfulness, By seed and root, by stem and bud, by leaf and flower and fruit, by life and love, do we invoke thee, to descend upon the body of thy servant and Priestess here."
Magus gives Fivefold Kiss to High Priestess.
All should be purified in sacrifice before her, and she should purify Magus and some others with her own hands.
Cakes and wine.
Games.
Great Rite if possible, in token or truly.
Dismiss the guardians, and close down the magic circle; the people then stay to feast and dance.
August Eve If possible, ride poles, broomsticks, etc.
Meeting Dance if possible [the double-spiral dance described in Witchcraft Today, p. 167].
Form circle.
Purify.
High Priestess stands in pentacle position.
Magus invokes her: "O mighty Mother of us all, Mother of all fruitfulness, give us fruit and grain, flocks and herds and children to the tribe that we be mighty, by thy rosy love, do thou descend upon thy servant and Priestess (name) here."
Magus gives Fivefold Kiss to High Priestess.
Candle game: Seated, the men form a circle, passing a lighted candle from hand to hand "deosil".
The women form circle outside, trying to blow it out over their shoulders.
Whoever's hand it is in when it is blown out is 3 times purified by whoever blew it out, giving fivefold Kiss in return. This game may go on as long as the people like.
Cakes and wine, and any other games you like.
Dismiss the guardians, and close down the magic circle; the people then stay to feast and dance.

B.1. On Chants (1953)
Of old there were many chants and songs used especially in the Dances. Many of these have been forgotten by us here, but we know that they used cries of IAU which seems muchly like the cries EVO or EVOHE of the ancients. Much dependeth on the pronunciation if this be so. In my youth, when I heard IAU it seemed to be AEIOU, or rather, AAAEEIOOOOUU. This may be but the natural way to prolong it to make it fit for a call, but it suggests that these be possibly the initials of an invocation as Agla is said to be, and of sooth 'tis said that the whole Hebrew alphabet is said to be such, and for this reason is recited as a most powerful charm, but at least this is certain, these cries during the dances do have profound effect, as I myself have seen.
Other calls are IEHOUA and EHEIE; also Ho Ho Ho Ise Ise Ise.
IEO VEO VEO VEO VEOV OROV OV OVOVO may be a spell but is more likely to be a call. 'Tis like the EVOE EVOE of the Greeks and the "Heave ho!" of sailors. "Emen hetan" and "Ab hur, ab hus" seem calls; as "Horse and hattock, horse and go, horse and Pellatis, ho, ho, ho!" "Thout, tout a tout tout, throughout and about" and "Rentum tormentum" are probably mispronounced attempts at a forgotten formula, though they may have been invented by some unfortunate being tortured, to evade telling the real formula.

B.2. To Help the Sick (1953)
1 Ever remember the promise of the goddess, "For ecstasy is mine and joy on earth" so let there ever be joy in your heart. Greet people with joy, be glad to see them. If times be hard, think, "It might have been worse. I at least have known the joys of the Sabbath, and I will know them again." Think of the grandeur, beauty, and Poetry of the rites, of the loved ones you meet through them. If you dwell on this inner joy, your health will be better. You must try to banish all fear, for i t will really touch you. It may hurt your body, but your soul is beyond it all.
2 And ever remember, that if you help others it makes you forget your own woes. And if another be in pain, do what you may to distract his attention from it. Do not say "You have no pain," but if you may, administer the drugs which sooth as well as those that cure. But ever strive to make them believe they are getting better. Install into them happy thoughts. If you can only get this into his inner mind so that it be always believed.
3 To this end it is not wrong to let people think that we of the cult have more power than we have. For the truth is that if they believe we have more power than we really possess, we do really possess these powers, insomuch we can do good to them .
4 You must try to find out about people. If you tell a slightly sick man, "You are looking better. You will soon be well," he will feel better, but if he is really ill, or in pain, his Knowledge that he is in pain will cause him to doubt your words in future. But if you give him one of the drugs and then say, "The pain is growing less. Soon it will be gone," because the pain goes, the next time you say, "The pain is going," he will believe you and the pain will really get less. But you must ever say so with conviction, and this conviction must come from your believing it yourself, because you yourself know that if you can fix his mind so that he believes you, it is true.
5 'Tis often better to look exactly between their eyes, looking as if your eyes pierced their heads, opening your eyes as wide as you may and never blink. This continued gazing oft causes the patient to grow sleepy. If they show signs of this, say "You are growing sleepy. You will sleep, you are tired. Sleep. Your eyes grow tired. Sleep." If they close their eyes, say "Your eyes close, you are tired, you cannot open your eyes." If they cannot, say "Your arms are tired, you cannot raise them." If they cannot, say "I am master of your mind. You must ever believe what I tell you. When I look like this into your eyes you will sleep and be subject to my will," then tell them they will sleep and wake up refreshed, feeling better. Continue this with soothing and healing drugs, and try to infuse into them the feeling of ecstasy that you feel at the Sabbath. They cannot feel it in full, but you can command them to feel what is in your own mind, and try to concentrate on this ecstasy. If you may safely tell that you are of the Cult, your task may be easier. And it were well to command them to know it only with their sleeping mind, and forget it, or to be at least unable to tell anyone about it when awake. A good way is to command them that, if they are ever questioned about Witchcraft or Witches, to immediately fall asleep.
6 Ever remember if tempted to admit or boast of belonging to the cult you be endangering your brothers, for though now the fires of persecution may have died down, who knows when they may be revived? Many priests have knowledge of our secrets, and they well know that, though much religious bigotry has calmed down, many people would wish to join our cult. And if the truth were known of its joys, the Churches would lose power, so if we take many recruits, we may loose the fires of persecution against us again. So ever keep the secrets.
7 Think joy, think love, try to help others and bring joy into their lives. Children are naturally easier to influence than grown people. Ever strive to work through people's existing beliefs. For instance, more than half of the world believe in amulets. An ordinary stone is not an amulet but if it hath a natural hole in it, it must be something unusual, so if the patient hath this belief give him one. But first carry it next your skin for a few days, forcing your will into it, to cure pain, to feel safe, or against their particular fear, and this amulet may keep imposing your will when you are absent. The masters of talismans knew this full well when they say they must be made in a circle, to avoid distraction, by someone whose mind is on the subject of the work.
8 But keep your own mind happy. Remember the Words of the Goddess: "I give unimaginable joys on Earth, certainty, not faith, while in life, and upon death, peace unutterable, rest, and ecstasy, and the promise that you will return again." In the old days many of us went to the flames laughing and singing, and so we may again. We may have joy in life and beauty, and peace and Death and the promise of return.
9 The Bible speaks sooth, "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine but a broken spirit breaketh the bones." But you may not have a merry heart. Perchance you were born under an evil star. I think that the effects of the stars are overestimated, but you cannot make a merry heart to order, you say. But you can, in the Cult; there be secret processes by which your will and imagination may be influenced. This process also affects the body, and brings it to joy. Your body is happy, so your mind is happy. You are well because you are happy, and you are happy because you are well.
10 Prayer may be used with good result if the patient believes it can and will work. Many believe it can, but do not believe their God or saint will help. Prayers to the Goddess help, especially the Amalthean Horn Prayer, as it causes stimulation to the body as well as to the mind.

B.3. The Scourge and the Kiss. (1953)
1 Invocation
(Feet, knees, and wrists should be tightly bound to retard blood.) Scourge 40 or more, to make skin tingle, then say, invoking Goddess,
Hail, Aradia, from the Amalthean horn
Pour forth thy store of Love. I lowly bend
Before Thee! I invoke thee at the end
When other Gods are fallen and put to scorn.
Thy foot is to my lips! My sighs inborn
Rise, touch, curl about thy heart. Then spend,
Pitiful Love, loveliest Pity, descend
And bring me luck who am lonely and forlorn.
Ask the Goddess to help you to obtain your desires, then Scourge again to bind the spell. This be powerful in ill luck and for sickness. It must be said in a Circle, and you must be properly prepared and well purified, both before and after saying, to bind the spell. Before starting you must make a very clear picture in your mind of what you wish. Make yourself see the wish obtained. Be sure in your own mind exactly what it is and how it is to be fulfilled. This spell is the one that was taught to me long ago and I have found it works, but I don't think there is any special virtue in these words. Any others can be substituted provided they ask the goddess's (or gods') help, and say clearly what you wish and you form the clear mental image; and if it doesn't work at first, keep on trying till it works. Your helper, who wields the scourge, must know what you wish, and also form the mental image. And at first at any rate, it will be better for you to work the spell, then for the girl to take your place and work it also; you scourge her. Don't try anything difficult at first, and do it at least once a week till it works. You have to get into sympathy with each other, before anything happens, and regular working helps this. Of spells, the exact words matter little if the intent be clear and you raise the true power, and sufficient thereof. Always in rhyme they are. There is something queer about rhyme. I have tried, and the same seem to lose their power if you miss th e rhyme. Also in rhyme, the words seem to say themselves. You do not have to pause and think: "What comes next?" Doing this takes away much of your intent. [2] Order and discipline must be kept. A High Priest or Priestess may and should punish all faults to this end, and all of the Cult must accept such corrections willingly. All are brothers and sisters, for this reason: that even the High Priestess must submit to the scourge. Each fault should be corrected separately. The Priest or Priestess must be properly prepared and call the culprit to trial. They must be prepared as for initiation and kneel, be told their fault and sentence pronounced.
Punishment should be the scourge, followed by a forfeit such as several fivefold kisses or something of this nature. The culprit must acknowledge the justice of the punishment by kissing hands and scourge on receiving sentence and again when thanking for punishment received.*
3 The scourgings are 3, 7, 9 (thrice three), and 21 (thrice seven) 40 in all. It is not meet to make offerings [scourgings] of less than two score to the Goddess, for here be a mystery. The fortunate numbers be: 3 and 5. For three added to two ( the Perfect Couple) be five. And three and five be eight; eight and five be thirteen; thirteen and eight be twenty-one.
The Fivefold Kiss is called 5, but there are 8 kisses, for there be 2 feet and 2 knees and genitals and 2 breasts and the lips. And 5 times 8 be two score. Also, fortunate numbers be 3, 7, 8, and 21, which total 40, or two score. For each man and woman hath ten fingers and ten toes, so each totals a score. And a perfect couple be two score.
So a lesser number would not be perfect prayer. If more are required make it a perfect number, as four score or six score.
Also there be Eight Elemental Weapons.
4 To make the anointing ointment, take some glazed pans filled half full with grease or olive oil. Put in one sweet mint, marjoram in another, ground thyme in a 3rd, and it you may have it, patchouli, dried leaves pounded. Place pans in hot water bath. Stir and cook for several hours, then pout into linen bags, and squeeze grease through into pans again, and fill up with fresh leaves. After doing this several times, the grease will be highly perfumed. Then mix all together and store in a well-corked jar.Anoint behind ears, throat, armpits, breasts, and womb. Also, for all ceremonies where the feet are kissed, they should also be anointed.

B.4. The Priestess and the Sword (1953)
It is said, "When a woman takes the main part in worship of the Male God, she must be girt with a sword." Note. This hath been explained as meaning that a man should be Magus representing the God, but if no one of sufficient rank and knowledge be present, a woman armed as a man may take his place. The sheath should be worn in a belt. She should carry the sword in hand, but if she has to use her hands, she should sheath the sword. Any other woman in the circle while this worship is performed shall be sword in hand. Those outside the circle only have the athame.
A woman may impersonate either the God or the Goddess, but a man may only impersonate the God.

B.5. The Warning (1953)
Keep this book in your own hand of write. Let brothers and Sisters copy what they will, but never let this book out of your hands, and never keep the writings of another, for if it be found in their hand of write, they may well be taken and tortured. Each should guard his own writings and destroy them whenever danger threatens. Learn as much as you may by heart, and when the danger is past, rewrite your book. For this reason, if any die, destroy their book if they have not been able to, for, if it be found, 'tis clear proof against them. "Ye may not be a Witch alone"; so all their friends be in danger of the torture. So destroy everything not necessary. If your book be found on you, 'tis clear proof against you. You may be tortured. Keep all thought of the cult from your mind. Say you had bad dreams, that a Devil caused you to write this without your knowledge. Think to yourself, "I Know Nothing . I Remember nothing. I have forgotten all." Drive this into your mind. If the torture be too great to bear, say, "I will confess. I cannot bear this torment. What do you want me to say? Tell me and I will say it." If they try to make you talk of the brotherhood, do not, but if they try to make you speak of impossibilities, such as flying through the air, consorting with the Devis, sacrificing children, or eating men's flesh, say, "I had an evil dream. I was not myself. I was crazed." Not all Magistrates are bad. If there be an excuse, they may show you mercy. If you have confessed aught, deny it afterwards. Say you babbled under the torture; you knew not what you did or said. If you be condemned, fear not. The Brotherhood is powerful. They may help you to escape if you are steadfast. If you betray aught, there is no hope for you, in this life, or in that which is to come. But, 'tis sure, that if steadfast you go to the pyre, drugs will reach you. You will feel naught , and you go but to Death and what lies beyond, the ecstasy of the Goddess.
The same with the working Tools. Let them be as ordinary things that anyone may have in their homes. The Pentacles shall be of wax that they may be melted or broken at once. Have no sword unless your rank allows you one. Have no names or signs on anything. Write them on in ink before consecrating them and wash it off at once when finished. Never boast, never threaten, never say you wish ill to anyone. If any speak of the craft, say, "Speak not to me of such, it frightens me, 'tis evil luck to speak of it."

B.6. Of the Ordeal of the Art Magical (1953)
Learn of the spirit that goeth with burdens that have not honour, for 'tis the spirit that stoopeth the shoulders and not the weight. Armour is heavy, yet it is a proud burden and a man standeth upright in it. Limiting and constraining any of the s enses serves to increase the concentration of another. Shutting the eyes aids the hearing. So the binding of the initiate's hands increases the mental perception, while the scourge increaseth the inner vision. So the initiate goeth through it prou dly, like a princess, knowing it but serves to increase her glory. But this can only be done by the aid of another intelligence and in a circle, to prevent the power thus generated being lost. Priests attempt to do the same with their scourgings and mortifications of the flesh. But lacking the aid of bonds and the ir attention being distracted by their scourging themselves and what little power they do produce being dissipated, as they do not usually work within a circle, it is little wonder that they oft fail. Monks and hermits do better, as they are apt to work in tiny cells and coves, which in some way act as circles. The Knights of the Temple, who used mutually to scourge each other in an octagon, did better still; but they apparently did not know the virtue of bonds and did evil, man to man.
But perhaps some did know? What of the Church's charge that they wore girdles or cords?
B.7. The Eightfold Way. (1953)
Eightfold Path or Ways to the Centre.
1. Meditation or Concentration. This in practice means forming a mental image of what is desired, and forcing yourself to see that it is fulfilled, with the fierce belief and knowledge that it can and will be fulfilled, and that you will go on willin g till you force it to be fulfilled. Called for short, "Intent"
2. Trance, projection of the Astral.
3. Rites, Chants, Spells, Runes, Charms, etc.
4. Incense, Drugs, Wine, etc., whatever is used to release the Spirit. (Note. One must be very careful about this. Incense is usually harmless, but you must be careful. If it has bad aftereffects, reduce the amount used, or the duration of the time it is inhaled. Drugs are very dangerous if taken to excess, but it must be remembered that there are drugs that are absolutely harmless, though people talk of them with bated breath, but Hemp is especially dangerous, because it unlocks the inner eye swiftly and easily, so one is tempted to use it more and more. If it is used at all, it must be with the strictest precautions, to see that the person who uses it has no control over the supply. This should be doled out by some responsible person , and the supply strictly limited.)
5. The Dance, and kindred practices.
6. Blood control (the Cords), Breath Control, and kindred practices.
7. The Scourge.
8. The Great Rite.
These are all the ways. You may combine many of them into the one experiment, the more the better.

The Five Essentials:
1. The most important is "Intention": you must know that you can and will succeed; it is essential in every operation.
2. Preparation. (You must be properly prepared according to the rules of the Art; otherwise you will never succeed.)
3. The Circle must be properly formed and purified.
4. You all must be properly purified, several times if necessary, and this purification should be repeated several times during the rite.
5. You must have properly consecrated tools.
These five essentials and Eight Paths or Ways cannot all be combined in one rite. Meditation and dancing do not combine well, but forming the mental image and the dance may be well combined with Chants. Spells, etc., combined with scourging and No. 6, followed by No. 8, form a splendid combination. Meditation, following scourging, combined with Nos. 3 and 4 and 5, are also very Good. For short cuts concentration, Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8 are excellent.

B.8. To Gain the Sight (1953)
1 This cometh to different people in diverse ways. 'Tis seldom it cometh naturally, but it can be induced in many ways. Deep and prolonged meditation may do it, but only if you be a natural, and usually prolonged fasting was also necessary. Of ol d monks and nuns obtained visions by long vigils, combined with fasting, flagellation till the blood came, and other mortifications of the flesh, and so undoubtedly had visions. In the East it is tried with various tortures, at the same time sitting in cramped postures, which retard the flow of blood, and these torments, long and continued, give good results. But in the Art we are taught an easier way to intensify the imagination, at the same time controlling the blood supply, and this may bes t be done by using the ritual.
2 Incense is also good to propitiate the Spirits, but also to induce relaxation and to help to build up the atmosphere which is neces-sary to suggestibility. (For our human eyes are so blind to what really is, that it is often necessary to suggest that it is there, before we may see it, as we may point out to another something at a distance before they may see it themselves. Gum mastic, aromatic rush roots, cinnamon bark, musk, juniper, sandalwood, and ambergris in combination are all good, b ut patchouli is best of all. And if you may have hemp, 'tis better still, but be very careful of this.
3 The circle being formed, all properly prepared, and the Rites done, and all purified, the aspirant should warlock and take his tutor round the circle, saluting the Mighty Ones, and invoke them to aid the operation. Then both dance round till gid dy, invoking or using chants. Scourge. Then the Tutor should warlock very tightly, but not so to cause discomfort, but enough to retard the blood slightly. Again they should dance round, chanting, then scourge with light, steady, monotonous, slow s trokes. lt is very good that the pupil may see them coming (this may be arranged from position, or if a big mirror is available, this can be used with excellent effect) as this has the effect of passes, and helps greatly to stimulate the imagination , and it is important that they be not hard, the object being not to do more than draw the blood to that part and so away from the brain. This with the tight warlocking, which should be warricked, slows down the circulation of the blood, and the pas ses soon induce a drowsiness and a stupor. The tutor should watch for this. As soon as the aspirant sleeps, the scourging should cease. The tutor should also watch that the pupil become not cold, and if they struggle or become distressed, they sho uld be at once awakened. (Note: if it cannot be arranged for the pupil to see, the wand may be used, for a time, then return to scourging.)
4 Do not be discouraged if no results come after two or three attempts. It will come, when both are in the right state. When you get some result, then results will come more quickly. Soon some of the ritual may be shortened, but never neglect to invoke the Goddess, and the Mighty Ones, or to form the Circle and do everything rightly. And for good and clear results, it is ever better to do too much ritual than too little. [5] It hath been found that this practice doth often cause a fondness between aspirant and tutor, and 'tis a cause of better results if this be so. If for any reason it is undesirable that there be any great fondness between aspirant and tutor, this may be easily avoided, by both parties from the onset firmly resolving in their minds that if any doth ensue, it shall be that of brother and sister or parent and child. And it is for this reason that a man may only be taught by a woman and a woman by a man, and that man and man, and woman and woman, should never attempt these practices together. And may all the Curses of the Mighty Ones be on any who make the attempt.*
6 Remember, the Circle, properly constructed, is ever necessary to prevent the power released from being dissipated. It is also a barrier against any disturbances of mischievous forces, for to obtain good results you must be free from all disturba nces. Remember that darkness, points of light gleaming amid the surrounding dark, incense, and the steady passes by a white arm are not stage effects. They are the mechanical implements which start the suggestions, which later unlocks the knowledge that it is possible to obtain the divine ecstasy, and so attain knowledge and communion with the Divine Goddess. When once you have attained this, Ritual is not needed, as you may attain the state of ecstasy at will, but till then, or if you having attained this yourself, and wish to bring a companion to this state of joy, ritual is best.

B.9. Power (1953)
Power is latent in the body and may be drawn out and used in various ways by the skilled. But unless confined in a circle it will be swiftly dissipated. Hence the importance of a properly constructed circle. Power seems to exude from the body via the skin and possibly from the orifices of the body; hence you should be properly prepared. The slightest dirt spoils everything, which shows the importance of thorough cleanliness. The attitude of mind has great effect, so only work with a spirit of reverence. A little wine taken and repeated during the ceremony, if necessary, helps to produce power. Other strong drinks or drugs may be used, but it is necessary to be very mod erate, for if you are confused, even slightly, you cannot control the power you evoke.
The simplest way is by dancing and singing monotonous chants, slowly at first and gradually quickening the tempo until giddiness ensues. Then the calls may be used, or even wild and meaningless shrieking produces power. But this method inflames the mind and renders it difficult to control the power, though control may be gained through practice. The scourge is a far better way, for it stimulates and excites both body and soul, yet one easily retains control.
The Great Rite is far the best. It releases enormous power, but the conditions and circumstances make it difficult for the mind to maintain control at first. It is again a matter of practice and the natural strength of the operator's will and, in a lesser degree, of those of his assistants. If, as of old, there were many trained assistants present and all wills properly attuned, wonders occurred.
Sorcerors chiefly used the blood sacrifice; and while we hold this to be evil, we cannot deny that this method is very efficient. Power flashes forth from newly shed blood, instead of exuding slowly as by our method. The victim's terror and anguish add keenness, and even quite a small animal can yield enormous power. The great difficulty is in the human mind controlling the power of the lower animal mind. But sorcerers claim they have methods for effecting this and that the difficulty disapp ears the higher the animal used, and when the victim is human disappears entirely. (The practice is an abomination but it is so.) Priests know this well; and by their auto-da-fs, with the victims' pain and terror (the fires acting much the same as circles), obtained much power.
Of old the Flagellants certainly evoked power, but through not being confined in a circle much was lost. The amount of power raised was so great and continuous that anyone with knowledge could direct and use it; and it is most probable that the clas sical and heathen sacrifices were used in the same way. There are whispers that when the human victim was a willing sacrifice, with his mind directed on the Great Work and with highly skilled assistants, wonders ensued but of this I would not speak .

B.10. Properly Prepared. (1953)
Naked, but sandals (not shoes) may be worn. For initiation, tie hands behind back, pull up to small of back, and tie ends in front of throat, leaving a cable-tow to lead by, hanging down in front. (Arms thus form a triangle at back.) When initiate is kneeling at altar, the cable-tow is tied to a ring in the altar. A short cord is tied like a garter round the initiate's left leg above the knee, with ends tucked in. Another is tied round right ankle and ends tucked in so as to be out of the w ay while moving about. These cords are used to tie feet together while initiate is kneeling at the altar and must be long enough to do this firmly. Knees must also be firmly tied. This must be carefully done. If the aspirant complains of pain, th e bonds must be loosened slightly; always remember the object is to retard the blood flow enough to induce a trance state. This involves slight discomfort, but great discomfort prevents the trance state; so it is best to spend some little time loosening and tightening the bonds until they are just right. The aspirant alone can tell you when this is so. This, of course, does not apply to the initiation, as then no trance is desired; but for the purpose of ritual it is good that the initiates b e bound firmly enough to feel they are absolutely helpless but without discomfort.

B.11. The Meeting Dance. (1953)
The Maiden should lead. A man should place both hands on her waist, standing behind her, and alternate men and women should do the same, the Maiden leading and they dance following her. She at last leads them into a right-hand spiral. When the cen ter is reached (and this had better be marked by a stone), she suddenly turns and dances back, kissing each man as she comes to him. All men and women turn likewise and dance back, men kissing girls and girls kissing men. All in time to music, it i s a merry game, but must be practices to be done well. Note, the musicians should watch the dancers and make the music fast or slow as is best. For the beginners it should be slow, or there will be confusion. It is most excellent to get people to know each other at big gatherings.

B.12. To Leave the Body. (1953)
'Tis not wise to strive to get out of your body until you have thoroughly gained the Sight. The same ritual as to gain the Sight may be used, but have a comfortable couch.

THE ENTERED APRENTICE HANDBOOK by W.Bro. J.S.M. WARD

Posted on Tuesday, October 10, 2006 at 08:00PM

THE ENTERED APPRENTICE HANDBOOK

by W.Bro. J.S.M. WARD

INTRODUCTION - By the Hon. Sir John A. Cockburn

W. Bro. Ward is one of the most able and earnest of Masonic students. He brings to bear on the task of research the mind of a scholar, enriched by extensive reading, much travel and a wide experience of men and affairs. In addition to being a well known author of Masonic Works, he was the Founder of the Masonic Study Society, whose first President was the late Sir Richard Vassar Vassar-Smith, 33 degree, and in whose ranks are to be found many eminent Masonic writers.
Brother Ward has by precept and example led others to become eager explorers in the realms of Masonic truth. The present volume is No. 1 in a series of studies as to the meaning of our Ritual. It deals with the degree of an Entered Apprentice and is calculated to inspire the younger brethren with the resolve not to content themselves with the outward form of our ceremonies, beautiful though it be, but to gain a knowledge of the indwelling soul of Masonry and to comprehend the deep meaning of the ritual with which they are step by step becoming familiar.
Hence they will learn to regard the Craft not only as a world-spread, civilising medium, nor yet only as the most benevolent of all Institutions, but also as a mine of surpassing wealth in which the Wisdom of the Ages has become embedded and preserved. Bro. Ward at the outset disarms anything like hostile criticism by admitting that many brethren may not find themselves in complete accord with all his conclusions. Indeed, it would be surprising if this were the case.
Like Holy Writ, the Ritual is capable of many interpretations. It is a gradual accretion in which succeeding epochs have left their mark. Evolution takes place under the alternation of forces that make for difference and agreement. The process demands a continual adjustment between these apparently contrary, but in reality complementary factors. Each age sets out to balance any deficiency in the preceding period.
When materialism has been pushed to excess, the tendency is rectified by a spiritual revival. On the other hand, an age in which zeal for the gifts of the spirit has caused neglect of temporal welfare is naturally followed by a renaissance of the just claims of the flesh. The subject matter of Masonry is the relationship between Spirit and Matter, between Heaven and Earth, between God and Man, between the Soul and the Body.
Emphasis is everywhere laid on the necessity of their reconciliation. Consequently to attain the juste milieu emphasis has sometimes to be laid on one side and sometimes on the other. For example, the Cross and the Square, which have now such deeply spiritual significance , were originally signs of Earth, and became respectively, the essential symbols of Christianity and Masonry, because it was necessary to proclaim the fact that professions of piety towards God were idle, unless they bore fruit in kindly relationship between man and man.
Bro. Ward regards the J.W. as representing the body, and the S.W. the soul, although the emblems and jewel of the former are celestial and of the latter terrestrial. The fact is that things divine and human are so interwoven in Masonry as to be inseparable. Duty towards God and towards our neighbour are but different aspects of the same truth. For the Fatherhood of God implies the Brotherhood of Man, and, conversely, he who devotes himself to the service of his fellow creatures proves, through his brotherly relationship, his descent from the Father of AII.
The issue of Bro. Ward's series of handbooks cannot fail to accomplish its main object, which is to lead not only juniors, but also those well versed in the ritual, to mark, leam and inwardly digest the significance of the ceremonies, which when properly understood, causes our jewels and emblems to glow with an inner light which infinitely enhances their beauty.
The ready reception which Bro. Ward's books have already received at the hands of the Craft, prove that they meet a recognised requirement as expositions of the character of a ritual with whose external features we are familiar, and in which we take our daily delight.
J.A.C.
The Mysteries
In every race and every clime,
Since the earliest days of Time,
Men have taught the Mystic Quest
Shown the Way to Peace and rest.

Bacchus died, and rose again,
On the golden Asian Plain;
Osiris rose from out the grave,
And thereby mankind did save:
Adonis likewise shed his blood
By the yellow Syrian flood,
Zoroaster brought to birth
Mithra from His Cave of Earth.

And to-day in Christian Lands
We with them can join hands.

J.W.

CHAPTER I. THE OPENING OF THE FIRST DEGREE.
The W.M. calls the brethren together with one knock so as to remind them that the body must be prepared to obey the higher faculties, for if it is not, no spiritual progress is possible. The first question and answer of the J.W. indicate this quite clearly, for the J.W. represents the body and so he satisfies himself that man's body is on guard against outside influences. The S.W., representing the Soul, next proves that all present have made some progress towards the light.
It is only when this has been achieved that any real advancement becomes possible, and only those who have started can help those who still remain in spiritual darkness. The next series of questions indicates that Man has a seven-fold nature. The Ancient Egyptians held this view , and it is endorsed in Masonry by the fact that it takes seven to make a perfect lodge.
There is also, no doubt, an astrological reference to the seven planets and a connection with stellar worship, but as our system is mainly solar, it is almost impossible to give a logical planetary interpretation to the seven who form a lodge, or to the seven officers. In short, the planetary symbolism has become disorganised by the stress laid on the solar aspect of the three principal officers who rule a lodge. Moreover, the predominance of the solar aspect has emphasised the triune nature of man, and symbolises it in these officers.
Thus it will be seen that too much stress must not be laid on the planets, as represented by the seven officers, and a passing reference to the fact that it is still remembered in the number seven is all that can be logically maintained. Similarly there is merely a hint of the seven-fold nature of man. If ours were a stellar system, then clearly the Tyler would represent the body, the divine spark would be represented by the W.M. , the various officers between would symbolise the various sub-divisions of the non-materials parts of man, such as his astral body, his intellectual faculties, and so forth.
Since, however, our system is solar in the main, we should continue to interpret our symbols from that aspect, making but passing reference to stellar influences when they occur. The duties of the Tyler are considered elsewhere, so we will pass to the I.G. Although in some popular workings he and the other two subordinate officers are not allowed to speak for themselves, the Wardens doing this work, in many other rituals they are allowed to answer the W.M. direct.
The I.G. stands for the power which permits the Soul to enter flesh at any given moment. The Soul may desire to become incarnate, but unless its time has come it is turned back at the threshold, and even if it forces itself into birth it is cut short. Entry into life is not an accident, but ordained of God, Who works through His spiritual as well as through His human agents. Those who saw Maeterlinck's play, "The Blue Bird," will remember that the same idea is dealt with in one of the scenes.
Spiritually, the I.G. represents the warning which must be given to those who attempt, without due caution, to probe into the Mysteries of God. They must neither rush forward hastily, nor, having once started, withdraw suddenly; for, if they do, dire evil will befall. This warning all the Mysteries gave, and it is certain that those who dabble in the so-called occult run grave risks unless they use the utmost caution.
Hence it is absolutely essential that the candidate should be properly prepared before he starts on his quest. The J.D. represents the physical means by which the Soul, represented by the S.W., passes on the inspirations received from the Spirit, the W.M., to the material world. In this sense therefore he represents intelligence, and the five senses of man, whereas the S.D. stands for intuition, whereby the Soul obtains its inspiration from the Divine.
In the ancient operative days these officers no doubt had a practical use, the S.D. being the personal messenger of the Master, who took messages to the S.W., not merely when in Lodge, but when he was at a distance, employed on his task, or possibly when he was resting from his labours, In like manner the S.W. 's deacon was sent by him to find the J.W. The J.W. describes his position in L. and indicates quite clearly that he represents the Sun at noon.
From the operative point of view it must be remembered that Noon has always been, and still is, a workingman's dinner hour, hence the special duty of the J.W. ; but in the spiritual sense, since he stands for the body, it is natural that he should have charge over the body's needs. As he also represents the preservative side of God, his interest in the physical well-being of man is appropriate.
With this in mind the F. C. will realise the significance of the P.W., and its connection with C. and W. , which are the emblems of the God of Vegetation in the more primitive rites. When men evolved, and the solar system of religion developed, the God of Vegetation became the Preserver. This characteristic of the J.W. is emphasised by the upright lines of his plumb, which latter reminds us of water which falls from heaven, and of the cast marks of Vishnu in India.
This aspect of the J.W., as representing the Preserver , is carefully maintained throughout the whole of the three degrees and must never be forgotten. In like manner, the fact that he stands for the body is also maintained throughout. Bearing this in mind , we shall perceive the significance of the fact that the Architect of K.S. 's Temple was the J.W. Finally, bread and water represent the bare necessities, without which mortal life cannot be preserved.
Luxuries, which are obtained when we have acquired worldly possessions, i.e., wealth, lead to the death of the soul, and even of the body, unless employed with the greatest caution. Some masons claim that the J.W. originally sat in the North to mark the Sun at noon, meaning to see, or point out, that it had reached the midheavens. Honestly, I can find no real evidence in support of this view, which likewise places the W.M. in the West and the S.W. in the East. It is due, in my opinion, to a complete misunderstanding of the use of the words "to mark."
This phrase implies that the J.W. is placed on a certain spot to mark the position of the Sun at noon, and not that 'he may see it. In a closed-in building, such as a lodge room was, it would be desirable to mark the three positions of the Sun, for the candidate has to pass through each point in turn, and these three officers, who represent the Sun in its three aspects, would naturally sit in the positions in use in a speculative lodge.
Any arguments adduced from the rituals of the modern Operative Lodges are vitiated by two facts-(1) we have no evidence that this peculiarity is really old (it may be due to Stretton's inventive mind) and (2) the Operatives, if old, would be descended from the Guild Masons and not from the Freemasons ; and this might be a peculiarity of theirs, or deliberately adopted so as to differentiate them from the Freemasons.
That the Guild Masons and Freemasons were quite distinct has been proved as far back as 1913, and the fact is gone into in my other book, "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods." That the Operatives are not descended direct from the Mediaeval Freemasons is shown by the fact that they have entirely different signs from our own. Thus we need not discuss further the question as to whether the J.W. should be in the North or South.
The S.W., as he indicates in his reply to the W.M., represents the Sun in its setting, and so the Destructive Side of the Deity, or Shiva. He also stands for the Soul. Shiva shall close not only our mortal life, but Time itself. But I have dealt with this side of the S.W. very fully elsewhere. It should be noted, however, that the S.W. is associated with level and horizontal lines , and not with perpendiculars, and here again he follows the Hindu system, for Shiva's caste mark is two or more parallel lines.
As the Great Leveller this is most natural, and it reminds us that in the sight of God all souls are equal, even though in mortal life their stations may appear to differ. Shiva is associated with the element of Fire, whereas Vishnu is associated with Water, and as we see that great care has been taken to maintain the connection between the J.W. and Water, so we find that with us the S.W. is similarly associated with Fire, though perhaps less obviously.
Firstly, his level is of a triangular form with the point upward, the world-wide symbol for Fire. Again, the S.W. 's P.W. has hidden within it the same idea. A smith who works in metals can only do so by the help of fire, and in one ritual this fact is stressed. Thus metals come out from the dark earth, and the Sun sinks in the West into darkness and the grave, as does man. But, by means of fire, man obtains wealth from the metals hidden in the earth, and in like manner the Soul of Man rises refined and purified from the grave by means of the divine fire within.
Moreover, one cannot ignore the fact that there is here a hint of the necessity of the purging fire of remorse to cleanse away our sins. The S. W. is the Soul, the link between mortal life and the Divine Spark , but he acts on instructions from the Spirit; in other words, it is only when God decrees our death that the Soul departs from the body. The W.M. represents, as his words indicate, the creative side of God and the Divine Spirit in Man. He sets us to work on earth, but delegates to another the task of calling us back whence we came.
He represents the male aspect of the Deity, as is shown by the tau crosses, called levels, on his apron, and by his use of the gavel, which represents the same emblem. The Tau Cross is, of course, a phallic symbol and stands for the male and creative aspect in Man. As the three principal officers represent the Sun (a masculine planet) in various phases, it is natural that they should all wield the gavel, but the two wardens are less essentially male than the W.M., as is indicated by the fact that they do not have the tau cross or Master's level on their aprons.
The Spirit, being active, is male; whereas both soul and body, being more or less passive, are female. The feminine side of the S.W. or Soul is deliberately emphasised later-in the first degree-by a reference to the Moon, a feminine planet, the emblem of the Soul and of the psychic nature in man. Nor can we ignore the fact that the West is known as the feminine quarter of the heavens, whereas the East is the masculine; it is also worth noticing that Shiva is often depicted with the moon.
Finally, before declaring the L. open, the W.M. offers up a prayer, thereby reminding us that the Divine Spark in Man, or the Spirit, must turn to the Source of All for aid if it would control body and soul. The three knocks, as distinct from the one knock with which the proceedings started, indicate that the members are about to work for the union and advancement of body, soul and spirit, and not for the body only. But the way in which the three knocks are given show that, as yet, there is no unity between the three elements which constitute Man.

CHAPTER II. THE TYLER
The first thing that greets the eyes of the aspirant to our Order is a man, whom he soon discovers is called the Tyler, standing in front of the door with a d.n. s.d. in his hand. He naturally wants an answer to the question which actually occurs in a certain famous old ritual, "Why does the Tyler wear a s.d.?"and the answer is, "To guard the brethren and to hele the Word." Let us consider this answer: "To guard the brethren. "In certain old rituals of the 18th century we are told that Masons' Lodges formerly met in the open-"on the highest hill or lowest valley, where never dog barked nor cock crew."
Brethren will no doubt have read the interesting article in the "Masonic Record" relating to this state of affairs, but I am bound to say that I do not think that the ordinary mediaeval lodge met in such places. The reference to the cock, together with certain details we possess with regard to those lodges which did meet in the open, (they were mostly in Scotland) indicate that they were not ordinary Craft lodges, but much more probably Templar Lodges.
The Templars in the 18th century claimed to be descended from a body which had been suppressed in the years 1307 to 1314-, and actually prescribed. There was every reason therefore why they should meet in out of the way places, but no such reason existed in the case of a lodge of ordinary Freemasons. That such a phrase should have wandered into a craft ritual from Templary is perfectly natural, but it is not safe to argue from this that all Masonic lodges met under the canopy of heaven.
In those early days, many higher degrees were worked in ordinary Craft Lodges, in a way not permitted to-day; and this may easily account for phrases more appropriate to a Templar Preceptory being found in a Craft working. I might add that until the middle of the 19th century Templar meetings were always called "Encampments," indicating that they were camps held in the open fields.
But in mediaeval times we know that the Freemasons had Lodge buildings, and if they went to a new place to build a church or castle , the first thing they did was to erect a temporary Lodge room, which they attended before starting the day's work. Those interested will find abundant details in Fort Newton's interesting little book, "The Builders." There also it is clearly shown that there were two kinds of masons in those days, and the man who conclusively proved this was not a modern Speculative Freemason.
The two groups were the Freemasons and the Guild Masons. The former were lineal descendents of the Comacine Masons-who, incidentally, knew a certain Masonic Sign-and these men were skilled architects, free to go anywhere. They had a monopoly of ecclesiastical building and of work otlrside the towns, e.g. castles. The Guild Masons were humbler folk. They were not allowed to build outside their particular city, but had a monopoly of all building inside that city, with one important and significant exception:-they were not allowed to build ecclesiastical buildings.
In return for their charter they had to maintain the fortifications. When a church had to be built the Freemasons were sent for, and apparently they called on the Guild Masons to help them with the rough work, e.g., to square the stones, etc. I suggest that Speculative Freemasonry is mainly descended from the Freemasons, whereas the few Operative Lodges that survive are probably descended from the Guild masons. This theory is borne out by the fact that while the Operatives have our g.s. they have not our s.ns, yet these s.ns are unquestionably old.
They would all have the same g. for convenience in proving to the Freemasons that they were really masons, but they would keep their s.ns to themselves, as did the Freemasons, since they did not want the other group to have access to their private meetings. Further, we find that the Master Masons of the Freemasons were entitled to maintenance as "gentlemen," clearly indicating that they were different from ordinary craftsmen (See Fort Newton).
After the Reformation no doubt Freemasons and Guild masons tended to amalgamate, and this explains much. Now if the Freemasons erected a lodge before they started to build a church or castle, we shall see that their meeting in the open would be merely occasional, e.g., while the temporary lodge was being built, and not a regular custom ; but the very fact that is was a temporary building, and open to approach by all and sundry who came to the site of the new edifice, is quite sufficient to explain why they had someone on guard.
Why, however, is he called a Tyler, instead of Sentinel, or some similar name? There are three explanations, and we can adopt which we please:-
1. To tile is to cover in; hence the Tyler is one who covers or conceals what is going on in the lodge. 2. In the old mediaeval Templar ceremony there were three sentinels; one inside the door, one outside, and one on the roof or tiles, who could see if anyone was approaching the building. It will be remembered that the old Templar Churches were round, so that a man perched on the roof was able to see in every direction. 3. That the tilers were inferior craftsmen as compared with the genuine Freemasons; poor brethren, as it were, and not admitted to full membership, although one or two were chosen to act as Outer Guards.
I am not greatly impressed with the latter theory, and my person predilection is in favour of No. 1 ; but there is a good deal to be said for No. 2. The tyler guarded the brethren from "cowans" or eavesdroppers. The former word is still used in the country districts of Lancashire and Westmorland for a dry-dyker, that is, a man who builds rough walls between the different fields, of rough, uncut, and unmortared stones.
When I was living in Yorkshire I had a number of fields so surrounded; the stones for which were picked from the hillside, and piled one upon another. No particular skill was needed to build such a wall; I repaired several myself. In other words, a "cowan" is one who pretends to be a mason because he works in stone, but is not one. Some fanciful derivations have been suggested from "Cohen," the Jewish priest. I disagree entirely with this view.
Why should the Jewish Cohens be more likely to pretend to be Freemasons than any other priests? As the other word is spelt as we spell ours, and means what I have stated, I see no reason to invent this suggestion regarding the Jewish priests, who were always few in number, and in the Middle Ages hardly existed:-the Jews were driven out of England by Edward I., and not re-admitted until the time of Cromwell. "Eavesdroppers" means men who listen under the eaves.
The eaves of a primitive or of a mediaeval cottage overhung a considerable distance beyond the walls, and between the roof and the wall was an open space. Through this space the smoke of the fire escaped; the general arrangement being very similar to that found in the tropics. The walls of such a cottage were often only five to six feet high, and thus a man could stand under the eaves in the shadow, hidden from the light of the sun or moon, and both see and hear what was going on inside, without those who were in the lodge knowing he was there.
But the Tyler was on guard outside the door of the Lodge; he was armed with a d..n s..d, and woe betide any eavesdropper he discovered, for our mediaeval brethren undoubtedly interpreted their obligations literally. Incidentally, I understand that nominally the duty of carrying out the pen. still rests on the shoulders of the Tyler.
With regard to the use of temporary buildings on or near the site of the edifice, it should be noted that during the building of Westminster Abbey there was at least one, if not two, such lodges, and they are mentioned in the records of the Abbey. One seems to have stood on the site of the subsequent nave. Thus we can see that it was essential that there should be an Outer Guard to keep off intruders, owing to the fact that Lodges were usually held in temporary buildings, often with overhanging eaves and an open space between the top of the walls and the beams which supported the roof.
The word "hele" should, in my opinion, be pronounced "heal," not "hale." The use of "hale" is due to the fact that in the 18th century the words "conceal," and "reveal," were pronounced "concale" and "revale." Since the words obviously were a jingle, I consider it is more correct to-day to pronounce it "heal." Moreover, the word "hele" means to cover over.
You still hear the phrase used, "to hele a cottage," or even a haystack, and the word "Hell" implies the place that is covered over, e.g., in the centre of the earth. "Hele" is connected with "heal"-to cover up, or to close up, a wound-and the meaning therefore is tautalogical, viz, "to cover up the word." (The Masonic s -t")
The use of the pronunciation "Hale" is to-day most misleading, and is apt to cause a newly initiated Bro. to think he has to "hail" something, or "proclaim it aloud." The C. is taken in hand by the Tyler, who makes him sign a form to the effect that he is free and of the full age of 21 years. Why "free?" Well, in mediaeval days he had to bind himself to serve as an apprentice for seven years.
Unless he was a free man, his owner might come along and take him away, before he had completed his apprenticeship and, worse still, might extort from him such secrets as he had learnt from the masons. Thus the master might be enabled to set himself up as a free lance, not under the control of the fraternity. The twenty-one years is, I believe, an 18th century Speculative innovation, aiming at a similar object.
I think there is no doubt that usually in the Middle Ages an apprentice was a boy, who placed himself under the control of a Master with his parents' consent. The Master was henceforth in loco parentis. In the 18th century without some such safeguard (as 21 years) some precocious youth might have joined the fraternity without his father's consent.
The father might have been one who disapproved of F.M., and in such a case would probably have not hesitated to exercise his parental authority in the drastic manner at that time in vogue, and so exhort the secrets, which he could then have "exposed." To-day it is still a very reasonable clause, for it presupposes that man has reached years of discretion and knows what he is about.
Any real hardship is removed by the fact the G.L. has power to dispense, which power it constantly uses in the case of the University Lodges at Oxford and Cambridge. I myself was one of those who thus benefited. It is, I believe, still the custom in England that a Lewis, the son of a mason, may be admitted at 18, though the right is seldom claimed; but in some countries, I understand, it is a privilege highly valued, and regularly used by those entitled to it.
In masonry a lewis is a cramp of metal, by which one stone is fastened to another. It is usually some form of a cross, and a whole chapter could be written on its significance, but this casual reference must suffice.

CHAPTER III. PREPARATION.
The next thing that happens is that the C. is prepared by the Tyler. This is a very important matter. There seems little doubt that originally candidates were str..d n..d, and even to-day in the U.S.A. C's are left in their sh-s only. In Burma we changed out of everything into a one-piece pyjama suit, a most convenient arrangement.
What we now have is a system by which the parts which have to be b. are made b. We take our ob. on our L.K., therefore that.K. must be B.. Why? So that our flesh may be in contact with Mother Earth. It is possible that there was a practical as well as a symbolical meaning in this , and also in the case of our deprivation of m..s. In some of the ancient mysteries it has been suggested that a charge of electricity was passed through the C. as he knelt at the altar, either from a battery, or by what is now called magnetism.
If any question the use of electricity in those days, I would point out that certain statements of Herodotus, to the effect that the Egyptian priests brought down lightning by means of rods, can best be explained by admitting that they had some rudimentary knowledge of electricity. The b.b. is in order that the S.I. can be applied.
The Scotch ritual, however, says it is to show your sex, but I am inclined to think this is a modern gloss. Personally, I should not regard this as conclusive proof in itself, for I have seen (when abroad) many well grown girls who had no breasts worth mentioning, while many native men had quite well developed busts.
It should always be remembered that this is the degree of birth and we were born n..d.. We are s. s. because we are about to tread on holy ground, just as in the East we wear slippers when entering a mosque. It is probable that the Scotch ritual has preserved a real tradition when it refers to the custom in Israel of removing a shoe, as a witness, when confirming an obligation.
Those interested will find the details in Ruth, where Boaz under-takes to marry Ruth. A.C.T. is placed about his n.. This piece of symbolism is old and world wide. On a vase found at Chama, in Mexico, several candidates are depicted going through a ceremony very similar, apparently, to a certain degree in M.,* One is being taught a certain sign, and the others wha stand waiting their turn all have C.T.s with a running noose about their necks.
In India this C.T. is the emblem of Yama, the God of Death, with which he snares the souls of men and drags them forth from their bodies. It is carried by - Shiva to indicate his destructive character in relation to human life. There are in masonry meanings within meanings, and I will therefore indicate a few of those associated with the C.T. , but I shall not do so with all the details upon which I shall touch. The C.T. is an emblem of Death.
It is fastened round the necks of captives as showing that they are at the absolute mercy of their conqueror. Thus the burghesses of Calais had to come before Edward III. in their shirts-note that-with c.T. 's round their necks. They were only saved by the desperate pleading of good Queen Philippa. But this is the degree of birth. Some come into the world with a caul which may strangle them if not removed, and in any case we are said to be born in original sin and therefore doomed to die.
*See "Freemasonry and the Gods" Birth, in the very nature of things, means death, and that is why the Hindoos have made Shiva, the Lord of Death, also the Lord of Birth. We ourselves are captives-souls bound by the chains of the flesh-and offenders against the Law of the King of Kings. Further, we come in bondage to sin, seeking to be freed from our bonds by the word of God.
The holding of the C.T. , and the dangers entailed, are sufficiently explained to need no further mention just now, though this does not imply there are not inner meanings. The h.w. is always found in every great initiatory rite. In general, it reminds us that as in the physical world we came out of darkness into light, so in the intellectual, and finally, in the spiritual world.
We come into masonry seeking the Light of God's word. In other language, to try and comprehend through the use of symbols what God really is. But as the veil of darkness is slightly lifted as we grow in years and our intellect awakens , so it is in the craft, and the first thing we see there is the V.S.L., itself a symbol of Divine inspiration; for without the Divine spark, which speaks from the inmost recesses of the soul, we shall remain in spiritual darkness all our natural life.
The C. is then brought to the door of the L. and challenged, but strange to say, in our ritual there is no p.w.. There was once, I have no doubt, and it is still in use in Scotland, Ireland and U.S.A. Moreover, it is one of the tests there when visiting, and if a man cannot give it he will run a serious risk of being refused admission. Strange to say, we do get it inside the Lodge, though perhaps most brethren do not realise it.
It is "The T. of G.R." (sometimes it is "Free and of G.R.," though this is less usual). But before entering we are deprived of M.. Now, among the Dervishes M. = mineral substances, but we interpret it M . . . 1. It is M . . . 1s!-that is important. "Valuables" is a real, but subsidiary, meaning. Let us consider this carefully. There is an explanation of why it is done in the lecture,-now, alas, seldom read in Lodge-and also, of course, in the questions.
These lectures were the real instruction; on them were based the tracing board Iectures, which were pictorial summaries, on which were set certain questions. Now the lectures (which can be bought at any Masonic furnishers) tell us that at the building of the Temple no metallic implements were used. Why? Because metals came from below. They were the gifts of the Thonic Gods:-the Gods of the Underworld-useful, no doubt, but being gifts of the Gods of the Underworld they were in their very nature evil, and abhorrent to the Gods of Light, whom the white races worshipped.
For this reason the Egyptians continued to use stone knives to open the corpse preparatory to embalming it, long after they used metal knives constantly. The holy dead must not be polluted with the gifts of the evil powers. If there is anything in the theory of an electric or magnetic discharge being made at the time when a metal point is applied to the n. 1. b. at the ob. , this would also be a practical reason; the presence of metal might make such a charge dangerous.
But the first reason is no doubt the original one, and probably the only one. The idea that we bring nothing into this world is, of course, likewise obvious; but its full significance is lost in our ritual, although seen in the Irish. There a C. is deprived of metals in the first and in the second degrees. The significance of this will be realised by M.M.'s if they ponder awhile on the meaning of the S.W.'s P.W.- "How hardly shall a rich man enter the kingdom of Heaven." That worldly possessions hamper a man's spiritual progress is proclaimed by every religion in the world which can truly be called great.
The Buddhist monk and the mediaeval friar alike agree on this. Why p.w.s. at all? Here we wander into a strange field, no less than that of old world magic, I think. The C. enters an E. A. Lodge from the outside world. Prior to his entry this Lodge has been opened by a peculiar ceremony :- a ceremony which, in the technical language of magic and the occult, raises the vibrations of those present; thus they are , as it were , raised to a higher key, and force is generated.
Now those who have studied such matters know that a body of men who are all concentrating on a particular subject do generate a peculiar, subtle, but powerful force, which has not been accurately defined by science , but is loosely called magnetic. In the old days of phenomenal magic certain words, when uttered in the correct tone, were believed to be in consonance with this "power," like a tuning fork is to a violin.
Therefore we give this p.w. to the C. to raise him quickly to the same "power" as the Lodge. But I am afraid I may be getting rather deep for our younger readers. All I need say further is that such p.w.s are universal in the great mystery rites, ancient or modern, and it is not surprising, therefore, that in some rituals we find a P.W. leading to the 1 degree.

CHAPTER IV. ADMISSION.
Now our C. enters and is received on a S.L.. This signifies many things, one idea lying within the other. It reminds us of the pain we, as distinct from our mothers , suffered when we entered this physical world. It is a test of our courage and obedience. Probably in olden days blood was drawn, as a sacrifice. The Can. comes seeking for knowledge; self-restraint and quiet confidence should mark his bearing.
In all primitive initiatory rites most painful tests are applied, and if the candidate does not bear them with courage he is rejected, and told that henceforth he is to dress as a woman and will be treated with contempt by the men of the tribe. We note that the instrument is a Latin cross, the age-old symbol of suffering, and this is the only place in the Lodge where the C. sees this cross, (e.g. when it is shown him later) though M.M. 's may realise that there does come a time when he treads the Way of the Cross of suffering.
The use of a Latin Cross as the S.I. is peculiarly significant, for it is associated with pain and the danger of death, and tells us, in symbolic language, that the way of life is the path of suffering, and begins with the threat of death and ends in death itself: but by this hard road we draw nearer to the object of our quest. Next the C. kneels while the blessing of H. is invoked.
This needs no explanation, for he is about to start on The Quest and needs Divine help. But the phrase, "Relying on such sure support, you may safely rise and follow your leader, . . . , for where the name of God is invoked we trust no danger can ensue" seems pointless in Emulation working, for the danger was at the door and is passed.
At Leeds, however, they have a working which is, they say, derived from the Old York ritual, and it does explain this passage. I saw this ceremony at Alfred 306, Leeds. The C. was brought in h-w and bidden to k . . l., and after the prayer, the W.M. said:- "Mr. Brown it is but fair to tell you of the perilous position in which you are now placed.
Before you stand one with a d.s. in his hand, pointed at your n. l.b. , and behind you one holds the end of the c.t. which is about your neck; in this position of difficulty and danger, in whom do you put your trust?" Answer:-"In God. " W.M.:-"Right glad am I to see your faith is so well founded; relying, etc." Here you see the C. is in danger. Next the C. is taken round with the Sun, for this is the road of life , and in all ancient religions on entering a temple a man had to follow this path.
In Burma to this day you are expected to pass round the pagoda in this manner. The words are:-"Brethren in the N.E.S. and W. will take notice. " It is clear therefore that emphasis is laid on the fact that the candidate is following the path of the Sun, for otherwise why not employ the more usual phrase, "North, South, East and West?"
Now the Swastika, which may be regarded as the "lost sign" in Freemasonry (+), indicates the path of the Sun and is the emblem of life, whereas the Suwastika is the emblem of the life beyond the grave, for, according to ancient symbolism and eschatology, the departed soul went through the underworld the reverse way, just as the Sun was supposed to do, e.g. W.S.E.N.
This then, is the road of the Spirits. Thus the candidate starts on the symbolic (+) First suggested by Wor. Bro. Sir John Cockburn. journey of life, and in some of the eighteenth century rituals there is evidence that the way was made hard and difficult, to symbolise the trials and tribulations we meet with in life , particularly if we strive to attain to the Light.
This lesson is still taught in certain foreign rituals. In "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods" I have discussed the probability of the theory that the Swastika was once used in our Lodges to represent God, as it still is in the operative lodges, and have shown that a square-a-gamma *, the Greek "G," and therefore that the fourfold gamma represents the four letters of the Hebrew alphabet which denote the sacred name of God.
I refer again to this point later, and so will content myself with saying that in an operative lodge the Swastika if formed of four gallow-squares, one of which always rests on the open volume of the Bible, while the other three belong to the three Grand Master Masons, and are placed by them on the Bible before opening the Lodge, in such a way as to form a Swastika.
Thus even to-day in the manner of our progress round the L. we are reminded of that age-old symbol, which is found all over the world, *First suggested by Wor. Bro. Sir John Cockburn. representing Life and the Sun, the latter being itself an emblem for God. The C. is then told to step off with the l. f. f.. Why? Because the Preserver in ancient mythology is always depicted as trampling with his l. f. on the Serpent of Evil.
This is so, alike in ancient Egypt, in India and elsewhere. But some may ask "Why should Horus or Krishna plant his l. f. on the serpent of Evil?" Major Sanderson, who has spent many years in Nyasaland as Medical Officer of Health and has been initiated into several native rites, tells me that among many primitive races there is a superstition that when entering a shed where rice is stored one must enter r. f. first, "so as not to hurt the Spirit who rules over the rice store." The same idea prevails among these people wherever food is stored, and we here get an explanation of "l. f. f.".
When fighting against the Spirit of Evil you do desire to hurt him, and so reverse the superstition, and step off l. f. f.. This is Major Sanderson's view, and I consider it is probably the correct one. It may also be well to point out that our ceremonies have come in contact, at various periods, with many different religious beliefs, ana this fact explains why there are often several meanings attached to certain points in the ritual, all of which may be correct.
The great serpent, Apepi, in Egypt, represents the powers of spiritual evil, e.g. the Devil. But it also specifically refers to ignorance, as is shown in the Indian legend in which Krishna tramples on the five-headed cobra. The five heads, moreover, also have a reference to our five senses, which in that allegory must be cleansed of every evil thought. Thus we may consider that the World is represented by the C.T. and H.W., and the brotherhood helps us to free ourselves from them.
The Flesh is represented by the f. r. s. , in which we "trample" on the Tau Cross, while the Devil is represented by the snake, of whose existence we are reminded by the warning to "step off with the l. f. f.". Strictly, the C. should enter the L. in the N. , not in the West. The North is the place of darkness, and at birth we come out of darkness into physical light, and so in the spiritual journey.
This is done at Leeds. Out of darkness, Light. But the Light shineth in the darkness and the candidate comprehends it not, for the darkness of gross materialism is upon him until he kneels before the emblem of the divine light, the V.S.L.. The C. is then challenged by the J.W. and the S.W.. The J.D. gives the pass word "Free and of G.R. ," and the Wardens acknowledge its potency and bid him enter (Note "enter,") as if he were outside a door on which he had knocked for admission.
This brings to our mind the three regular knocks. For reasons which cannot be stated here, but which I will deal with more fully later, I suggest that the E.A. knocks remind us that man is Body, Soul and Spirit, and as in this stage of ignorance the Body is as important as the other two, the three knocks are all of equal duration. Lest any misunderstand this, I would argue that in the process of creation the Spirit first comes from God, secondly, clothes itself with a Soul, and finally enters flesh.
Thus, the first knock represents the Spirit, seeking God whence it came, the second, the Soul, and the third, the Body. To understand the full meaning of this passing by the Wardens one needs to consider why the C. is being led round the L..
There are two reasons given- (1) To show that he is properly prepared. (2) To show that he is a fit and proper person to be made a mason. Being made a mason symbolises the birth of the Christ within, and before anyone can attain to this mystical re-birth he must have progressed some way along the road of evolution, have gained certain experiences, and learned certain lessons.
Think again of the P.W., F. and of G.R.! In the earlier stages man is bound in materialismearthly things satisfy, and he is ruled by his physical passions. The C. for masonry has begun to desire more than the material: he has felt the desire for spiritual growth and knowledge, and so has become "free. " This is recognised as he passes the J.W. , who represents the Material Nature. Next he approaches the S. W.- the representative of the Soul-and with the aid of the P.W. is again bidden to enter.
Notice, having passed the material stage, when the Body reigns supreme, the Soul immediately, takes control, and presents the C. to the W.M.-i.e. the Soul calls upon the Divine Spirit of God to give L. to the C. The reply is significant, but is almost incomprehensible unless one understands the symbolical journey which the C. has just taken, and one is apt to wonder why the questions which follow were not asked at the very beginning of the ceremony.
Really they are most important! They constitute the final testing of the C. before he is bidden to advance towards the E. to receive the L. , and enter on the pathway which begins with initiation and ends with God Himself. Also they "are very searching: the C. being required to declare solemnly that he comes seeking knowledge, not because others desire him to do so, nor yet for unworthy motives of personal gain, but because he is prompted from within by a genuine desire to help Humanity.
Then follows a hint that the journey upwards is by no means easy, and patience, perseverance, caution and courage are essential if we are to achieve our goal. The C. having replied satisfactorily, the S.W. is given permission to direct the guide to instruct him in the proper method of advancing towards the L. This is by three squares which symbolise, not only uprightness of life, but also the three letters of the Great Name, Yod, He, Vau; Male, Female, and Variable.
In other words, God the Father, Mother, and child; and the fourth square is on the Ped., which gives us the final He, or the complete name of Him we seek,- Jehovah, or J.H.V.H. But the letter HE (pronounced Hay) is female, and its female aspect is emphasised by the position of the sq. and c.s., which form a lozenge, itself a well known symbol for the Vesica Piscis, as all who study heraldry know ; for in heraldry a woman's arms are placed, not on a shield, as are a man's, but on a lozenge.
A great truth is here taught,-that each soul is part of the Divine whole and cannot be separated from the God we seek. The C. is only just about to emerge from the darkness of gross materialism, yet the God he seeks is within him. True He is so veiled that many do not realise His presence, just as hundreds of C's tread out the proper steps without ever realising their full significance, but those who rise above the material start on the path of return to God, and each stage that they pass as they progress along the path, reveals more fully His Nature and Being. Notice, the C. only treads three squares,-Yod, He, Vau; Male, Female, Variable; the fourth square needed to complete the whole is on the Ped.
This is particularly significant-never whilst in the flesh shall we be able fully to comprehend His nature. No finite mind can comprehend the Infinite Deity. It is only after we have left the first initiation long behind, and travelled far, that we can hope to obtain that transcendent knowledge which enables us to understand fully, the Nature and Being of Him Who is the beginning and end of all.
Again comes the reminder that Masonry is free ; entrance to the path can only be gained by those who hear the call from within. No-one is coerced;-even at this late stage the C. is given an opportunity to retire. Thus he is asked if he is willing to take a serious Ob., and on his agreeing to do so, the W.M. directs him to k. on his l. k. etc.
It should be noted that the l. side of an individual is usually said to be "Femine," and it is not surprising, therefore that in this, the first and femine degree, the C. is told to k. on his l. k.. Notice the exact position! On the l. k. keeping the r. f. in the f. of a s. Now when you k. on the l. k. you must of necessity form a sq. at that k. , and, if you try it, you will find that you cannot keep the r. f. in the form of a sq. without keeping the r. k. in the form of a sq. also; so once again we get three sq's, with the fourth on the Ped.
Thus we get another glimpse of the truth already hinted at, that each soul is part of the Divine whole, and cannot be separated from God. The C. is only just about to emerge from the darkness of ignorance , and yet he is instructed so to k. that by his very attitude, -i.e. by forming three sq.'s with his body (the fourth being on the Ped.) he shows symbolically that the God he seeks is within.
Possibly the C. is not conscious of His presence , any more than he realizes the significance of the steps by which he approached the Ped. , or of the posture he assumes as he k's thereat, yet verily God is with him, and within him, and, be the journey short or long, back to God he must return. Once a M. , ever a M. , there is no such thing as straying permanently from the path.

CHAPTER V. THE OBLIGATION.
Why should there be any ob. ? In all the ancient mysteries an ob. was exacted, and for this reason: -The secret teachings given in these mysteries disclosed an inner meaning, often of a most exalted kind, unsuitable for the general public, who were lacking in education. In the ancient world the external religion, with its worship of many gods, suited the ordinary man in the street, who was incapable of comprehending more advanced spiritual truths.
It would have been dangerous, alike to the populace and to the preacher, to have shouted aloud such a doctrine as the essential unity of God, and still more fatal to have attempted to describe His Nature. The danger to the populace was that the preacher might have destroyed their belief in the religious system in which they had been reared, while failing to convert them properly to the new doctrine.
For the preacher, the fate of Socrates, and the failure of the so-called heretic King of Egypt-who tried to popularise the worship of the one God, under the symbol of the Atendisk, or disk of the Sun-are sufficient evidence of the risks which would be encountered. Moreover, these mysteries all purported to teach certain occult secrets, whose diffusion among vicious, or ignorant, men would have been dangerous. Even in the Middle Ages these dangers were still very real.
Any deviation from orthodoxy might have endangered the social fabric of the community, and such an attempt was certain to involve the advocate of new doctrines in a struggle with Church and State which could only have ended at the stake. Within an oath-bound Society men felt free to speculate and compare their personal standpoints, while to the outside world they continued to conform to orthodoxy.
The fate of the Templars must have been an ever present warning to the speculative mind, in the Middle Ages. In addition, there is little doubt that the building trades, like other Guilds, had important trade secrets, and wished to safeguard these from interlopers. A mediaeval Guild , on the one hand protected the interests of its members, while on the other it trained those members, and inspected and passed their wtirk; thus protecting the community from deliberate fraud or careless work.
Nor must it be forgotten that in a building bad work might involve actual danger to the users of that building. For all these reasons it was right and proper that no one who was not a member of the fraternity should be in possession of its trade secrets. The ob. is undoubtedly ancient, but its full significance is realised by few. The penalty is d. , and in the Middle Ages I do not doubt that it would have been enforced, though to-day it is purely symbolical.
Studying it carefully, we note in passing the word "hele," whose meaning has already been explained, -and also that every printed ritual in existence is a clear breach of our Ob. The strict interpretations of this clause is one of the reasons why we cannot expect to find any mediaeval rituals, although the fact that the bulk of the members in those days could not read or write would lessen the temptation to make them.
From a practical point of view, however, the essential object to-day is to prevent anyone who has not been regularly initiated from entering our Lodges and the printed rituals usually does this, for s. ns., w.s. and g.s. are missing and a careful cross-questioning would undoubtedly lead to the discovery of an imposter, even if he could produce a stolen G.L. certificate. In the altered conditions of the present era our secrecy is more of the nature of privacy, unlike that which prevails in a political secret society, which usually has revolutionary tendencies.
The old penalty has many striking points. It means that the culprit will be sl., and his b. b . . d. in unconsecrated ground. More than that, the ground can never be consecrated, and, according to the beliefs of the middle ages, and also of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the soul of a man so buried could not rest in peace , but would wander up and down in misery till the Judgment Day.
Suicides, for a similar reason, were buried at the cross road, and to prevent their bodies being used by vampires a stake was driven through the middle of the body to keep it nailed down. (It should be noted than even in England the p . . . s vary in different localities). Thus the culprit is not only d. . . . d to d . . . h, but to be a wandering outcast spirit till the day when the Great Judge consigns it to Hell. It is not perhaps a very charitable, or Christian idea, but that is what is meant all the same.
The T. is removed so that he cannot s. on his own behalf at the Judgment Day. The more effective punishment is, of course , a later "gloss," inserted at a time when; owing to better police supervision, it would have been dangerous to the members of the Order to enforce the ancient py. To-day, in England, it is the only effective penalty, but in some foreign countries d. is still enforced under certain circumstances.
In such cases, however, the Lodges are usually strongly political and revolutionary in tendency. But with us it still remains an obvious symbolical meaning. Immediately after the Ob. the W.M. says, "Having been kept . . . ."etc. We have seen that the C. has already been asked several questions ; these have gradually led up to this, the greatest and most important! Now the climax is reached. It is as if the W.M. says, you have declared that you are here of your own free will, not for unworthy motives, but led by an earnest desire for knowledge.
Your humility and obedience have been tested, and you are therefore entitled to request the fulfilment of the greatest desire of your heart. The question put at this moment can be answered by no one but the C. , for it is meant to teach him that essential lesson that no appeal for L. is ever made in vain. His answer given, the w.M. says, "Then let . ." etc. Notice the word restored.
Mystical rebirth marks the beginning of our journey towards God the Light, of our ascent towards God, but it is a restoration,-a journey back to Him from Whom we came. Exactly the same procedure is followed in the initiatory rites of the Turkish Dervishes. Among them, however, the incident is followed by a beautiful exposition of the mystical meaning of Light.
It is the Divine Light, emblem of God Himself, and of Divine inspiration. It is, moreover, present, not only in the sacred writings, but in every true believer's heart. The light of the sun itself is but a faint similitude of the Divine Light of God's love, through which, and in which, we have our being. Though not expressed in our ritual , this act has the same inner meaning, as I have explained.
So to the C.L. is restored, and he sees, what? The V.S.L. , the S. and the C.s. The V.S.L. is in a place of honour, because without its divine standard and authority the S. and C.s. placed thereon would be practically meaningless. These latter form a lozenge, which as I have already said , is a well known symbol for the Vesica Piscis , which represents the female or preservative principle of the Deity, without which we could not exist for a single day, or hope to be preserved from the powers of darkness which threaten us upon our spiritual journey.
Thus the W.M. 's words teach the aspirant that we have a duty to God, ourselves, and our brother men. The C. is raised with the proper g. , but this is not explained at once. Rather his attention is directed to the three lesser lights, which we are told represent the Sun, Moon and the Master. As our Lodges are at present arranged the W.M. should point to the S. for the Sun, and to the W. for the Moon , but it must be admitted that the lesson to be derived from these three luminaries is not very clear.
Indeed, the Moon plays no real part in our mysteries, which are essentially solar in character, while the implied contrast between Sun, Moon and Master is in no way helpful. In reality the three lesser lights are the W.M. and his two wardens, with their respective candles, and these officers have a real symbolic meaning of great importance, which symbolic characters they maintain consistently throughout all three degrees.
My personal view is that it was to the lights on the pedestals, and their respective officers, that this phrase originally applied, and that the Sun and Moon are 18th century interpolations.
THE THREE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS In any case this makes a convenient place in which to consider the symbolic meaning of the three principle officers in a lodge. The W.M. represents the rising Sun, and in this sense he covers two distinct meanings: the first in connection with the nature of God, and the other with regard to the nature of man. And a similar dual character exists in the case of S.W. and J.W.
The W.M. represents God the Creator, He who calls the Lodge into being, He who created the World out of Chaos. In India this aspect of God, the Incomprehensible, has been individualised as Brahma, so that the devotee many be able to comprehend Him, at least in part. It is the Master who opens the Lodge, who calls it out of nothing. He sits in the East, the place of light; but though he opens, he does not close the lodge.
That is the work of another aspect of the Divine Being. In the nature of man the W.M. represents the Spirit, the Divine Spark within us, ever striving for the light, never truly separated from the divine source of its being. This dual aspect of the W.M. and his principal officers must be borne in mind, if we are to delve down into the inner, or esoteric, meaning of our wonderful rituals. The S.W. represents the Setting Sun, and hence the Destructive, or Transformative , aspects of the Deity.
Among the Hindoos this aspect is called Shiva. He shall one day close the Grand Lodge of this World, when time shall be swallowed up into Eternity. The S.W. closes the Lodge. As the Destroyer he reminds us that Death, the great leveller, will bring all men low, and his symbol is the Level. This in itself reminds us of the caste mark of Shiva, which consists of horizontal lines. But in the nature of Man he represents the Soul, which alone enables the Spirit to raise the body towards divine things.
Without the medium of the Soul, the Spirit would be unable to influence the body. It is for this reason that the C. is invested in craft masonry by the S.W. or Soul, and not by the W.M. , representing the Divine Spark. Thus we learn that we must raise ourselves , step by step , towards the Divine Light. Shiva is, above all, the great M.M..
The J.W. represents the Sun in its Meridian. He stands for the Way of Life, the balance between birth and death. His is the sunny side of life. He calls us from labour to refreslunent and from refreshment to labour. In the divine aspect he represents the Preserver, called Vishnu in India, of whom it is stated that as Rama he sent the skilful craftsmen , Hanuman , to build the bridge for Him , by means of which He crossed the straits to fight against the powers of evil in ancient Ceylon.
Vishnu is associated with the element of water and with corn, and his caste mark is a perpendicular, straight line , referring to the rain which falls from heaven. This symbol is remembered in our lodges by the plumb rule. In the nature of man he stands for the body, which perishes. He is H.A.B. in the Grand Lodge at Jerusalem. He represents the life and sufferings of the body, only terminated by death; the body which in every man dies before its divine work is accomplished.
Our divine temple is not finished at death: all that we can hope is that the foundations have been well and truly laid. In short, in this life we cannot hope to "see God face to face," nor, being finite, can we truly comprehend the Infinite , but we can hope to make such progress that, when called hence, we shall be able to continue , and complete , the work of our own salvation on the foundations of a good and spiritual earthly life.
Finally, it will be noted that in every degree these three officers co-operate to advance the C., and so it is in the spiritual life, for body, soul and spirit' must co-operate if real progress is to be attained. Next the C. is informed of the three great dangers-note the triplicity again-and the few sentences devoted to them must be considered in the light of what has already been written by me on the S.I., the C.T., and the Ob..
At the door of the L. the C. was in great danger, because entrance thereat marked the beginning of the ceremony of initiation into m., and initiation symbolises the mystical re-birth, the end of the descent into matter and the beginning of the ascent to God, and there can be no more critical time than that. The S.I. warns us of the dangers of rushing unprepared into the field of occultism, while the C.T. indicates the danger that the Divine Spark may be quenched, strangled by materialism, if we do not continue steadfastly.
But even when these dangers are passed, throughout the whole of our mystic journey there remains that last danger of our ob., namely, that of infidelity to the vows which marked our entrance, or of abandoning our further quest for light;-knowing the right, but deliberately choosing the wrong. This means death; not primarily physical death, but that greater death, referred to by our Hindoo Brethren as "Being born again at the bottom of the ladder of evolution up which we have for so long been ascending. " We next come to the moment, so long expected, when the s. . . . s are disclosed.
No doubt many Brethren could not suppress a slight feeling of disappointment at their comparative insignificance. Was such a tremendous Ob. necessary to safeguard a S. , W. , and G. which appear to be Purely arbitrary? This question is a fair one, and the answer is that the Ob. safeguards, not so much the G., etc., which are but the outward and visible signs, as the inner esoteric meaning, hidden in our ritual, and never properly explained.
Firstly, the W.M. instructs the C. in the f. r. s., which on investigation proves to be the tau cross. The tau cross was originally the phallus, and has many inner meanings. It is the emblem of generation and creation, but since these powers may be prostituted they must be brought under control. As the f. r. s. , it represents our natural and animal passions, which must be trampled underfoot and brought under complete control, otherwise we cannot make any advancement in Freemasonry.
In plain language , unless we bring our passions into complete subjection, we cannot hope to advance towards a true knowledge of God. For that, I consider, is the real search, or quest, in Freemasonry. Therefore in every one of the Craft degrees we trample on the tau cross. It will be remembered that one of the charges against the Templars, in 1307, was that they trampled on the cross, and this charge seems to be correct.
Yet these same men adored the Cross three times a year in their ceremonies and, moreover, fought and died for it on many a corpse-strewn field in Palestine. I have no doubt this act of theirs was a symbolic one , associated more with the cross as an emblem of our passions than with the Christian cross of suffering. Yet symbols emerge by imperceptible degrees into each other, and so it is that we can truly say that Christ was crucified on the Cross of our passions.
In mediaeval pictures you will usually find that while Christ hangs on a Latin, or fourarmed cross , the two thieves are hung on Tau , or three-armed crosses. This indicates that they died for their own sins, but Christ, Who hangs on the cross of sacrifice , died for the sins of others. Thus, my brothers, the f. r. s. is full of inner meaning nor is this the only place in which we meet with the tau cross in the craft. Its higher and holier aspect when associated with the W.M. I shall discuss later.

CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION OF THE CEREMONY.
Having taken the f. r. s. the C. is given the S.. This he is told refers to the P. of his Ob., and no doubt it does, but it also seems to refer to something much more startling. The part of the body indicated has always been regarded as an important occult centre. In some strange way, the laws of which are but little understood, it has always been associated with the phenomena known amongst psychic students as Materialisations.
As, however, this subject lies somewhat outside our theme, we will discuss the point no further. But all our P. 's have a striking analogy to the legend of the creation of man as given by the Hindoo sages. From Brahma sprang all four castes. From His head came the Brahmins, from His Breasts the Kshatra, or fighting caste, from His Belly, the peasants, and from His feet, the Sudras.
The latter were not true Arians, and were not twice born men; in other words, only the first three castes were regarded as really and truly admissible to the Temple of the High Gods, and free to participate in Their worship. It will be noted that in this degree the S..n suggests the cutting off of the first caste from those below. This S..n, Bro. Major Sanderson suggests, was originally a mantra, or magic prayer, which must be most carefully guarded from the profane.
The T. appears to be an arbitrary one, although it may possibly refer to a certain piller. Explanations of this, together with the meaning, derivation , and significance of the W. , are reserved for the next volume, for reasons which will be obvious to those entitled to know them. No doubt, however, the basic idea of both pillar and word is phallic, and other interpretations have evolved later.
Having received s. w. and t. , the C. is warned to be cautious and told how to receive a challenge, then, having been given strength to help him on his way, he is sent forth in order that the important lesson of caution may be implanted in his mind. The testing by J.W. and S.W. are obviously of practical use, but I think that here also there is an inner meaning. The Body and Soul test the Cand. to see that the lessons have been well and truly learnt; also there seems to be a definite astrological reference.
Having satisfied these important officers, the s.w. asks for some special mark of favour. That is, the Soul calls on the Spirit, but is told that it is the Soul which must invest the regenerate man with the outward signs of the change he has undergone. This point has already been mentioned, but its deep significance must not be forgotten. It may truly be said that it is the S.W. who sets the seal on the candidate's initiation, and proclaims him as at length a member of the Order.
The address of the S.W. and the subsequent one by the Master, are fairly self-explanatory. But one or two points deserve stressing. The reference to the antiquity of the apron refers mainly, of course, to its use among the Operatives, and implies the dignity of honest labour. The present form of our apron is comparatively modern, but there is evidence that our predecessors, the Comacine Masons , wore aprons when they met in Lodge , and aprons have had a special significance among many religious systems.
Thus some of the Chinese gods wear aprons , and I have a photograph of one (See The Hung Society, Vol. III., op. p. 122) and this "God" is making a certain high degree sign. Among the ancient races of America the apron was also evidently used with a religious significance (see picture of the Toltec Preserver in "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods"). The address of the W.M. lays stress on the importance of not entering the L. if a brother is at variance with another.
At first sight this may seem a somewhat unnecessary charge. Normal, well conducted gentlemen are not likely to start an unseemly wrangle in Lodge , even if they are at enmity; and should two men so far forget the common decencies of life as to do so, the W.M. has ample power to deal with the situation. The real significance of the injunction, however, is that it implies that the mere presence of two brethren who are at variance will disturb the harmonious atmosphere of the meeting.
This is a purely spiritual atmosphere, and the belief that such disturbance would occur without any open disagreement, is correct. In short, such differences disturb the spiritual atmosphere, prevent concentration, and can be detected by sensitive individuals. Every Lodge has an "atmosphere of its own," and any sensitive man who comes to it can detect it* I have myself noticed the different "atmospheres" of various lodges, and also variations in that of my own.
Too much regard therefore cannot be paid to this rule, and if ignored the Lodge will certainly suffer. The C. is placed in the N.E. corner of the Lodge for the reason given in the ritual, but it is important to remember that he himself is building his own temple-a spiritual temple to the glory of God. Why should the cornerstone be laid in the N.E.? This was for a very practical reason; namely, so that the Operatives could work round with the Sun, and thus obtain the maximum amount of light.
Symbolically, it refers, of course, to the journey of the soul, which begins in the N., enters life at the East, at birth, and so proceeds to the West, where death ends our day. The position in which the C. stands is not only a sq., the emblem of rectitude and of God, but at the particular point he make a "lewis," or angle clamp, which binds together the life which has been (in the North) and his future life (in the East).
In physical life the North is pre-natal, but in the spiritual it is before we turned to better things. Above all, such a clamp gives rigidity and strength to the corners, and assures stability. It will be noted that this position in like manner makes a "footing stone." The testing of the candidate is explained, but perhaps I ought once more to remind my reader that it is absolutely essential that we should leave behind us the baleful gifts of the underworld and the canker of wealth, which destroy spirituality. The lecture on the working tools explains itself. It appears to be mainly 18th century work.

CHAPTER VII. THE CHARGE.
When the C. has been restored to his personal comfort he receives the charge. The first significant point is the phrase "Ancient, no doubt it is, as having subsisted from time immemorial." In "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods" I have endeavoured to show that this phrase is literally true , and a stong claim can be made that modern Freemasonry is the lineal descendant of the Ancient Mysteries, via the Roman Colleges of Architects, the Comacine Masons, and the Mediaeval Freemasons.
The other significant phrase is that relating to "The Ancient Landmarks." Much learned discussion has taken place concerning what these are. Common sense indicates the following points as obviously falling within this heading, whereas many others may be matters of opinion, on which brethren are entitled to differ. 1.-The signs, words and tokens. I
f these were changed it would shatter the universality of Freemasonry and prevent old masons recognising new ones, or members of various jurisdictions doin so. It must be acknowledged that the charge mad by the Ancients against the Moderns, that they had removed the Ancient Landmarks, was largely justified, for they appear to have transposed the w.s. in the first and second degrees. Still apparently, they did not entirely change them. 2 & 3.-Belief in God and a Future Life.
I these are removed, then the object and purpose of masonry is destroyed, since it is the "quest of knowledge of, and union with, God." Again, the elimination of the idea of a future life" woull destroy the teaching of one of the most important craft degrees. If these landmarks were removed, Freemasony would either perish, or else have to substitute a new object, as the Grand Orient of France has done. This having become atheistical, had to turn masonry into a secret political society, with disastrous results.
Hence it is that the Grand Lodge of England felt compelled to break off fraternal relations with that body. 4.-The Order of the Degrees. If these were reversed or changed it would reduce the whole system to nonsense. The remainder of this address is fairly clear as it stands. It contains excellent teaching, the meaning of which lies on the surface, and so we need spend no further space on it here. The first tracing board contains a great deal of useful instruction, but it is so seldom given in most lodges that we will pass it by, hoping at some future date to give it the attention it deserves.
The purpose of these tracing boards will be explained in the book dealing with the second degree, and we can therefore take leave of the Entered Apprentice. There is no pretence that we have exhausted the subject, much more could be written, but in a small book like this the author must restrict himself to giving an outline explanation, and suggestions for study, in the hope that his readers will follow the hints given, and discover further meanings for themselves.

CHAPTER VIII THE CLOSING OF THE FIRST DEGREE.
The first degree closing is remarkably short, and its meaning is fairly clear. The candidate has not yet advanced sufficiently far to be able to appreciate any more esoteric teaching. He is therefore given one brief and tremendous lesson. The Destructive side of the Deity is invoked, and the same officer, it must be remembered, also represents the Soul. Thus, at the very beginning of his symbolical career, the novice is warned of the inevitable end.
During the ceremony of his initiation the fact has been impressed upon him that his spiritual advancement is by means of his soul, i.e. when the S.W. invests him with his apron. Now he is warned that the same soul which may help him to rise, may also cause his spiritual destruction. But even more this fact should show him that, when he has learned all that life can teach him, the Soul acting on the instructions of God, calls him to other fields of usefulness. It should also be noted that the S.W. closes in the name of the G.A., and by command of the W.M. , thus reminding us of Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End

CONCLUSION.
This then concludes our consideration of the meaning of the first degree. The author has not tried to be exhaustive , and would stress the point that usually he has only attempted to give one esoteric meaning, although often there are other inner meanings, each within the other. But he trusts he will have helped his brethren to perceive that there are indeed deep and invaluable meanings hidden within our ritual, and that his readers, having once started on this line of study , will not rest content until they themselves have discovered further inner meanings. If this be so, then this little book will not have been in vain.

AL PRESIDENTE:MEDITANDO SUL TEATRINO DI ROMA E IL VITELLO D'ORO

Posted on Tuesday, October 10, 2006 at 11:33AM

Subject: AL PRESIDENTE:MEDITANDO SUL TEATRINO DI ROMA E IL VITELLO D'ORO...
To: presidenza.republica@quirinale.it
26 Luglio 2006 Oslo
documento dell' ORDO ILLUMINATORUM UNIVERSALIS

AL PRESIDENTE DELLA REPUBLICA ITALIANA
DAL DIRETTORE DELLA AS-HERMETIS FOUNDATION (OSLO)

MEDITANDO SUL TEATRINO DI ROMA E IL VITELLO D'ORO...

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Anti-Masonry and Anti-Semitism
Leon Zeldis, FPS, 33°
PSGC, Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite for the
State of Israel
Honorary Adjunct Grand Master

More than once in the course of the last two
centuries, anti-Masonry has been fused with an older
hatred, hatred of the Jews, that is to say
anti-Semitism. Probably, the irrational nature of both
phobias facilitates their juxtaposition. Be that as it
may, from the middle of the 19th Century, we are
witnessing an increasing wave of simultaneously
anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda. Possibly,
the paradigmatic work of this class of "literature" is
an opuscule entitled "The Protocols of the Wise Men of
Zion" sometimes also known as "The Protocols of the
Elders of Zion."

This is one of the most well-known literary
falsifications in history, based on plagiarism and
fraud from the very beginning of its gestation.
Nevertheless, this swindle has captivated the
imagination of many people who are sensible in other
respects, and it has been transformed into the "source
of indispensable information" in the baggage of all
the anti-Semites and anti-Masons.

dal Libro di Serge Hutin
GOVERNI OCCULTI E SOCIETA SEGRETE
(EDIZIONI MEDITERRANEE)

Tuttavia i famosi Protocolli dei Savi anziani di Sion
non sono che un falso.
Infatti il redattore non e' altri che Piotr Ivanovic
Rachovsky,che dal 1884 al 1902 diresse ,come abbiamo
gia' detto ,la sezione estera della polizia segreta
Zarista.l'Okhrana.Egli avrebbe molto semplicemente
plagiato e rimaneggiato un Dialogue aux enfers entre
Machiavel et Montesquieu(Dialogo agli inferi tra
Macchiavelli e Montesquieu) disponibile su ECIG,Genova
1995,si tratta di una curiosa opera del francese
Maurice Joly ,la morte del quale ,nel 1878,e' sempre
rimasta un mistero (aggiungiamo ???)
E' un fatto che il dialogo scritto da Joly era di per
se' un manuale per gli apprendisti dittatori del mondo
moderno.Nella settima parte,Macchiavelli,che si
suppone conversi con Montesquieu post mortem,dice
infatti ."CAPO DEL GOVERNO ,TUTTI I MIEI ORDINI
TENDEREBBERO ALLO STESSO FINE:LO SVILUPPO SMISURATO
DELLA PREPONDERANZA DELLO STATO ,SI DA FARNE IL
MASSIMO PROTETTORE,PROMOTORE E REMUNERATORE".
Tra i mezzi atti a provocare il livellamento delle
masse sono enumerati nella medesima settima parte:l'
aumento costante delle tasse,il privilegio sistematico
accordato all'industria e alla speculazione,che
trascina fatalmente al declino agricoltura e
artigianato.
Tuttavia ,da un esame piu' attento sia del dialogo che
dei Protocolli appare chiaro,secondo noi,come i
secondi non siano affatto un abile plagio del primo
,ma appaiono piuttosto come la tracrizione diretta
dellle decisioni prese durante le assemblee segrete
dei governanti occulti d'Europa.
Quali furono,dunque,i motivi che spinsero Rachovsky a
diffondere sistematicamente i Protocolli?Quelli di
servire le autorita' dell'Impero Russo appoggiando gli
antisemiti.Questi ultimi non potevano che reaggire
violentemente all'idea di un immensa cospirazione
ebraica su scala internazionale ,mirante a provocare
ovunque crisi economiche e rivoluzioni per giungere
infine al potere.Vi si trovano i temi della battaglia
ideologica sostenuta da precedenti opere,come quelle
di Gougenot des Mousseaux (Le juif,le judaisme et la
judaisation des peuples chrétiens,edito a Parigi nel
1869) o come il famoso France juive di Edouard
Drumont.In Germania,ancor piu' che in
Francia,l'antisemitismo si era compiaciuto
d'attribuire agli ebrei un osuro piano di
conspirazione internazionale.Romanzi come Biarritz di
"Sir John Retcliffe" ( pseudonimo dello scrittore
Herman Goedsche,Berlino1868),avevano contribuito alla
diffusione di quest'idea.Nel romanzo in questione
troviamo un capitolo,fantasioso al massimo,nel quale
e' descritta un'impressionante cerimonia segreta
notturna nel vecchio cimitero ebraico di Praga,dove si
raccolgono i tredici capi del governo invisibile.Delle
misteriose figure vestite d'un lungo mantello
bianco,scivolano ad un ad una nel cimitero per
riunirsi attorno ad un sinistro monumento
funebre.Quando si odono i dodici rintocchi della
mezzanotte ,l'ultimo personaggio il tredicesimo
,prende posto.Al segnale di uno strano suono metallico
una fiamma bluastra illumina la pietra tombale.Chi
sono questi tredici inquietanti personaggi? I membri
del governo segreto mondiale ebraico.Essi
rappresentano le dodici tribu' d'Israele ed il
tredicesimo rappresenta "gli scomparsi e gli
esiliati".Ognuno di loro getta sulla tomba una pietra
ed a questo punto dalla fiamma irreale sorge un enorme
vitello d'oro...

MA IL FRATELLO JOLY?
L'illustre Fratello Maurice Joly apparentemente faceva
parte di uno specifico Rito Massonico che apparteneva
fin dalla sua nascita in Italia e poi in Francia a una
specifica famiglia Ebrea collegata alla Lobby Sionista
e rivestiva la carica di Rosa+Croce e noi studiosi del
settore sappiamo benissimo come stanno le cose in base
al successivo collegamento tra il patto Sinarchico,i
Protocolli e il falso Priorato di Sion.

PAPUS I PROTOCOLLI E SION
In 1884 a certain copies of The Protocols of Zion
were found circulating amongst the members of a
Masonic lodge to which Papus himself belonged - the
lodge where the aforementioned legend of the wise
Egyptian sage named Ormus.

LA QUESTIONE SIONISTA
La domanda a lei caro illustrissimo Presidente della
Republica Italiana e la seguente: vogliamo continuare
ad adorare un vitello d'oro o finalmente ascoltare
tutti insieme la parola di Dio?

Questo potrebbe accadere come non mai nel nuovo
villaggio globale di internet ,ma anche e sopratutto
in maniera piu' Sacrale nel nuovo villaggio per gli
affari interreligiosi che si va via via costruendo a
ridosso del monte Sinai in Egitto grazie al supporto
di tutti i veri Illuminati delle varie fedi.
Personaggi chiari,onesti,mossi da intenzioni genuine,
desiderosi di comunicare in maniera chiara e autentica
il messaggio di pace e vera liberta' che Dio a per gli
uomini di buona volonta', non il fondamentalismo
inutile di questi tristi giorni che servono da
copertura per affari corporativi di natura oserei dire
criminale e senza scrupoli verso l'umanita' intera.
Non si puo' continuare a giocare con gli uomini e
gestire le Nazioni Unite come un business in giacca e
cravatta per ipocriti dell'ultima ora, bisogna invece
poter aprire un dialogo serio e costruttivo sulla
rinascita spirituale delle nuove generazion italiane
ed estere in pasto ad una minoranza satanica che
preferisce purtroppo tenersi il vitello d'Oro
Hollywoodiano, il materialismo sfrenato, e le farse
Medio Orientali.Farse che servono solamente per
gettare discredito sui veri credenti nell'unico Dio il
Grande Architetto degli Universi che e' uguale per
tutti che lo vogliate oppure no.
Noi giovani (ho solamente 36 anni) che ci sposiamo ora
e cerchiamo con mille difficolta di mettere su
famiglia come il sottoscritto vogliamo la pace nel
mondo caro Presidente, e siamo pronti piu' che mai a
lasciar da parte l'ipocrisia delle chiacchere
corporative per dar finalmente posto all'amore piu'
sincero verso Dio e alla carita' tra le genti di
questo pianeta,un pianeta' come lei ben sa sempre piu'
afflitto dal maligno e dai suoi compari.Quindi
Fratellanza Universale SI ma con il rispetto dovuto da
noi occidentali a culture millenarie che vengono
direttamente da Dio altissimo,il compassionevole,il
misericordioso e tutto questo in ricordo di sua
Santita' Giovanni Paolo II e del suo memorabile
incontro di Assisi.
A presto.
Cordialmente,
Leo Lyon Zagami

 

LA MASSONERIA IN VATICANO

Posted on Thursday, October 12, 2006

La rivista cattolica messicana `Processo` (No 832 del 12 Ottobre 1992) informava che la massoneria ha diviso il territorio Vaticano in otto quartieri,dove sono in funzione quattro logge massoniche del Rito Scozzese i cui adepti ,alti funzionari del piccolo Stato,standovi in forma indipendente non si riconoscerebbero fra loro,neanche battendo i colpi col polpastrello del police.Esse all`occorenza prendono contatti con altre logge massoniche delle singole nazioni,anzi la dove la Chiesa opera in clandestinita` a causa del Corano ,le relazioni con la Chiesa locale passano segretamente attraverso tale network.

Nel 1987 il gionalista massone Pier Carpi,confermando l`assunto del Fratello Fulberto Lauro secondo il quale alla Loggia P2 aderivano anche cardinali e vescovi in incongnito ,specificava che si chiama Loggia Ecclesia ed ` in contatto diretto con il Gran Maestro della Gran Loggia Unita d`Inghilterra il Duca Michele di Kent.Tale loggia opera in Vaticano dal 1971.Vi appartengono piu` di cento fra cardinali ,vescovi e monsignori di curia.Riescono a mantenere il piu` assoluto segreto , ma non al punto da sfuggire alle indagini degli uomini della potente `Opus Dei`.(L`Espresso,12 Dicembre 1987)

A me e` stato confermato sia da un alto dignitario della Gran Loggia Unita d`Inghilterra sia da un Porporato di mia conoscenza che esistono ben due logge di Rito Emulation che lavorano con i nomi `Simbolo` ed `Ekklesia` all`interno della citta` del Vaticano con una bolla americana,la Libera Muratoria in Vaticano sembra quindi operare nell`ipocrisia generale dal 1945, con il supporto interessato degli Stati Uniti d`America che la usa allegramente per i suoi scopi di manipolazione generale insieme alla perfida Albione.

Ci sono poi numerosi Vescovi della Chiesa Cattolica coinvolti nella massoneria Italiana che non fanno parte del GOI o della Gran Loggia d`Italia degli ALAM ma di formazioni minori, che pur essendo Regolari dal punto di vista constitutivo garantiscono una maggiore segrettezza e riservatezza per i propri affiliati, un Vescovo era presente a Roma in occasione del bicentenario della famosa Patente 1805 del R.S.A.A. proprio durante i funerali di Papa Giovanni Paolo II, come puo dimostrarvi chiaramente e senza ombre di dubbio, il seguente documento a firma dell'illustre Fratello Massone Klaus E. Schmidt, attuale capo della polizia segreta Albanese:

Report on the visit to the meeting in Rome 8 - 10 April 2005
Dear Bro. Gabirro:

I was received at the airport by GM Cesare Cocchi and some other Brr.
Due to the air traffic restrictions at the day of the funeral of the
Pope 14 delegations could not arrive in Rome for this event.

Delegations present: France, Spain, Serbia - Montenegro, Italy, UK

Ritual work: Saturday, 09 April 2005, from 09:00 - 12:30 and 16:00 - 18:00
The main work plan was delivered by Bro. Sarigu Armando from the
Orient of Cantanzaro (a Catholic Bishop !)
Greetings of the MHC of England and Wales during work were delivered

Formal dinners with all delegations: Friday, 8 April 2005, 20:00 -
23:00 and Saturday, 8 April 2005, 20:00 - 23:00.

Special contacts:

ITALY

Bro. Cesare Cocchi, GM
Bro. (Prof) Lello Gervasi
Bro. Antonio Notaro

FRANCE

Bro. Gerald Frapech, gfrapech@wanadoo.fr

SPAIN

Bro. Gaspar Guzzo Galvez
Bro. Rafael Roman Jara, GM of Andaluza
Bro. Jesus Corella Garcia, Grand Orador
Bro. Johnny Sheppard Regules

SERBIA

Bro. Milan Lajhner
Bro.Dragutin Zagorac, Grand Commandeur Serbia
Bro.Predrag Nikolic, Grand sec
Bro.Aleksandar D. Rodic

Some of the Brr from Serbia will pay me a visit to Tirana soon.

The Brr from the different delegations are seeking official close
cooperation with the MHC of England and Wales and expressed their wish
to stay in frequent contact with me. I told them that I will forward
this to the MHC in due time.

The delegation from Serbia handed over a present for the MHC which I
will deliver during me visit in London.

The entire meeting was blessed with an extremely good spirit and
closed in harmony.

Best frat. greetings
Klaus E. Schmidt

Ricordiamoci poi l`articolo publicato prima di morire dal povero Fratello Mino Pecorelli il 12 Settembre 1978 sul suo intrigante settimanale `OP` dal titolo `La Gran Loggia Vaticana`....121 nomi di esponenti vaticani...

vi segnalo inoltre riviste e rotocalchi che hanno scritto apertamente dell`infiltrazione massonica in Vaticano e potrebbero magari aiutarvi nella vostra ricerca su questo delicato argomento:

`Panorama` del 10 Agosto 1976,

`Introibo` del Luglio 1976

`Euroitalia` del 17 e 25 Agosto 1978`

`Osservatore Politico` del 12 Settembre 1978

`Oggi` del 17 Giugno 1981

`30 Giorni` dell`11 Novembre 1992

Ed infine la recente nomina a Gran Cappellano di un prete Cattolico alla Gran Loggia Regolare d'Italia nonostante la scomunica ufficiale di Papa Ratzinger. Poveri noi, abitiamo ormai nel Regno del Maligno e dell'ipocrisia, dove la doppia appartenenza Massoneria-Opus Dei e' quasi diventata un vanto.

Leo Lyon Zagami

Freemasonry,Satanism,and the Church of England

Posted on Thursday, October 12, 2006

Freemasonry, Satanism and the Church of England:
The correspondence between the Grand Secretary of the United Grand Lodge of England and the new Archbishop of Canterbury


"New Archbishop: Masons have no place in the Church "
by Jason Bennetto ("The Independent", 15 November 2002)

The new Archbishop of Canterbury has said he believes Christianity and Freemasonry are "incompatible" and has refused to appoint clergymen to senior posts because they are members of the Brotherhood.
Dr Rowan Williams, who becomes head of the Church of England next month, told The Independent that he is not in favour of ministers being Masons because it is a "secret organisation" whose views are questionable.
He also voiced doubts in a letter to Hugh Sinclair, who has been investigating the Brotherhood: "I have real misgivings about the compatibility of Masonry and Christian profession ... I have resisted the appointment of known Masons to certain senior posts."
Dr Williams' comments will renew controversy about the Freemasons. In the past 50 years some of its most senior members have been in the Church's higher echelons, and there have been links between the two organisations for centuries. Thousands of leading clergymen and churchgoers are among its 350,000 British members.
The Rev Gregory Cameron, chaplain to Dr Williams, said: "He questions whether it's appropriate for Christian ministers to belong to secret organisations. He also has some anxiety about the spiritual content of Masonry."
A spokesman for the Archbishop said he was "worried about the ritual elements in Freemasonry - which some have seen as possibly Satanically inspired - and how that sits uneasily with Christian belief". He continued: "The other idea is that because they are a society, there could be a network that involves mutual back-scratching, which is something he would be greatly opposed to."
A spokesman for the Freemasons in England said: "As far as we are concerned, there is no incompatibility between Christianity and our organisation whatsoever."

****

The Most Reverend and Rt. Hon. Archbishop of Canterbury
Lambeth Palace
London
SE1 7JU

2 December 2002

Dear Archbishop

I write in response to the reports in The Independent newspaper of your views on Freemasonry.

According to the reports:

a) you have doubts on the compatibility of Freemasonry with Christianity and believe that elements of the ritual may have a Satanic basis

b) you believe Freemasonry to be both a secret society and a self-serving network

c) you have in the past not appointed to sensitive senior posts candidates who are Freemasons and intend to continue that practice.

For nearly 300 years Freemasonry has existed in an organised way in England and Wales. During that period hundreds of thousands of committed Christians (clergy and laity) have found no incompatibility between their Christian faith and the principles and practices of Freemasonry. Indeed many have testified that their membership of Freemasonry has strengthened their faith and, in some cases, brought them back into active church membership.

The prime and inalienable qualification for admission into Freemasonry is a belief in God. An individual's religion is a matter for his conscience, and Freemasonry will not interfere in or in any way comment on religious matters. As a result our membership encompasses Christians of all denominations, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, etc., who meet together in harmony, knowing that their religions differ but not allowing those differences to come between them on Masonic occasions.

The suggestion that Freemasonry is "Satanically inspired" in its rituals would be risible were it not for the fact that it questions the basis of the faiths of over 300,000 Freemasons under the United Grand Lodge of England, whatever their religion may be. Even a small amount of elementary research would have shown how nonsensical this dreadful assertion is, and would have enabled you to avoid giving deep and gratuitous offence to so many who are encouraged in every form of Freemasonry to be true to their God above all other considerations.

As for the claim that Freemasonry is a "secret organisation", it must surely be a very peculiar "secret" society which makes its rules and aims available to the public; publishes annual lists of its national and local leaders together with the dates and places of meeting of all of its units; opens its national headquarters to the general public on a daily basis; maintains national and local web sites on the Internet; gives regular briefings to the media; and provides spokesmen to speak anywhere about its nature and activities. Each Freemason is at perfect liberty to tell whomsoever he pleases that he is a Freemason. Indeed Freemasonry is one of the few organisations to have been specifically declared not to be a secret society. In July 2001 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that (a) Freemasonry was neither a secret, criminal nor an illegal organisation, and (b) that in making appointments or promotions it is illegal to discriminate against a candidate simply because he is a Freemason.

Rather than being a self-serving network, the opposite is true. On at least six occasions during the process of becoming a Freemason the new member is told that it is contrary to our principles and rules to use his membership to gain any form of advantage for himself or anyone else. Any attempt to do so will result in disciplinary proceedings, with sanctions running from admonition to irrevocable expulsion.

I have enclosed two booklets and some leaflets which explain the background to Freemasonry and how it relates to society in general. The booklet "Your Questions Answered" deals in particular with the myths which surround Freemasonry.

I also extend to you an invitation to meet privately with some senior Freemasons to discuss at the true source any doubts you may have, in preference to simply putting your faith in secondary and unreliable information. Your three immediate predecessors each came here for lunch and found it an interesting, stimulating and enjoyable experience. I realise that you have much to consider at the present, and that it may not be convenient to accept this invitation immediately. I trust that you will permit me to write to you again after your Enthronement to reaffirm our wish to welcome you here and show that your doubts about Freemasonry have no justification in fact.

Yours sincerely

R A H Morrow
Grand Secretary

****

R. A. H. Morrow
Grand Secretary, United Grand Lodge of England
Freemason's Hall
Great Queen Street
London
WC2B 5AZ

23 January 2003


Dear Mr Morrow

I have been sorry to learn of the distress of a considerable number of Freemasons. It is true that a great deal of upset and hurt has been caused by the newspaper reports about my purported views on freemasonry. In replying to private correspondence, I had no intention of starting a public debate nor of questioning the good faith and generosity of individual freemasons and I regret the tone and content of the media coverage.

Much of the distress has been due to what amounts to a serious misrepresentation of views I am supposed to hold. The quoted statements about the "satanic" character of masonic ceremonies and other matters did not come from me and do not represent my judgement. Since my late father was a member of the Craft for many years, I have had every opportunity of observing the probity of individual members.

Where anxieties exist, however, they are in relation not to Freemasonry but to Christian ministry, and. my letter simply reflected a personal unease about Christian ministers subscribing to what could be and often is understood (or misunderstood) as a private system of profession and initiation, involving the taking of oaths of loyalty. Concerns like these have led to a number of debates within the church in recent years and it is clear that there are still widely differing views ? held with sincerity and honesty ? about the compatibility of certain aspects of Freemasonry with Christian belief, ministry and, service.

My statement about resisting the appointment of freemasons to certain posts in Wales needs to be understood against the background of the belief that I and the church had deliberately advanced the cause of Freemasons. In saying that I had resisted the appointment of Freemasons to certain posts I was not suggesting that people had been blackballed, but asserting that I was satisfied that membership of the Craft was neither a disqualifier nor an advantage.

I welcome the manner in which Freemasons have engaged in debate and especially the increasing openness of recent years. Their commitment to charitable causes and the welfare of the wider community is beyond question.

Yours sincerely,

+ Rowan Cantuar [Williams]

Archbishop of Canterbury

25th of January 2005 and the creation of the Masonic High Council - REGULAR GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND

Posted on Thursday, October 12, 2006
 

To all concerned Masons

Masonic High Council for England,
Wales the Channel Islands and Districts Overseas
ANCIENT AND HONOURABLE FRATERNITY OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS
A group of Regular Master Masons, disillusioned, disappointed and concerned by the state of the Administration and Management of the Masonic Order in general and the Craft in particular, assembled at Freemasons Arms, Convent Garden in London in order to put forward their legitimate concerns and to discuss and debate those issues being ignored by the Craft Administration. This Assembly of Masons at London, with the assistance of various highly respected and knowledgeable Brethren, Constituted and Consecrated a Masonic High Council for England, Wales and the Channel Islands in Due Form on the 25th of January, 2005.

The Masonic High Council is a de jure and de facto Sovereign Masonic Body with jurisdiction over the Craft in England and Wales and has issued a warrant for the Creation of its first Lodge, named Grand Lodge No.1, at the orient of London. Three other regularly established Lodges have requested to join the Masonic High Council.

Once this process in completed it is the aim of the MHC to establish a Regular Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England in Accordance with the Old Constitutions.

The MHC/RGLE is a truly independent and self-governing body with authority over Craft Freemasonry in the symbolic degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason.

The MHC/RGLE is a male only organization.

The MHC/RGLE requires of all its members a belief in a Supreme Being or Creator.

The Volume of the Sacred Law is present and open at all its Lodge meetings and all Oaths and Obligations are made upon it.

The Masonic light and symbols are present at all Lodge meetings.

The discussion of religion and politics within MHC/RGLE Lodges is prohibited.

The MHC/RGLE observes the Ancient Landmarks and Old Constitutions and insists on them being observed within all its Lodges.

Concern for the Craft

Thoughtful Brethren have long endured serious dissatisfaction with the administration and state of the Craft in England. It was in direct response to these concerns that on the 25th of January this year a number of Master Masons came together to constitute a Masonic High Council, to prepare a firm Foundation for a Regular Grand Lodge of England true to the Ancient Constitutions and fundamental spiritual values of the Craft.

At the core of these concerns is the heartfelt lament that Masonry in England has effectively degenerated into a social and dining club, meeting upon the excuse of a initiating yet another candidate into a society whose only apparent purpose is to carry out initiations, whilst seeking to justify its existence through the business of institutional charity. And where the heirarchy classically maintains discipline through the assiduous manufacture of ‘honours’ whilst ignorantly sacrificing ancient form and spiritual value in obeisance to transient political correctness.

Harsh words indeed, and doubtless the majority of English Masons will persist in their disinclination to give any thought to there being anything more to the Order than this. But whatever it is, and however socially valuable in some respects it may be, it isn’t Freemasonry.

If the words of our initiation ceremonies are actually heeded, rather than airily dismissed as so much quaint mumbo-jumbo, we learn that we are speculative Masons. And as speculative Masons we are meant to moralise, philosophise and speculate upon the symbols of the Craft, as traditionally practised in Lodges of old, before the initiation sausage-machine had been cranked up. If Freemasonry means anything it means the making of the whole man, from rough ashlar to polished stone. It implies a psychological and spiritual journey through an esoteric interpretation of our rich symbology. For too long have English Freemasons wishing to pursue such studies in a working setting been effectively disenfranchised.

Thus the Masonic High Council, after heartfelt debate and consideration, regretfully concluded that our duty to the Craft in general and to our Brethren and to ourselves in particular far outweighed attachment to the United Grand Lodge of England which we, and very many others, believe has long neglected the core, esoteric values of Freemasonry and now represents little more than a grandiose façade of what was and what might have been. The almost overwhelming response received from numerous Brethren, both in England and overseas, has more than confirmed us in this belief.

The Masonic High Council for England, Wales the Channel Islands and Districts Overseas.

“THE ACT OF REGULARITYâ€

To amend what has happen amiss, and to hold a yearly communication and General Assembly of Masons at London, England.

1 – The Reinstatement of the full wording on the delivery of the Masonic Penalties.

2 – The freedom and right of a Lodge to Practice its Masonic ritual of choice, such as York, Ancient and Accepted, Ancient and Primitive, Adoniram, Swedish, Rectified Scottish Rite, Schroeder Rite, etc…

3 – The right of every Master Mason to use and chose an apron design as long it is decorated with symbols that relate to the Craft.

4 – No interference of the Craft in the so-called higher degrees and vice versa.

5 – An equilibrium between Masonic work, instruction and science and charitable and social duties.

6 – The option of reading the Masonic ritual in Lodge.

7 – Greater autonomy for the Symbolic Lodges.

8 – Better and more transparency in Grand Lodge decisions and affairs.

9 – Devolution of the Masonic Library, Museum and archives to the Craft legal owners.

10 – To permit all aspects of the esoteric Masonic tradition, such as symbols, words, uses and customs.

11 – Freedom of association outside of the Craft.

12 – To promote the spirit of Brotherhood among Freemasons.

13 - The reinstatement of the Mark Mason Ceremony as a complement of the Fellow Craft Degree.

Lastly, this our Regulations shall be Recorded in our Registry, to show posterity how much we desire to revive the Ancient Craft upon true Masonical principles.

 

FOR MORE INFO ON THE MASONIC HIGH COUNCIL AND THE REGULAR GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND PLEASE CHECK:
http://www.rgle.org.uk/

THE XIo DEGREE OF THE OTO AND THE VATICAN interview with Senior OTO Caliphate Officer

Posted on Wednesday, October 11, 2006

 

THE XIo DEGREE OF THE ORDO TEMPLI ORIENTIS AND THE VATICAN
interview with Senior OTO Caliphate officer by Leo Young
 
 Did the original Swiss-based Reuss branch of the OTO initiate candidates in a homosexual XI degree ritual? No. There is no evidence for this whatsoever that I am aware of. Reuss was accused of incorporating the mutual touching of phalluses into his rituals, but I believe this was a smear campaign rather than an intimation of something queer going on. After reviewing the available evidence, I believe the XIo was entirely Crowley's invention, the basic formula having been explored prior to his membership in OTO (See the Vision & the Voice --Crowley was initiated into OTO about 4 months later, and received the IXo about 4 years after that.) In any case, the XIo is not, strictly speaking, a homosexual degree -- I'll go into that below. Do or did any other OTO jurisdictions, contemporary or defunct (e.g. OTO-Antigua, etc.) initiate candidates in a homosexual XI degree ritual? I'm not so sure about that, but it is my impression that only C.S. Jones was ever entrusted with the XIo secrets by Crowley, if indeed anyone was. This impression follows primarily from instructions to Jones in Liber Aleph. There have been many attempts to incorporate what others see the XIo into magical orders -- sometimes it involves homosexuality (as in Bertiaux's group), and sometimes it doesn't (as in SOTO,TOTO). IMO, there is no reason to believe that any of these various XIos have anything much to do with Crowley's idea of the XIo.Does the ©OTO currently initiate candidates with a homosexual XI degree ritual? I believe there are members of "cOTO" who currently hold the XIo. That degree was not exclusively homosexual in Crowley's time since he records many XIo operations with women in his magical diaries. I don't believe it is "homosexual" in its current incarnation in the Caliphate OTO, but this is so primarily to bring it into line with Crowley's vision -- there is no reason homosexuals can't be admitted to the degree of course,and to some extent, the sex magick of the XIo is better suited to homosexuals (IMO) than heterosexuals. If the ©OTO does not currently initiate candidates with a homosexual XI degree ritual, did it ever do so (e.g. when Grady McMurtry rather than William Breeze was head of the order)? Grady McMurtry (at Patrick King's demand, by his own admission) chartered an experimental XIo sanctuary run by Patrick King called the "Rite of Shiraz." Some members of the Caliphate OTO around at the time felt that Grady chartered the Rite of Shiraz so he could wash his hands of the degree feeling that it was homosexual and therefore something he didn't wantassociated with him. In any case, the Rite of Shiraz was pronounced defunct by the current OHO for various reasons -- primarily, I think (I haven't asked him, so this is just speculation more than anything, although I think there's an old issue of the Magical Link that contains a note to this effect), because it failed to really live up to thenature of the XIo as Crowley understood it. There's a great deal of information about the XIo in Crowley's published works, actually, and having seen some of the materials that Patrick King produced, I happen to agree. If the ©OTO did at one time initiate candidates with a homosexual XI degree ritual, and does not do so now, when was the ritual terminated and what reason was given for the termination? I could be wrong, but I seem to remember that the Rite of Shiraz was declared defunct -- a failed experiment basically -- in 1987. Hymenaus Beta has publicly claimed XIo, so I think it's entirely probable that there is currently a functioning body of XIo initiates, though it must be relatively small and it seems to be present in what Crowley defined with his own words as the Black Lodge of the Vatican, a place of equal demonic strenght that Crowley respected very much.The rise of the Pink Palace phenomena within the US Catholic Church in the 60's made it possible for the OTO XIo degree to infiltrate the Vatican even further as demonstrated by the recent scandals in the United States Catholic clergy  and then  find support in the already existing Black Lodge of homosexuals and pedophiles residing since time immemorial in the Vatican HQ's in Rome.

Leo Young

Crowley and Satanism, compiled by P.R. Koenig ( a Jewish satanist secretely working for the illuminati)

Posted on Wednesday, October 11, 2006 at 09:36PM

To: "leo young"
From: "Peter-R. Koenig"
Subject: Satanism and Thelema

regarding satanism and crowley, i have written a short summary on all
this, that is: quotations of his secret diaries.

anyway, here is my summary on satanism:

-------------------------

Crowley and Satanism, compiled by P.R. Koenig

"I was compelled to set myself in opposition to the Bible itself," "I
simply went over to Satan's side; and to this hour I cannot tell why,"
(The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, edited by John Symonds/Kenneth
Grant, London 1969, 67, 73).

Crowley identified Aiwaz, the outer-human-intelligence who allegedly
dictated the Book of the Law in 1904 with/as "Thee Satan my saviour",
diary entry 15th March 1922. Crowley saw Aiwaz, His Holy Guardian Angel,
as the messenger/avenger of Hoor-Paar-Krat, ie Set, god of destruction,
brother and murderer of Osiris. Set is Shaitan, the role-model for the
christian Satan. Crowley referenced this also when he credited "thanks
to Aiwaz, our Lord God the Devil," or: "I sing for God, our Devil, our
Lord, Aiwaz," etc. (Magical Records, 22nd and 28th July 1920.
Similarily also in Symonds/Grant: "Magical and Philosophical Commentaries,"
Montreal 1974, 81). See also Crowley's Liber Samekh/The Bornless Ritual:
"Thou Satan-Sun [...] Satan, my Lord! The Lust of the Goat!".

Diary, 30th June 1920: "When I was [Eliphas] Levi, I drew myself as
Ayin or Baphomet, 'The Devil', with Beast's Head. This is the Beast
throned, crowned, exalted; the leaper, the erect, the butter-in. Her womb is
my city, Babel. This Ayin is then my Phallic Will, my Holy Guardian
Angel, Aiwaz, who was afterwards called Satan." Diary 19th/20th January
1918 about Baphomet: "I find 729 = the curse of Satan! Of course."

His sexmagickal formula was summoned in ShTN (Shaitan, Set, Satan): Sh
the magical fire, T the lion snake, N as the Scarlet Woman. Defining
himself as To Mega Therion equates him with Shaitan. Crowley is Aiwaz and
equally Thelema in persona: Diary 22nd October 1920: "I am the Beast
[...] I am Thelema" and on 27th May 1917: "I myself AIWAZ have been
considering all the time how to act as to Crowley's body and mind." On 14th
June 17: "I am getting quite to the point of habitual recognition of
myself as AIWAZ."

----------------------------------------------------

The Womb of Thelema,
questions by P.R. Koenig, reactions by Thelemites

The Womb Of Thelema

"I was compelled to set myself in opposition to the Bible itself," "I
simply went over to Satan's side; and to this hour I cannot tell why,"
(The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, edited by John Symonds/Kenneth
Grant, London 1969, 67, 73).

* Didn't he at that time think the anglican church was 'satanic',
he himself coming from a Plymouth brethren background?

Crowley identified Aiwaz, the outer-human-intelligence who allegedly
dictated the Book of the Law in 1904 with/as "Thee Satan my saviour",
diary entry 15th March 1922. Crowley saw Aiwaz, His Holy Guardian Angel,
as the messenger/avenger of Hoor-Paar-Krat, i.e. Set, god of
destruction, brother and murderer of Osiris. Set is Shaitan, the role-model for
the christian Satan. Crowley also referred to this when he wrote in his
Magical Records, 22nd and 28th July 1920: "thanks to Aiwaz, our Lord God
the Devil," or: "I sing for God, our Devil, our Lord, Aiwaz," etc. (see
also in Symonds/Grant: "Magical and Philosophical Commentaries,"
Montreal 1974, 81). Read Crowley's Liber Samekh/The Bornless Ritual: "Thou
Satan-Sun [...] Satan, my Lord! The Lust of the Goat!".

AC also states in Book IV that a devil exalted to the status of a God
cannot be considered to be a devil anymore. Moreover, Liber Samekh
contains both polarities of God and Devil, the ritual intends to transcend
both. Mentioning the term 'Satan' or 'Devil' doesn't make one a
satanist.
* Do You know much about the Yezidi, true Satan worshippers, where
Satan originated in name? Have you any idea what it would mean to set
yourself in opposition to the Bible itself, THE BOOK, so to speak, of
power in the world today, that is, Western World? If Crowley was working
with the powers that be, than why would he set himself in opposition to
the Bible? If he wanted to make a complete demarkation in the religious
belief of the time, than he would certainly bring back, the worth of
the Body, the body which was so ignored and rejected by Constantines new
religeon, THE BIBLE.
Diary, 30th June 1920: "When I was [Eliphas] Levi, I drew myself as
Ayin or Baphomet, 'The Devil', with the Beast's Head. This is the Beast
throned, crowned, exalted; the leaper, the erect, the butter-in. Her
womb is my city, Babel. This Ayin is then my Phallic Will, my Holy
Guardian Angel, Aiwaz, who was afterwards called Satan."
* Referring to the Tarot card of 'The Devil' with a whole complex
of meanings surrounding that, doesn't make one a satanist.
Diary 19th/20th January 1918 about Baphomet: "I find 729 = the curse
of Satan! Of course."
* he identifies Baphomet® with the Tarot card of the Devil.
His sexmagickal formula was summoned in ShTN (Shaitan, Set, Satan): Sh
the magical fire, T the lion snake, N as the Scarlet Woman. Defining
himself as To Mega Therion equates him with Shaitan. Crowley is Aiwaz and
equally Thelema in person: Diary 22nd October 1920: "I am the Beast
[...] I am Thelema" and on 27th May 1917: "I myself AIWAZ have been
considering all the time how to act as to Crowley's body and mind." On 14th
June 17: "I am getting quite to the point of habitual recognition of
myself as AIWAZ."

Let's assume that Crowley knew what he was doing. Liber AL was a poem
developed over a longer period of time. All terms and ideas exist in
context (preexisting ideas based on "other" sources).
Did Crowley (fueled by his own ego's fantasies) use on purpose a
"satanic" context in order to put himself and his followers under the stigma
of a masochistic religion?

The embrace of satanism by Aleister Crowley demonstrates the degree of
inescapable influence his religious upbringing had on him, and that he
was unable to remove himself from within the ideological box formed by
the biblical religions. He joked about it, and made many contradictory
statements concerning biblical myth, yet it's clear which basket he
placed his eggs in. The challenge for 21st century Thelemites is to
extricatethemselves from the ideological box by abandoning the
sinkingbiblical barge for higher ground before it sinks entirely--it's already
listing to one side. TBOTL provides the basis needed to moveforward without
constantly being pulled backwards, which is the onlything tradition and
dogma are really good for.
With references to Satan and Satanism absent from TBOTL, there is no
direct literary connection between Satanism and Thelema. The Biblical
characters the Beast and Scarlet Woman are generally perceived as
being in league with the Devil, which makes it easy for critics of TBOTL to
associate it with Satanism. The Beast and the Scarlet Woman could just
as easily and accurately be viewed as personal monikers for Aleister
Crowley and his wife Rose-
* If there is no necessity please provide some precendence in any
literature for the use of these ideas. They are clearly references to
the Apocalypseof St. John. the Beast and Scarlet Woman are a pair of
male/female images taken from Revelations due to the appeal the
characters had for Crowley, a result of his fascination with the myth, and his
life-long fantasy of being the Beast.
to ignore the obvious biblical references seems determined to be pretty
silly. All terms and ideas exist in context. A reader cannot understand
any term unless they have some preexisting idea based onpreviously
experienced sources. Since the only sources for these ideas are the Bible
or literature directly dependant on the Bible your assertion here is
false on its face.
The source of an image can, and is often secondary, or even irrelevant
to the use and purpose intended by an author or artist for the image.
In this case, the origin of the Beast and the Scarlet Woman as Biblical
imagery is irrelevant to the contextual meaning of the images provided
by the author of TBOTL. The Beast and Scarlet Woman are equated to the
Sun and Moon, the two most universally recognized symbols of the
male/female forces found in nature. Better yet, the author goes one step
further and equates the Beast and Scarlet Woman to the two most
widely-known images of the male/female counterparts in ancient Egypt: the winged
sun--the winged secret flame--and the arched figure of Nuit--the
stooping starlight.
Provided the fictional characters had been known at the time TBOTL was
created, the author could have used the characters Blondie and Dagwood,
Lucy and Dezi, or Popeye and Olive Oil--they can all serve the same
purpose, with exception of the fact that using the Beast and Scarlet Woman
appealed to Aleister Crowley's ego, and fueled his fantasies, thereby
assuring his cooperation.
There is want to divorce Crowley from authorship of the BOTL but even
assuming some seperate praeter human authorship assumes the words the
author uses have contextual meaning. As no other contextual meaning is
even vaguely possible here, blaming Crowley is absurd at best.
-there is no necessity in projecting Biblical myth into the pages of
TBOTL. On the other hand, Crowley relished his assumption of the role of
the Beast of Revelations, and the role of the anti-christ. Crowley also
identified his perceived Holy Guardian Angel--Aiwass--as being a
core-figure at the heart of what he fantasized was the origin of
Satanism, the worship of Shaitan in Mesopotamia. Any connections that exist
between Thelema as it is known today and Satanism rests squarely on the
shoulders of Aleister Crowley.
Jesus and Mary are mentioned in TBOTL. How about the Desolation of
Abomination, this has a purely and exclusively biblical origin. The Quran
isn't mentioned in the Book of the Law either.
The issue of Satanism and Thelema existing as bedfellows certainly
raises an interesting question. If the author of TBOTL had intended for the
book to act as a catalyst for the integration of the world's religions,
he certainly seems bent on self-defeat in that area of achievement.
Invoking the names of the two characters most dreaded by readers of the
New Testament, combined with vicious attacks leveled
at religions' demigods, all but insures that TBOTL will be viewed
negatively by most people.

PRKoenig:
#> ...Set is Shaitan, the role-model for the christian Satan....

I gather that a good number of Satanists believe this, some of them
Setians. my research into the history of the personification of evil
through time does not lead me to this simplistic conclusion and I would
appreciate additional reflection from any reading this.
no doubt some post-Christians and Neopagan Setians think that this is
the case, but I'm not aware that the most recent Egyptology or
investigations into the roots of the Christian Bogey play out so clearly as a
single derivation of Satan from this particular deity.
corrections welcomed.

Becky Brook
< beckybrook@a...>:
# Do You know much about the Yezidi, true Satan worshippers,
# where Satan originated in name?

everything I encounter about the Yezidis indicates their encompassing
enshrinement of the Most High God and respects to its Creation that
include the anti-God or Force For Waywardness and Sin. that they are
interested in appeasing or assisting this has been used by Satanists to call
them kindred, and surely there is some kind of relationship
amongst those who have in mind the assistance to the demonic. yet it
would be foolhardy to presume that such activities are usually
monolatric, or in this case strictly demonolatric (worshipping one being, let
alone merely the Adversary, Iblis, or whatever they do).

  1. Have you any idea what it would mean to set yourself in opposition

  2. to the Bible itself, THE BOOK, so to speak, of power in the world

  3. today, that is, Western World?

a good many secular humanists have made an effort to do so, and even to
go further and educate the world in materialistic empiricism. it is my
contention that dispensing with the Evul Book and The Books of the
Fathers of the Religions of the Book has come due. for this reason such
texts as promote their superiority may be mocked and burnt in revelry and
without compunctions about their sacrality to us.

  1. If Crowley was working with neters, that is, the powers that be,

I have absolutely no reason to think he was.

  1. [then] why would he set himself in opposition to the Bible?

quite simply, the powers that be are not so associated. in large they
are not associated with any single cult or culture, even with any single
species. anthropomorphism is almost as popular as insular cult
dogmaticism and intertribal warfare over symbol.

  1. If he wanted to make a complete demarkation in the religious

  2. belief of the time,

with EyeofHoor, I echo the commentary that Crowley was boxed into his
Christian religion and constitutes a kind of Bridge or Tunnel from it
into an enhanced subjective landscape. it does not appear that he himself
fully navigated said Bridge, but that he may have made it available to
others (as LaVey did with his CoSatanism) is remarkable and admirable
to a degree.

  1. [then] he would certainly bring back, the worth of the Body,

  2. the body which was so ignored and rejected by Constantines

  3. new religeon, THE BIBLE.

anything associated with it ought be considered subsumed to it.
so many times Christians have sought to recapture something
fundamental (discipline, focus on the changing scripture or its
enshrined cementation, feminine-progeny-attractors, etc.), that any particular
novel emphasis is one more of a myriad lineage composite at least
trying to draw from it (as in syncretic pursuits like Hermeticism or
applied within Christianity proper).

--------------------------------------------------------

attached you also find several online postings from high degree members
of the 'caliphate'.
regarding satanism in Thelema: all OTO people are heavily against the
Temple of Set and the Church of Satan: double membership is strictly
forbidden.

i hope that i have helped you bit. if you forward this email: please do
so in extenso/complete.

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Suchergebnis 16
Von:Bill Heidrick (heidrick@well.sf.ca.us)
Betrifft:Re: More fake AC bio (was: Need advice regarding Co-Masonry)
View: Complete Thread (2 Beiträge)
Original Format
Newsgroups:alt.freemasonry, alt.magick, alt.satanism
Datum:1994-11-19 09:14:22 PST
93

Tim Maroney (tim@toad.com) writes:

>The Simon Necronomicon was published in 1979 or 1980, more
>than thirty years after Crowley's death.

Not only that, Crowley would likely have considered it revolting.

>Crowley was a Mason, and was granted degrees in numerous
>rites of Masonry.

Well, yes, but not in regular GLOE Masonry, it would appear. His
French Lodge was recently made regular, but that isn't retroactive.

>His groups, the A.'. A.'. and O.T.O., use Masonic
>symbolism extensively.

Quite true, although much more so of O.T.O. than of A.'.A.'., honor
points excluded. Consider also that Crowley's main book: "Liber AL vel
Legis" is called "The Book of the Law" and is used in those O.T.O.
initiations as the VSL.

>There's little doubt that to Crowley, "Satan" was an entirely
>positive symbol, and he repeatedly identified himself with it.

Tim, I disagree with you on this utterly. It simply isn't true.
Crowley did use "Satan" as the subject of poetry and irony, but
he denied the existence of the critter. "Entirely positive"
is belied by may instances of his usage. A study of incidence
of the words: "Lucifer", "Satan" and "Christ" in 20 megs of A.C.'s
Stuff here on disk came out with the following:

lucifer ---- 22 occurrences
satan ---- 165 occurrences
christ ---- 1,260 occurrences

Analysis of "lucifer" finds (some from Crowley's translation of E.Levi's
The Key of the Mysteries in Equinox Vol. I, #10 supplement):

similes (one is a duplicate)---------------------------------- 3
Satanists called Christians ---------------------------------- 1
name of a person (Fr. Lucifer) ------------------------------- 1
figures of speech (e.g. left Lucifer at the door) ------------ 1
poetic salutation (O' Lucifer) ------------------------------- 1
Lucifer saved eventually (see below)-------------------------- 1
Lucifer is not Satan (see below)------------------------------ 1
"Daughter of Lucifer and accomplice of Prometheus" ----------- 1
Rhetorical question ------------------------------------------ 1
Book review, scurrilous remark ------------------------------- 1
Book review, non scurrilous ---------------------------------- 1
Warning against pride ---------------------------------------- 1
Poetic image linking Lucifer, Satan and Christ (below) ------- 2 (dup)
Not Satan, but one of the princes of evil -------------------- 1
As Brahma (part of a general assault on religions) (below) --- 2 (dup)
As planet Venus ---------------------------------------------- 1
Acceptance of common usage (MTP below) out of frustration ---- 1
Other poet using the word "Lucifer" -------------------------- 1

Equinox Vol. I, No. 10, page 23 suppliment:

Lucifer, of whom the dark ages have made the genius of evil, will be truly
the angel of light when, having conquered liberty at the price of infamy, he
will make use of it to submit himself to eternal order, inaugurating thus the
glories of voluntary obedience.

Ibid:

The fallen angel is not Lucifer the light-bearer; it is Satan, who
calumniated love.

Eq. I, 4:

By Thy most secret and Holy Name of Apophis be Thou blessed, Lucifer, Star
of the Dawn, Satan-Jeheshua, Light of the World!

Eq. I, 5:

And Satan is worshipped by men under the name of Jesus; and Lucifer is
worshipped by men under the name of Brahma; and Leviathan is worshipped by
men under the name of Allah; and Belial is worshipped by men under the name
of Buddha.

Magick in Theory and Practice (MTP):

This has led to so much confusion of thought that THE BEAST 666 has
preferred to let names stand as they are, and to proclaim simply that AIWAZ
--- the solar-phallic-hermetic "Lucifer" is His own Holy Guardian Angel, and
"The Devil" SATAN or HADIT of our particular unit of the Starry Universe.

Conclusion: Except for the MTP reference, which context places as a
defiance of popular prejudice more than an _expression of belief, Crowley
did not appear to make much use of "Lucifer" as a serious subject. Most
references combining "Lucifer" and "Satan", few though they are,
differentiate between the two.

-------------------

The references to "satan" are more varied. Most are simile, metaphor,
derogatory or associations of "Satan" to Christianity. Some appear to
use the term in a non-traditional fashion. Examples of the latter below.
There are a couple of poems dedicated to Satan, but they appear to be
intended either for humor or shock value. Satan is also associated with
Saturn in Astrology, the Sun in mythology (not Astrology), and several
philosophical ideas and ancient deities not relevant to Christian
concepts of a Devil or Personification of Evil. The first example below
associates "Satan" to a geographic direction.

Comment on Liber AL:

It is also to be considered that Nu is connected with North, while
Had is Sad, Set, Satan, Sat (equals "Being" in Sanskrit), South.

Confessions:

I simply went over to Satan's side; and to this hour I cannot tell why.

My satanism did not interfere with it at all; I was trying to take the
view that the Christianity of hypocrisy and cruelty was not true
Christianity.

The problem of life was not how to satanize, as Huysmans would have
called it; it was simply to escape from the oppressors and to enjoy the
world without any interference of spiritual life of any sort.

For instance, if I mention a beetle I expect the reader to understand
an allusion to the sun at midnight in its moral sense of Light-in-Darkness;
if a pelican, to the legend that she pierces her own breast to feed her
young on her heart's bleed; if a goat, to the entire symbolism of
Capricornus, the god Pan, Satan or Jesus (Jesus being born at the winter
solstice, when the sun enters Capricorn); if a pearl, to the
correspondences of that stone as a precious and glittering secretion of
the oyster, by which I mean that invertebrate animal life of man, the
Nephesch.

Equinox I, 1:

[Or vice versa, friend, if you are a Satanist; 'tis a matter of
words --- words --- words.

Eq. I, 10:

and Satan is only so incoherent and so formless because he is made up
of all the rags of ancient theogonies.

Eq. I, 2:

Thus it happens that until you become God, God Himself is in Reality
The Tempter, Satan, and the Prince of Darkness, who, assuming the
glittering robes of Time and Space, whispers in our ears: "Millions and
millions and millions of eternities are as nothingness to me; then how
canst thou, thou little mote dancing in the beam of mine eye, hope to
span me?

Eq. I, 5:

SMAL, Satan so-called, but really only Samael, the accuser of the
brethren, unpopular with the Rabbis because their consciences were
not clear.

Also OMMV SThH, Ommo Satan, the Satanic Trinity of Typhon, Apophis,
and Besz; also ShM IHShVH, the name of Jesus.

Gospel According to St. Bernard Shaw:

Refreshed, he continued: "The men who are willing by this means to
become the saviours of their country shall be called the Synagogue of
Satan, so as to keep themselves from the friendship of the fools who
mistake names for things.

MTP:

This "Devil: is called Satan or Shaitan, and regarded with horror
by people who are ignorant of his formula, and, imagining themselves
to be evil, accuse Nature herself of their own phantasmal crime.

Satan is Saturn, Set, Abrasax, Adad, Adonis, Attis, Adam, Adonai, etc.

This serpent, SATAN, is not the enemy of Man, but He who made Gods of
our race, knowing Good and Evil; He bade "Know Thyself!

Thus, in low grades of initiation, dogmatic quarrels are inflamed
by astral experience; as when Saint John distinguishes between the Whore
BABALON and the Woman clothed with the Sun, between the Lamb that was
slain and the Beast 666 whose deadly wound was healed; nor understands
that Satan, the Old Serpent, in the Abyss, the Lake of Fire and Sulphur,
is the Sun-Father, the vibration of Life, Lord of Infinite Space that
flames with His Consuming Energy, and is also that throned Light whose
Spirit is suffused throughout the City of Jewels.

He is the Lord of the Sabbath of the Adepts, and is Satan, therefore
also the Sun, whose number of Magick is 666, the seal of His servant the
BEAST.

In AL note that Saturn or Satan is exalted in the House of Venus or
Astarte, and it is an airy sign.

Conclusion: Crowley used "Satan" most often in the Christian context
as a term of common speech to indicate some image of myth suited to
another subject under discussion; next most often as an anti-establishment
slur, especially for a brief period in his late teens or early 20's when
he followed "Satan" as an act of rebellion; more rarely but philosophically
as a Miltonian ideal and positive image for ideas concealed by common
prejudices; occasionally as an insult or joke, including categorization
of his own public reputation. The more profound usages of "Satan" by
Crowley appear to be totally irrelevant to Christian ideas.

---------

The 1,260 occurrences of "Christ" (including "Christian", "Christmas"
and other combinations) in this sample indicate a greater interest in
Christianity than Satanism, per say. With so large a number, I have
not analyzed the patterns closely, but at significant number are positive.
One is a usage of devotion to Christ (Crowley's 5 = 6 G.'.D.'. motto).
Most references to "Christ" directly are quite positive, although very
frequently contrary to popular views of the historicity of "Christ".
About half the references to Christianity are negative, emphasizing
"false doctrines" and vice pervading Christian theology or tradition.

>His tradition of Thelema has a great deal to do with the Satanic
>symbols of the Beast and the Scarlet Woman, servitors of the Draconic
>form of Satan in the Apocalypse of John.

Calling these various things "Satanic symbols" is not responsible,
IMHO. To Christians, yes, mostly. To Satanists, some, yes, some no.
To Thelemites, mostly no. To the author of the Apocalypse, definitely
no. Where do you get "servitors of the Draconic form of Satan..."?
That one throws me.

>Our own Bill Heidrick denies that any of these symbols are actually
>central to Thelema, to which opinion he is of course entitled, just as
>I am entitled to the opinion that Crowley did consider them central.

On the centricity or lack of it in the symbols, I've never commented.
On the meaning of these symbols in Crowley's usage and in Thelema,
not all of this is a matter of opinion. There is ample evidence in
Crowley's writings toward determination actual fact of usage.

N.B. for follow-up, it might be best if the alt.freemasonry cross-post
was dropped on some follow-up. If you want me to respond, please retain
the cross-post to alt.magick.

93 93/93
Bill Heidrick

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Suchergebnis 20
Von:Tim Maroney (tim@hoptoad.uucp)
Betrifft:Re: Thelema
View: Complete Thread (7 Beiträge)
Original Format
Newsgroups:alt.pagan
Datum:1991-03-13 15:52:00 PST
In article raven@pagan.uucp (Al Billings) writes:
> Since Tim Moroney has deigned not to respond, I thought I would post
> a file from one of the bulletin board systems he frequents, ThelemNet.

Well, the last time some bozo showed up with this "Thelema is not
Satanism" crap, the Thelemites here (including an O.T.O. member) jumped
all over him, and I thought it would happen again. I guess everyone
else is as tired of this cut-and-dried issue as I am. But I will
happily give examples of the Satanic focus of Thelema. Do you want
ritual examples, theological examples, mythological examples,
scriptural examples, philosophical examples, biographical examples,
or what?

As for the file you posted, the questions and answers express the
opinions of particular individuals, not of Thelema as a whole or even
of the O.T.O. Some of them do not even represent the opinion of Josh
Gordon, the sysop of the board you mentioned; for instance, he was one
of the affirmative posters in the last alt.pagan round of "is Thelema a
kind of Satanism?" The file is rather old and was written before the
late-1980's round of consciousness raising on the idea of Satanism,
back when denial was still king.

>3. Q: Are you Satanists?
> A: No. Are you a murderer and a rapist? Neither am I. And I'd rather you
> didn't associate me with them. Satanism is a Christian heresy, and
> doesn't interest me in the least (except academically.)

Notice the Satanist-bashing manner of expressing this. I think that
these days, even those Thelemites who still say that Thelema is not
Satanism would be embarrassed to make such a Texe-Marrs-type
statement. (Incidentally, I'm surprised no one has mentioned my
favorite fact about Texe Marrs in the current discussion; in MYSTERY
MARK OF THE NEW AGE, Marrs says that the Smurfs are a Satanic
conspiracy!)

The current argument among the "Thelema is not Satanism" crowd,
paraphrased, is "Well, sure Crowley was incredibly fond of Satan and of
such chthonic deities, demons, and devils, and sure he identified with
the Satanic symbol of the Beast and sang rapturous love-songs to Satan,
but he didn't use only Satan. A Satanist uses only Satan, and
Thelema doesn't, even though it uses him a lot, so Thelema is not
Satanism." However, this argument rests on a definition of Satanism
with which few professing Satanists would concur. It would, for
instance, leave out the Temple of Set, the Church of Satan, and the
Process Church.

I don't know what proportion of Thelemites deny that Thelema is
Satanism. I suspect most have never considered the issue and would
respond to the question by aping the reflexive Wiccan denial of any
connection. Of those who have considered the issue seriously, I
think most would either enthusiastically affirm the identity or
grudgingly admit that Thelema is a form of Satanism under some
reasonable definition. The textual evidence is clear that Thelema
holds Satan and related symbols very close to its heart.
--
Tim Maroney, Mac Software Consultant, sun!hoptoad!tim, tim@toad.com

"Don't talk to me about disclaimers! I invented disclaimers!"
- The Censored Hacker

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Suchergebnis 63
Von:nagasiva (tyagi@houseofkaos.abyss.com)
Betrifft:TMaroney: Crowley and Satanism
Dies ist der einzige Artikel zu diesem Diskussionsthema
View: Original Format
Newsgroups:alt.magick.tyagi, alt.magick, alt.satanism, talk.religion.misc
Datum:1996/12/05
[from : Tim Maroney ]

[TMaroney]
>>By definition the Satan of Satanists is not the Satan
>>of Christians; it is a reinterpretation and reclamation of a demonized
>>symbol.

[Bheidrick]
>Post Crowley, minority and growing. What does that have to do with Crowley's
>usage?

Why do you say that? Do you think that Blake's Satanic reinterpretation
of Swedenborg in "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell" was post-Crowleyan,
for instance, or that the Satan of Baudelaire was the Satan of Calvin, or
that Levi's identification of "the devil" as the "instrument of liberty"
was in line with Church teaching at the time? Crowley was hardly the
first of the Western reinterpreters of the Satanic, nor will he be the
last.

>Crowley did a similar thing, different in his own way and for other
>ends. He didn't use the style of the term for what he did. This is like
>AMORC claiming that Francis Bacon was a past Imperitor of their organization.
>Worse, since Bacon wrote of Rosicrucianism.

Eh?

>>Are you actually resting your argument on
>>your "suspicion" that there was some precursor of the Apocalypse in which
>>there were forms of the Beast and the Scarlet Woman that were not demonic
>>or linked with the Dragon, Satan? Is there the slightest evidence for
>>this, or are you simply multiplying entities and flouting Occam's razor?
>What is your point? "St. John" didn't write it. Mead contends there are
>pre-Christian precursors. The G.'.D.'. played with it in terms of Qabalah.
>Crowley specialized in his own interpretation of the symbols and such.

None of this seems to have anything to do with the issue. I could point
out that Rudolph Steiner was also quite interested in the symbolism of
the Apocalypse, or that there were many Apocalypses attributed to
different people, but what would that have to do with Crowley's
self-identification as the Beast from the Apocalypse attributed to John?

>Why would the entities in it be demonic or "linked with the Dragon, Satan"?

Because the text says so in clear and direct language. It uses the phrase
"the great dragon, the primeval serpent, known as the devil or Satan",
then links him with the beast and the whore of Babylon: "the dragon had
handed over to it [the beast] his own power and throne and world-wide
authority"; "a woman riding a scarlet beast who had seven heads and ten
horns". I trust you are familiar with Revelations, chapters 12, 13, and
17? Though the book is often ambiguous (to say the least) its Satanic
symbols are undeniable here.

>>I do see in Mead that the Dragon is linked with Satan as the lord of the
>>punishments in the Outer Darkness in the Pistis Sophia (pp. 490, 492,
>>503), which implies that if there was some Gnostic precursor of the
>>Apocalypse, then if it featured the same characters, there was still a
>>link to Satan.
>How implies? There were and are many forms of Gnosticism. Is the precursor
>Gnostic? Not even that is established.

Funny, that's not what you said in your previous message: "The underlying
material in the Apocalypse attributed to John is still accessible under
the distortion, quite valuable, based on Merkabah and influenced by
Gnostic ideas." It seems that this hypothetical precursor is Gnostic or
not as it suits you. The attempt to explain away the Satanic symbols of
the Revelation through this (infinitely flexible) precursor of the
Apocalypse of John seems to have nothing going for it in the way of
evidence.

>>while there seems to be no way for him to have known about your
>>hypothetical precursor,
>Since he followed a course of denying the accuracy of the NT and completely
>re-interpreted Revelations away from the Christian ideas, I find it difficult
>to understand how you can imagine anything else short of invention out of
>whole cloth.

This is another non sequitur. I ask again: Suppose that there was some
(currently unknown) precursor of the Apocalypse of John such that the
symbols that were Satanic in the later form were not Satanic in the
original. How is it that Crowley came into contact with this lost text
and was influenced by it?

Further, why does he then go ahead and use the Satanic legend from the
later form, as already quoted from Liber Samekh ("Satan... whose number
of Magick is 666, the seal of His servant the Beast")?

>>that selling one's soul to the devil is a fit metaphor for
>>crossing the Abyss,
>No, rather a description of the failure of that experience in an unsuitable
>metaphor.

What-EH-ver....

>>And the relevance of this observation is what again? You seem to have
>>some idea of what Satanism is that does not have much to do with the way
>>I am using the term.
>I confess to being unable to guess how you are using the term.
>You appear to be attributing a usage to Crowley that dates from the 1950's,
>at the same time alleging that any positive use of words characterized by
>Christians as Satanic makes one a Satanist. This is very obscure to me.

I don't know of any major transformation of the words "Satanism" or
"Satanic" that began in the 1950's. I am looking at earlier usages than
that in the Oxford English Dictionary right now. "Satanic" means "of or
pertaining to Satan" and dates back centuries; "Satanism" has two main
meanings, both of which apply to Crowley: the worship of Satan (see Liber
Samekh, again) and the "Satanic school" in literature, beginning with
Byron and Shelley, of which Crowley was a self-proclaimed part.

Crowley used the word "Satanism" with respect to himself (Confessions, p.
73). The last time this came up, you claimed he had referred to "my
Satanism" as a childish affectation; in fact, not only does he never
forewear this allegiance, but as the Confessions go on he continues to
discuss his romance with the figure of Satan and with other proponents of
the figure, such as Shelley, Baudelaire and (in Crowley's eyes, as in
those of others, such as Blake) Milton.

>>In what way would metaphorical use of Satanic
>>terminology undercut the idea of Crowley's Satanism? To me it seems to
>>support it.
>If Crowley used "Satanic terminology" as metaphor, to that extent he could
>not be a believing Satanist. That others characterize themselves
>now-a-days as "Satanists" and also use a different metaphor would appear
>to me to be irrelevant.

There are not now, and never have been, many literalistic Satanists. In
the West this has almost always been a consciously mythic/symbolic usage
among the intelligentsia. I don't know where you got the idea that this
metaphorical Satanism started in the 1950's, but I can only direct you
once again to the OED, or perhaps to Crowley's Confessions, where a
number of Satanists of this type appear as acknowledged influences.

>>As for the epiphenomenality of Satan in Liber Samekh, this is not supported
>>by the text which freely uses Satan time and again; in which other "DEVILS"
>>(described as such) such as Besz and Apophrasz are called upon; and which
>>contains the following illuminating passage:
>>
>>"Now this word SABAF, being by number Three score and Ten, is a name of
>>Ayin, the Eye, and of the Devil our Lord, and the Goat of Mendes. He is
>>the Lord of the Sabbath of the Adepts, and is Satan, therefore also the
>>Sun, whose number of Magick is 666, the seal of His servant the BEAST."
>How you can quote that in support of your contention is beyond me.
>It clearly refutes your assertion. Here is Crowley using correspondences
>and discussing a non-Christian handling of ideas in Revelations and
>elsewhere.
>That no more makes him a "Satanist" by his lights and time than wearing
>loops on a jacket makes one a Frenchman.

These seem to be more non sequiturs. Crowley refers to himself as the
Biblical Great Beast, explicitly affirms that he is a servant of Satan,
and to you this proves he was not any kind of Satanist. That is a
nonsensical mode of argument.

>>Here it is made perfectly plain that the repeated use of the name Satan
>>in the translation of the main invocation was not some accident, but a
>>deliberate and enthusiastic adoption by Crowley.
>Yes, he wrote it with vigor. Your point?

My point is that Crowley used Satanic symbols in a positive light with
enthusiasm and at central points in his system. That is all I have said
all along, and all I am saying now.

>>the explicit reiteration of the relationship between Satan and the Beast
>>from the "Apocalypse of John". This puts an end, I hope, to any further
>>unsupported suspicions that Crowley was actually referring to some
>>hypothetical pre-Satanic text of the Apocalypse.
>I rather think it evidences that he thought he was expounding an earlier use.

Is there more to this than simple speculation? Is there anything about
his words in themselves which would lead anyone to believe he was
referring to a hypothetical precursor of the Apocalypse in which the
Beast and Scarlet Woman were not connected with Satan? By saying "Satan"
and "His servant the Beast" he seems to be reaffirming the Satanic
symbolism. I don't see how another reading is possible. The reiteration
of the doctrine of the Apocalypse is a fact about the text. What layers
of meaning Crowley attached to that doctrine is a matter of
interpretation, but the Satanic nature of the doctrine -- "of or
pertaining to Satan" -- is there in the ink on the page.

>>Now of course we could get into all sorts of interpretation about what he
>>meant by Satan, the Beast, and so on, but as for whether they are
>>Satanic, well, he uses the word Satan and makes undeniable allusions to
>>myths bearing on Satan, so the only reasonable answer is that the texts
>>are Satanic.
>If this is your thesis, you have no thesis but reduction to trivia.
>As you are a serious writer, I can only assume that you have something
>else as yet uncommunicated to my understanding in this discussion.
>He wears blue clothing, hence he is a Bluest! Why bother to mention it?

Fear not. If at some point I should find that Crowley had written an
important invocation of the form, "O thou bluest of blue! Thou raiment
which hath absorbed such a dye, yea, as if to reflect the very Ether,
thou who cleansest us as that great Ocean of Azure, O thou Cerulean
Vestment, O thou Blouse of Sheerest Sapphire, fasten thy splendid buttons
upon the breast of thy adorer", or repeated passages in his Confessions
stating that "This difference between the Blue and Red Shirts was of the
greatest importance to me, and for my part, I stood squarely on the side
of the Blue, as Shelley and Milton had done before", I would indeed come
to think of him as a Blueist.

The fact is that from Crowley's own writings it is clear that this issue
of Satanism was one about which he cared very deeply; it ranks with his
major themes and is integral to his self-definition as the Great Beast.
To you it is not one of his main themes. That's fine. You have every
right (even an obligation) to create your own system of Thelema with its
own system of values; but you seem to be making the common mistake of the
religious: you are confusing what you prefer to think with what is
written in the books of the religion. Rather than simply saying "Crowley
felt this was important, but I do not", you adjust your account of what
Crowley thought to fit your own views. As long as you continue to
misrepresent the historical facts this way, you will find me returning
the public attention to them.

Tim Maroney

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Suchergebnis 15
Von:Jon Allen Boone (jb3o+@andrew.cmu.edu)
Betrifft:Re: Jimmy, Crowley, and Satan - Another trinity?
View: Complete Thread (11 Beiträge)
Original Format
Newsgroups:talk.religion.newage, alt.rock-n-roll
Datum:1990-01-22 01:33:31 PST
tim@hoptoad.uucp (Tim Maroney) writes:
> In article <10691@thor.acc.stolaf.edu> seebs@thor.stolaf.edu (The Laughing
> Prophet) writes:
> >had to have a higher goal to be dedicated to, and he commented that the only
> >viable such goal was the helping of other creatures.

Personally, i have found that Crowley felt that the only viable goal
was the expansion of one's consciousness. If that involved helping
others, then fine. If not, then fine too.

> Ahem. Whether Crowley was a Satanist or not is highly debatable. His
> entire mythology centered around a Satanic inversion of the Book of
> Revelation, in which the fall of Christ was seen as good and
> inevitable, and the rise of agents of Satan, the Beast and the Scarlet
> Woman, was a vindication of humnanity and justice. He used inverted
> pentagrams in rituals, explicitly stated his sympathy for the Devil and
> Satan many times, and frequently identified his "Holy Guardian Angel",
> Aiwass, as a devil. In the preface to the play "Why Jesus Wept" he
> said that he had found his savior in Satan and all his angels.

That needs to be qualified. It depends entirely upon what you mean by
"his entire mythology". Crowley borrowed frequently and plentifully
from the mythos of many cultures, especially the Egyptians. In 777,
he equates all (i believe) mythological/magical systems, enabling one
to translate concepts from one framework to another.

Crowley's life and work are based on an anti-Christian attitude.
However, to say that he was a Satanist seems ridiculous. Seen from a
Christian perspective, every non-Christian is a Satanist. Crowley got
the name "The Beast" from his mother who used to call him that all the
time.

Crowley did find the End of the Aeon of Osiris (whom you refer to as
Jesus) as good - after he resigned himself to it. The Aeon of Horus
(the Conquering Child) was to replace the Aeon of Osiris (perhaps as
per the book of Revelation).

> In"Magick" he wrote:
> "This 'Devil' is called Satan or Shaitan, and regarded with horror by
> people who are ignorant of his formula, and, imagining themselves to be
> evil, accuse Nature herself of their own phantasmal crime. Satan is
> Saturn, Set, Abrasax, Adad, Adonis, Attis, Adam, Adonai, etc. The most
> serious charge against him is only that he the Sun in the South.

As you so succinctly point out in your quote, Uncle Aleister does not
base his entire mythology on an anti-Christian bias. Indeed, he
frequently points out the faults/biases of Christianity, while
pointing out the good points of the equivilant of Satan (or Shaitan in
Arabic) in other cultures' mythos.

> [...] We have therefore no scruple in restoring the 'devil-worship' of
> such ideas as those which the laws of sound, and the phenomena of
> speech and hearing, compel us to connect with the group of 'Gods'
> whose names are based upon ShT or D, vocalized by the free breath A.
> For these Names imply the qualities of courage, frankness, energy,
> pride, power and triumph; they are the words which express the creative
> and paternal will. Thus 'the Devil' is Capricornus, the Goat who leaps
> upon the loftiest mountains, the Godhead which, if it become manifest
> in man, makes him Aegipan, the All."

This again shows Uncle Aleister's sympathy with the active/phallic
forces in nature, as often symbolized by Satan.

> I think, based on this and many other passages expressing sympathy for
> the devil, Crowley certainly was a Satanist. That's not all he was,
> but he surely was that. Many occultists and pagans have internalized
> the reflexive "we are NOT Satanists" to the extent that they can't even
> recognize a Satanist when he puts horns on his head and chants Ave
> Satanis. What they fail to realize is that there's nothing wrong
> with being a Satanist.

I think that Uncle Aleister was a Satanist in some sense of the word.
However, he was not a Satanist in the negative-connotation,
emotionally loaded sense that the media uses it. The media picture of
Satanists are those who consider what they do evil and revel in it.
Uncle Aleister didn't consider these things evil - merely part of
life. If one is to live according to the Law of Thelema, then one may
well be called to do things which the Judeo-Christian ethic consider
"evil"; however, as one is following one's True Will, one can not be
considered to be doing evil.

> He's highly interested in Crowley, so much so that he owns Crowley's
> house on Lake Ness. Whether he calls himself a Satanist or not, I
> really can't say.

Not that what Page calls himself really matters. Too bad I can't
afford Uncle Aleister's house on Loch Ness - I'd love to move to
Scotland, especially if I could live in Boleskine.

> Yes, I noticed that. Unfortunately for you, and fortunately for those
> of us who aren't scared of the red man with the horns and fork, you're
> completely wrong.

What's to be afraid of?

> He rarely did any animal sacrifices; I believe in his whole life he
> only sacrificed one pigeon, one frog, and one goat.

Not that sacrifices have anything to do with Satanism. The Aztecs
sacrificed humans - yet one cannot really consider them Satanists.

> As for "had
> nothing to do with Satan", please read the above quote, as well as the
> numerous similar statements in his works (such as the section on Atu XV
> in "The Book of Thoth"), and ask yourself how the Beast and the Scarlet
> Woman can be considered non-Satanic! Have you even read the Revelation
> of St. John?

Uncle Aleister's choice of terms for himself and his miscellaneous
mistresses have a distinctive anti-Christian flair to them. His
former secretary, the late Dr. Israel Regardie postulates in the his
introduction to the Book of the Law (rebound with intro and minor
editing under the title The Law Is For All) that large portions of
Liber Legis stemmed from Uncle Aleister's rebellion against Christian
authorities. However, like you said, Uncle Aleister was definitely
more than "just" a Satanist.

> >Mostly he used the Inochian (sp?) system of magic
> >which is based on communication with angels, which then cause the
> >desired effect.
>
> He did use the Enochian system derived from Dr. Dee and Edward Kelly,
> but I wouldn't say this was "mostly"; he used it only for the most
> serious mystical workings, such as the crossing of the Abyss. Most of
> his work was either yogic or derived from non-Enochian sources, such as
> Barrett and Mathers. (Which is not to say the Golden Dawn wasn't
> Enochian, only that again, this was just one small part of their
> techniques.)

The primary techniques that Uncle Aleister prescribes are indeed
derived from Mathers work on the Golden Dawn system of Magick, as well
as the Yogic forms (such as the ones in Book 4 - the last part of
Magick in Theory and Practice - available seperately).

> --
> Tim Maroney, Mac Software Consultant, sun!hoptoad!tim, tim@toad.com

- iain

> "The Diabolonian position is new to the London playgoer of today, but not to
> lovers of serious literature. From Prometheus to the Wagnerian Siegfried,
> some enemy of the gods, unterrified champion of those oppressed by them, has
> always towered among the heroes of the loftiest poetry."
> - Shaw, "On Diabolonian Ethics"

Every man and every woman is a star.
Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.
Love is the law, love under will.

- Uncle Aleister

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Suchergebnis 6
Von:Tim Maroney (tim@hoptoad.uucp)
Betrifft:Is Thelema a form of Satanism? -- from a Fido discussion
Dies ist der einzige Artikel zu diesem Diskussionsthema
View: Original Format
Newsgroups:alt.pagan, alt.magick
Datum:1991-07-23 22:38:28 PST
Dear Diane,

To expand on my earlier comments on Satanic symbolism in Thelemic ritual,
and their relevance to the question of whether Thelema is a form of
Satanism under some reasonable definition of that word.

You ought to get a copy of "Magick in Theory and Practice" if you're
interested in the issue. Crowley's ritual and meditative instructions
were his best writing, possibly because they dealt with what he knew best.
It's because of the power and importance of these instructions that I was
willing to overlook his appalling right-wing politics and cite Crowley
as a source in Twilight Crossing; LaVey and Aquino have made no
contributions that measure up to these.

I'm going to track through the various Liberi in Appendix VI, "A Few
Principal Rituals", in order.

Grimorium Sanctissimum. The O.T.O./A.'.A.'. sex magic expressed in the
form of a Black Mass, with a naked virgin as the altar.

The Star Ruby. Therion and Babalon, who are the Beast and the Scarlet
Woman from the Apocalypse of John, and who are explicitly Satanic symbols.
(The Star Ruby is the Thelemic recension of the Lesser Banishing Ritual
of the Pentagram.)

The Star Sapphire. Set, a very close Satanic cognate, and Baphomet,
the demon supposedly worshipped by the Templars.

The Mass of the Phoenix. The magician carves his or her breast with
the Mark of the Beast, soaks the blood into a cake, and eats it.

Liber V vel Reguli. "Being the Ritual of the Mark of the Beast".
The Beast 666, Therion, Babalon, Averse Pentagrams, "Saturn or Satan
is exalted in the House of Venus or Astarte", "the Father-Mother
Set-Isis", and so on.

The Gnostic Mass. Chaos, Babalon, Baphomet, Abrasax, Therion, Simon
Magus, and another reclaiming of the Black Mass with its naked virgin
on the altar. (The G.S. form above is more adapted to the ceremonial
use of two people, while this form is for the puhblic and is veiled
with a cloak of symbolism.) Interestingly, something very like this
ritual may have a great deal to do with our general conception of the
Black Mass, coming from the Star Chamber affair in France. It is
unclear how much of the accusations were exagerrated and brought into
line with the Inquisitional mythology, and how much was an actual
"amatory mass" as some of the sources refer to it.

This ends the appendix containing the principal Thelemic rituals, with
the exception of Liber Samekh. That is so important that it receives
its own appendix, IV. As you know, the emphasis of Liber Samekh on
Satan is intense. It also exalts the Beast and the Scarlet Woman yet
again. This is the ritual of "the Attainment of the Knowledge and
Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel" or Higher Self; in Crowley's
case, he believed this "devil or angel" to be named Aiwaz or Aiwass,
and to have delivered the Book of the Law, the foundation of Thelema.

I have not mentioned the constant repetition of the Serpent symbol,
which for Crowley was interpreted along the lines of Genesis -- or an
anti-Genesis which reclaimed the pagan symbol demonized in the Hebrew
myth. Someone could object, after all, that Serpent-worship is hardly
confined to Satanism; we have to see how much Crowley explicitly inverted
the tail of the Bible before we can know certainly that he did the same
with the head. So the Serpent or Snake has little evidentiary value
in itself, except where it is very plainly a reference to Genesis, as
in "I am the Snake that giveth Knowledge" in the Book of the Law.

As we can see, there is not one Thelemic ritual, among those Crowley
thought most important, which is lacking in Satanic symbols.

Now, we should also consider Appendix VII, "A Few of the Principal
Instructions Authorised by the A.'.A.'." These are much less Satanic
by and large. Many of them have no Satanic references worth mentioning,
such as the Yogic instructions of Liber HHH, Liber E, and Liber RV,
and the Golden Dawn derived ceremonial magick practices of Liber O,
Liber Yod, Liber Resh, and Liber A. Similarly for the past-life recall
practice (perhaps Theosophical?) of Liber Thisharb and the penultimate
practice of Liber B vel Magi. Yet there are other works in the same
appendix which contain notable Satanic symbolism, such as Liber Astarte,
Liber III, Liber Cheth, and Liber A'ash.

The interesting thing about the instructions of this category is that,
for the most part, they are not particularly Thelemic either. There is
little mention of the Thelemic trinity of Nuit, Hadit, and Ra-Hoor-Khuit,
or of the Book of the Law, or of the word Thelema, or "Do what thou wilt"
or its cognates such as "the law of liberty". Where these do occur, they
are usually in passing rather than central to the instruction; and in
nearly every case, the degree of Satanic symbolism is proportional to
the degree of Thelemic symbolism.

That is, there is hardly a book that contains noteworthy Satanic symbolism
that does not also contain Thelemic symbolism of roughly equal note, and
vice versa. The books which don't contain one rarely contain the other.

Liber A vel Armorum could be taken as a counterexample, but even there
the quote from the Book of the Law is merely an opening clause having
no import to the teaching in itself; it is a single sentence stating
Crowley's authority to present the book. If it were omitted, it would
have no effect on the instruction of how to construct elemental weapons.
It's of no more significance than the mention of Typhon in Liber O.

In Liber Astarte and Liber III, the Thelemic and the Satanic symbolism
are both used in passing, almost as afterthoughts. (Astarte also contains
some of the anti-Satanic symbolism that Crowley sometimes uses; the
Thelemic devil is named Choronzon, and here he is presented as leading
the aspirant astray.) In Astarte, the little Satanic symbolism consists
of a reference to Babalon, which is also Thelemic symbolism; the only
other Thelemic references are to Choronzon and a single short clause
(out of fifty clauses) which urges the use of Thelemic books and aphorisms
in the practice. In Liber III, the Thelemic mythology is solely in an
opening benediction which (once again) could easily be omitted without
having the slightest import to the meditation practice, while the Satanic
symbol of "Cerebus, the great Beast of Hell" is almost as unimportant.

(Is it even Satanic at all? some might ask. After all, Cerebus is Greek.
Indeed, if Crowley had not craftily used the phrase "the great Beast"
there might be some doubt under a restrictive definition of Satanism.
The Twilight Crossing definition of Satanism as the reclamation of
demonized mthological figures would include it even without that
phrase, but there is simply no way that Crowley used the phrase "the
great Beast" except as an explicit reference to the demon of Revelation.
Crowley's "Cerebus, the great Beast of Hell" has a double meaning, both
of which are Satanic under the Twilight Crossing definition, and one of
which is Satanic even under the overly restrictive definition preferred
by anti-Satanists.)

Liber Cheth and Liber A'ash are the only books of the category which are
aggressively either Satanic or Thelemic. And each of them are both. In
them, we are back to the sex magic of the O.T.O. and the A.'.A.'., and
once again we are dealing with Babalon, the Beast, Hadit, Nuit, Set, Chaos,
and Baphomet. No knowledgable person would deny the centrality of these
sex practices to Crowley's systems, and no truthful person could deny that
every time they are set forth in ritual and meditation instructions, they
are flanked and upheld by a constellation of Thelemic and Satanic symbols.

Was Crowley a Satanist? Is Thelema a form of Satanism? Only the most
contrived definition of "Satanism" could answer these questions "no".

What would Crowley have answered? In a dedication to "Why Jesus Wept",
he told G. K. Chesterton that he, Crowley, had "found [his] Messiah in ...
the Devil and all his angels", and showed through gematria that the
Serpent was the true Messiah. In "Magick in Theory and Practice" (cap.
IV) and "The Book of Thoth", and many other places, he praised Satan
at length. He sang rapturous love-songs to the devil in his ritual
practices, and gave him the unholy kiss referred to in the legends of
the templars and the Sabbat. He wrote, in the last chapter of "Magick
in Theory and Practice", that:

"The Devil" is, historically, the God of any people that one
personally dislikes. This has led to so much confusion of
thought that THE BEAST 666 has preferred to let names stand
as they are, and to proclaim simply that AIWAZ -- the solar-
phallic-hermetic Lucifer -- is His own Holy Guardian Angel,
and "The Devil" SATAN or HADIT of our particular unit of the
Starry Universe. This serpent, SATAN, is not the enemy of
Man, but HE who made Gods of our race, knowing Good and Evil;
He bade "Know Thyself!" and taught Initiation. He is "the
Devil" of the Book of Thoth, and His emblem is BAPHOMET, the
Androgyne who is the hieroglyph of arcane perfection.

We have no need to speculate on the issue. The man has spoken clearly
for himself.

Tim
--
Tim Maroney, Mac Software Consultant, sun!hoptoad!tim, tim@toad.com

"The above opinions and suggestions have absolutely nothing to do with
the little fat man putting crisp $100 bills in my pocket."
-- Alan Vymetal

 

ARTICLES 56-65

 

 

PROTOCOLLO X o L'ULTIMA FOLLIA

Posted on Saturday, October 14, 2006
 
Il Segretario della Universal Unity Giampaolo Gugliemi , Fratello Massone della Gran loggia d'Italia degli ALAM (Palazzo Vitelleschi), con il Fratello Leo Lyon Zagami nella sede U.U. di Sanremo.
L'ULTIMA FOLLIA E' IL DECIMO PROTOCOLLO DELL' ILLUSTRE FRATELLO EZIO GIUNCHIGLIA DEDICATO ALL'IDEALE TRADITO DALLA LOGGIA P2 : LA CREATIVITA ARMONICA

ANTICO E PRIMEVO RITO OSIRIACO DEGLI ILLUMINATI DI MEMPHIS E MITZRAIM

 

ILLUMINATI DIPLOMA RECEIVED IN OSLO (NORWAY) BY Msgr.Nicholaj Frisvold 33 o 90 o 97 o

Posted on Saturday, October 14, 2006

ILLUMINATI DIPLOMA - PATENT

issued on the 3rd of March 2002  by the Orient of Polaris, in the valley of Oslo in the Oratory of Enoq  by the satanic illuminati of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim,  and their secret Grand Master Dott.Nicholaj Frisvold .

Freemason Brother Nicholaj  is  officialy a Doctor in psycology who used to work in one of the biggest  mental hospitals in Oslo.

 But in the spare time my friends he was secretely calling is patients Zombies quile he was practicing  African black Magick Voodoo and other diabolical arts for his Satanic Masters in the USA.

This dangerous agent of the Devil calling himself  Tau Orpee Luchifero ,  is currentely living in Brazil in :

Rua dos Cravos, 454 Jd.Dos Pinheiros

Atibaia SP Cep:12945-570

Phone: 55 (011) 4411-5143

Cell 55 *011( 9960-4479

 

THE X-COMUNICATION FILES FEATURING MASTER FRISVOLD

Posted on Saturday, October 14, 2006 

These days you can even be excomunicated by a satanist and a black magician working for the Zionist,the Vatican and the New World Order WHAT NEXT???

This is what happens in the so called world of the western illuminati,
a jewish trap with an Egyptian touch...

Leo Lyon Zagami now thanks God Khaled Saifullah Khan

 

THE SECRET TEMPLE OF THE ILLUMINATI - IL TEMPIO SEGRETO DEGLI ILLUMINATI

 

Freemasons worldwide are trapped by an invisible network of black magicians and satanist secretely linked to high degree Freemasonry by the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim (also known as the Rite of the illuminati) and the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Dangerous and often corrupt forms of esoteric Freemasonry, secretely created by Jews and corrupt European Aristocrats , serving the Zionist plot and the New World Order of Dajal untill the end of times.

Khaled Saifullah Khan

 


THE ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM




TABLE OF CONTENTS




“IF” p. 3
Proclamation: p. 5
Freemasonry and its General Principles: p. 6
Freemasonry: A School of Initiation: p. 7
The Name of the Rite: p. 13
History of the Rite of Memphis -Misraïm: p. 14
Recent Develop ments: p. 19
The Different French Obediences: p. 21
A Brief Overview: p. 22
Some Statements For Your anding: p. 23 Better Underst
A List of Grand Masters (France & Other Jurisdictions): p. 26
Memphis-Misraïm: A Rite for the Future: p. 27
To Seek Admission: p. 28
“WHO CRIES?” p. 29
Contact Information p. 31


TABLE OF CONTENTS




“IF” p. 3
Proclamation: p. 5
Freemasonry and its General Principles: p. 6
Freemasonry: A School of Initiation: p. 7
The Name of the Rite: p. 13
History of the Rite of Memphis -Misraïm: p. 14
Recent Develop ments: p. 19
The Different French Obediences: p. 21
A Brief Overview: p. 22
Some Statements For Your Better Understanding: p. 23
A List of Grand Masters (France & Other Jurisdictions): p. 26
Memphis-Misraïm: A Rite for the Future: p. 27
To Seek Admission: p. 28
“WHO CRIES?” p. 29
Contact Information p. 31




“IF”


If you can keep your head when all about you 
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But making allowance for their doubt too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, do not give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you dream--and not make your dreams your master,
If you can think --and not make your thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
and treat those two imposters just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build’em up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it all on one turn of pitch and toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew 
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!”

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings--nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much,
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that is in it,

And--which is more--you’ll be a Man, my son!

--Rudyard Kipling --


“IF” 


If you can keep your head when all about you 
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you
But making allowance for their doubt too,
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, do not give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you dream--and not make your dreams your master,
If you can think --and not make your thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
and treat those two imposters just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build’em up with worn-out tools:

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it all on one turn of pitch and toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew 
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!”


If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings--nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much,
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that is in it,

And--which is more--you’ll be a Man, my son!

--Rudyard Kipling --




TO THE GLORY OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE 
UNIVERSE
OR
THE SUBLIME ARCHITECT OF ALL WORLDS

INTERNATIONAL ORDER
OF
THE ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE 
OF MEMPHIS -MISRAÏM

PROCLAMATION OR PREAMBLE

“Man, thou hast two ears to hear the same sound, two eyes to perceive the same 
object, two hands to execute the same deed.” In the same way, Masonic 
Science, the science above all others, is both Esoteric and Exoteric. 

The Esoteric constitutes the Thought; the Exoteric, the structure. The Exoteric 
can be learned, taught and given. The Esoteric can not be taught, nor learned, 
nor given: “it comes from on high.”

ESOTERIC
All light, science or doctrine emanates from the International Sovereign 
Sanctuary, where reposes the Venerable Ark of our Tradition. No Mason, what
ever be his masonic degree, grade or dignity, can enter therein, unless called 
within.

EXOTERIC

The International Sovereign Sanctuary of THE ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE 
RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM, International Coordination, considering that 
the first duty an organized body is to maintain unity in the legislation that 
governs each of its parts, has decided so as to maintained this unity in its 
Temples, to publish these Great International Constitutions.

To those that will have the task to see that they are executed, it says: be just.To 
those that will have to comply, It says: Peace on the earth to men of goodwill.

To all, It repeats: incline your head to that Sovereign and Mysterious Power that 
the human reason is unable to define or to deny and that Freemasonry proclaims 
under the name of: “GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE OR 
SUBLIME ARCHITECT OF . ALL WORLDS”




TO THE GLORY OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE 
UNIVERSE
OR
THE SUBLIME ARCHITECT OF ALL WORLDS

INTERNATIONAL ORDER
OF
THE ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE 
OF MEMPHIS -MISRAÏM

PROCLAMATION OR PREAMBLE

“Man, thou hast two ears to hear the same sound, two eyes to perceive the same 
object, two hands to execute the same deed.” In the same way , Masonic 
Science, the science above all others, is both Esoteric and Exoteric. 

The Esoteric constitutes the Thought; the Exoteric, the structure. The Exoteric 
can be learned, taught and given. The Esoteric can not be taught, nor learned, 
nor given: “it comes from on high.” 

ESOTERIC 
All light, science or doctrine emanates from the International Sovereign 
Sanctuary, where reposes the Venerable Ark of our Tradition. No Mason, what 
ever be his masonic degree, grade or dignity, can enter therein, unless called 
within. 

EXOTERIC 

The International Sovereign Sanctuary of THE ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE 
RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM, International Coordination, considering that 
the first duty an organized body is to maintain unity in the legislation that 
governs each of its parts, has decided so as to maintained this unity in its 
Temples, to publish these Great International Constitutions. 

To those that will have the task to see that they are executed, it says: be just. To 
those that will have to comply, It says: Peace on the earth to men of goodwill. 

To all, It repeats: incline your head to that Sovereign and Mysterious Power that 
the human reason is unable to define or to deny and that Freemasonry proclaims 
under the name of: “GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE OR 
SUBLIME ARCHITECT OF ALL WORLDS”. 


FREEMASONRY: A SCHOOL OF INITIATION FREEMASONRY AND ITS GENERAL PRINCIPLES 

HISTORY AND ORIGINS
1. The Freemasonry of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis -
Misraïm, a humanitarian, philosophical, initiatic and spiritual institution, has 
for its essential basis the belief in a Supreme Power expressed and invoked 
It is interesting and useful to know the institutional affiliations of
under the name of 
which Freemasonry is the outcome or continuation.
THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE
All historians and commentators agree that modern Freemasonry 
or
has its immediate origins in the master Mason builders of the great 
THE SUBLIME ARCHITECT OF ALL WORLDS
European Gothic Cathedrals of the Middle Ages. These builders were 
themselves closely tied to the Knights Templar and to the Templar building 2. It imposes no limits on the free search for TRUTH, and guarantees this 
liberty to all who follow the path. 
associations, heirs to the Central European monastic associations and the 
Byzantine Colleges which, in their turn, had their origins in the Roman 
3. It requires the tolerance of all members . 
Collegia. Via this chain, Freemasonry can be said to date back to the sixth
century B. C.
4. Freemasonry reminds all its members to respect the laws of the Country 
in which they live and considers the obligation to work within the Craft im­
This uninterrupted chain leads us back to the important Initiatic 
perative. 
Schools of Egypt in which certain adherents had attained the highest degree 
5. Masonry is a association of independent men and women, free and of 
of initiation. Moses, Pythagoras and Plato are believed t o be among these 
good morals, listening to the voice of their own conscience, which compels 
high initiates.
them to put into practice an ideal of peace, love and fraternity. 
Each Collegia had a communal home where the artisans met on 
6. Masonry has for its aim the moral and spiritual perfection of humanity and 
certain days, united in a feeling of pious solidarity, to share meals. 
for its means the propagation of a true philanthropy, by the use of symbolic 
Undoubtedly the religious aspect was presided over by a master of the and esoteric forms, which can be revealed and explained only by the Initia­
tion. 
“college”. Members of the college transmitted, and jealously guarded, the 
secrets of building construction, and their high reputation as builders made 
7. Its object is the application of the Royal Art - fashioning the initiated by 
them sought after by the nobility.
subtracting all domination and making them free and sovereign masters of 
themselves, thinking independently, unfettered by the tyranny of reigning 
After the fall of Rome, there were numerous upheavals in the 
prejudices, having shaken the yoke of their passions and becoming fully con­
social order and what was left of the Collegia integrated with the Monastic scious of their responsibilities. 
orders, which were then multiplying in the Christian world. The thick walls 
8. Masonry, foreign to all sectarian influence, imposes on all its members 
of these institutions offered a secure refuge to maintain the torch for the 
the respect of the opinions of others, in order to constitute a permanent center 
arts and sciences and allowed the builders to escape fro m constraint and 
of fraternal union where reigns a perfect harmony of thought. 
move about freely . So they constructed the churches and convents of the 
era (6th and 7th Centuries A.D.). Little by little, the growing peace of 
9. The International Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis -
material security and the immigration of artisans enabled the brotherhoods 
Misraïm admits women in absolute equality with men (identical Rituals and 
of Master builders to regroup.
identical grades); and charters men’s and women’s lodges, but also charters 
mixed gender lodges. 

(excerpts from the Grand Constitutions) 


FREEMASONRY AND ITS GENERAL PRINCIPLES FREEMASONRY: A SCHOOL OF INITIATION 

HISTORY AND ORIGINS 
1. - The Freemasonry of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis
Misraïm, a humanitarian, philosophical, initiatic and spiritual institution, has 
for its essential basis the belief in a Supreme Power expressed and invoked 
It is interesting and useful to know the institutional affiliations of 
under the name of
which Freemasonry is the outcome or continuation. 
THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE
All historians and commentators agree that modern Freemasonry 
or
has its immediate origins in the master Mason builders of the great 
THE SUBLIME ARCHITECT OF ALL WORLDS
European Gothic Cathedrals of the Middle Ages. These builders were 
2. It imposes no limits on the free search for TRUTH, and guarantees this themselves closely tied to the Knights Templar and to the Templarbuilding 
liberty to all who follow the path.
associations, heirs to the Central European monastic associations and the 
Byzantine Colleges which, in their turn, had their origins in the Roman 
3. . It requires the tolerance of all members
Collegia. Via this chain, Freemasonry can be said to date back to the sixth 
century B. C. 
4. Freemasonry reminds all its members to respect the laws of the Country 
in which they live and considers the obligation to work within the Craft im-
This uninterrupted chain leads us back to the important Initiatic 
perative.
Schools of Egypt in which certain adherents had attained the highest degree 
5. Masonry is a association of independent men and women, free and of 
of initiation. Moses, Pythagoras and Plato are believed to be among these 
good morals, listening to the voice of their own conscience, which compels 
high initiates. 
them to put into practice an ideal of peace, love and fraternity.
Each Collegia had a communal home where the artisans met on 
6. Masonry has for its aim the moral and spiritual perfection of humanity and 
certain days, united in a feeling of pious solidarity, to share meals. 
for its means the propagation of a true philanthropy, by the use of symbolic 
and esoteric forms, which can be revealed and explained only by the Initia- Undoubtedly the religious aspect was presided over by a master of the 
tion.
“college”. Members of the college transmitted, and jealously guarded, the 
secrets of building construction, and their high reputation as builders made 
7. Its object is the application of the Royal Art - fashioning the initiated by 
them sought after by the nobility. 
subtracting all domination and making them free and sovereign masters of 
themselves, thinking independently, unfettered by the tyranny of reigning 
After the fall of Rome, there were numerous upheavals in the 
prejudices, having shaken the yoke of their passions and becoming fully con-
scious of their responsibilities. social order and what was left of the Collegia integrated with the Monastic 
orders , which were then multiplying in the Christian world. The thick walls 
8. Masonry, foreign to all sectarian influence, imposes on all its members 
of these institutions offered a secure refuge to maintain the torch for the 
the respect of the opinions of others, in order to constitute a permanent center 
arts and sciences and allowed the builders to escape fro m constraint and 
of fraternal union where reigns a perfect harmony of thought.
move about freely . So they constructed the churches and convents of the 
era (6th and 7th Centuries A.D.). Little by little, the growing peace of 
9. - The International Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis
material security and the immigration of artisans enabled the brotherhoods 
Misraïm admits women in absolute equality with men (identical Rituals and 
of Master builders to regroup. 
identical grades); and charters men’s and women’s lodges, but also charters 
mixed gender lodges.

(excerpts from the Grand Constitutions)


All authentic Initiatic steps aim at awakening the adherent. The The Masonic bond with the Order of the Temple, both initiatory 
best possible instruction cannot give Knowledge because the awakening 
and as holders of the principal traditions, is undeniable. Upon the 
cannot be provoked except by a systematic introspection which must be 
dissolution of the Knights Templar at the hands of the Inquisition, several 
supported by the knowledge of deep seated psychic mechanisms.
of its members took refuge in European countries where the Order still 
The object of initiation is to guide the individual towards this 
existed or in the Lodges of the Masonic builders. Those who had found 
Knowledge by an interior illumination, projection and understanding of the 
refuge in Scotland consequently founded Scottish Freemasonry. 
human *I* at whose center is the transcendent Light. The initiatic method is 
To the ancient builders, all of life's acts were intermingled with 
an essentially intuitive path and that is why Freemasonry uses symbols to 
religious meaning. The work had a sacred character because it 
provoke this enlightenment as these symbols speak the language of the 
symbolized the creation of beings and things by the Divine. So the build­
unconscious.
ers worked on the sites, in Lodges, where only the people of the 
Initiation by itself does not bestow the Light but it puts the subtle 
profession were admitted and the secrets of construction were t ransmitted 
bodies in harmony and opens the interior organs of perception, leading one 
from Master to student. The products of their endeavors, the imposing 
to the path of knowledge and a reintegration with a higher state. It provides 
cathedrals , were and are still the true Esoteric Books of Wisdom where the 
one access to the Divine within. It is the search for the Lost Word.
Masters of that age wrote down the inherited knowledge of the mysteries 
of Antiquity, hidden in the symbols of the buildings themselves and the 
This step implies three conditions:
sculpture adorning them. 
The ancient builders, however, were not just architects or stone-
1) The quality of the inherent possibilities of the individual's own nature 
cutters. During the construction of these monuments, the members met to 
which is the Prima Materia on which the work must be carried out.
work upon metaphysical research and philosophical teachings. The end of 
the great operative period of construction marked the beginning of that 
2) The imparting of the spiritual influx that allows one to be part of a 
which we now call speculative where the philosophical aspect of the 
traditional organization that encourages the development of one's potential.
initiatory work has continued to the present time. 

3) The inner work which leads one to pass through the initiatic hierarchy in 
FREEMASONRY: AN INITIATORY SOCIETY 
order to guide oneself towards deliverance or the highest identity.
Modern Freemasonry aims to build the interior Temple that is 
The initiation transmitted throughout Freemasonry is a kind of 
the core self of every individual. To do this, symbols are put at the 
spiritual alchemy, having as its goal a real transformation of the individual, 
disposition of the adherent, to allow each, by their own study, to create 
the necessary relationship for their own spiritual growth. 
a personal blossoming, and a personal realization. 
Freemasonry is an authentic initiatory society because it 
transmits a true initiation and conveys through its rituals and symbols, the 
THE MASONIC LODGE
teaching of the ancient mystery schools of which it is the trustee and heir. 
Initiation confers a particular spiritual influence, actualized by 
When Freemasons meet, their labor is carried out in a particular 
the rites, whose effectiveness greatly surpasses the interpretation that is 
framework, accompanied by precise ritual in which each word and each 
given and which finds its vastness in the legitimacy of its affiliation. 
gesture possesses a teaching that leads one to perceive and understand. The 
Masonic Lodge is the harmonious reflection of the Cosmos, governed by


The Masonic bond with the Order of the Temple, both initiatory All authentic Initiatic steps aim at awakening the adherent. The 
best possible instruction cannot give Knowledge because the awakening 
and as holders of the principal traditions, is undeniable. Upon the 
cannot be provoked except by a systematic introspection which must be 
dissolution of the Knights Templar at the hands of the Inquisition, several 
supported by the knowledge of deep seated psychic mechanisms. 
of its members took refuge in European countries where the Order still 
The object of initiation is to guide the individual towards this 
existed or in the Lodges of the Masonic builders. Those who had found 
Knowledge by an interior illumination , projection and understanding of the 
refuge in Scotland consequently founded Scottish Freemasonry.
human *I* at whose center is the transcendent Light. The initiatic method is 
To the ancient builders, all of life's acts were intermingled with 
an essentially intuitive path and that is why Freemasonry uses symbols to 
religious meaning. The work had a sacred character because it 
provoke this enlightenment as these symbols speak the language of the 
symbolized the creation of beings and things by the Divine. So the build-
unconscious. 
ers worked on the sites, in Lodges, where only the people of the 
Initiation by itself does not bestow the Light but it puts the subtle 
profession were admitted and the secrets of construction were t ransmitted 
bodies in harmony and opens the interior organs of perception, leading one 
from Master to student. The products of their endeavors, the imposing 
to the path of knowledge and a reintegration with a higher state. It provides 
cathedrals , were and are still the true Esoteric Books of Wisdom where the 
one access to the Divine within. It is the search for the Lost Word. 
Masters of that age wrote down the inherited knowledge of the mysteries 
of Antiquity, hidden in the symbols of the buildings themselves and the 
This step implies three conditions: 
sculpture adorning them.
The ancient builders, however, were not just architects or stone-
1) The quality of the inherent possibilities of the individual's own nature 
cutters. During the construction of these monuments, the members met to 
which is the Prima Materia on which the work must be carried out. 
work upon metaphysical research and philosophical teachings. The end of 
the great operative period of construction marked the beginning of that 
2) The imparting of the spiritual influx that allows one to be part of a 
which we now call speculative where the philosophical aspect of the 
traditional organization that encourages the development of one's potential. 
initiatory work has continued to the present time.

3) The inner work which leads one to pass through the initiatic hierarchy in 
FREEMASONRY: AN INITIATORY SOCIETY
order to guide oneself towards deliverance or the highest identity. 
Modern Freemasonry aims to build the interior Temple that is 
The initiation transmitted throughout Freemasonry is a kind of 
the core self of every individual. To do this, symbols are put at the 
disposition of the adherent, to allow each, by their own study, to create spiritual alchemy, having as its goal a real transformation of the individual, 
the necessary relationship for their own spiritual growth.
a personal blossoming, and a personal realization. 
Freemasonry is an authentic initiatory society because it 
transmits a true initiation and conveys through its rituals and symbols, the 
THE MASONIC LODGE 
teaching of the ancient mystery schools of which it is the trustee and heir.
Initiation confers a particular spiritual influence, actualized by 
When Freemasons meet, t heir labor is carried out in a particular 
the rites, whose effectiveness greatly surpasses the interpretation that is 
framework, accompanied by precise ritual in which each word and each 
given and which finds its vastness in the legitimacy of its affiliation.
gesture possesses a teaching that leads one to perceive and understand. The 
Masonic Lodge is the harmonious reflection of the Cosmos, governed by 


the is spiritualistic. In a general way one can say that liberal, second the great Laws of the Universe, and presented at a level more easily 
humanistic Freemasonry is concerned almost exclusively with the great accessible to the human being: it appears as a reflection of our own psychic 
sociological questions and work toward the progress of humanity. Spirit u- faculities and the Mason ought to try and establish this harmony within . In-
alistic or traditional Freemasonry is directed toward the glory of the Great dispensable keys are available to each person to help open the doors to the 
Architect of the Universe. The spiritualistic masonries trace their origins interior. 
to England and are characterized by the practice of rituals work exclu-
sively. MASONRY: A SCHOOL AND A TECHNIQUE 
The other, liberal, tradition - to which Memphis -Misraïm
belongs and which is French in its origin s - directs its work to study and The wo rd school implies a system of learning and that is what the 
symbolic research, strongly influenced by esotericism and the Sacred Freemason partakes of from the time of one's request for admission into the 
Sciences (astrology, kabbala, mythology etc...), as well as psychology Order until one's full personal blossoming. 
and philosophy. 
Freemasonry is a school of freedom where the thoughts and 
These diverse tendencies may seem to be in opposition to one conscience of each member may be freely expressed. The Freemason seeks 
another but in reality h ave a common vocation, that of being a beacon for to avoid instability and psychomental disorders that characterize the 
humanity, to bring to human beings a profound understanding of the web ordinary person because the ultimate goal of the Order is personal 
of their destinies and to unite them beyond all that usually divides the reintegration into the State of Original Perfection. By the teachings, each 
profane world. The aim is to form free beings and little by little, to person must discover this by themselves; even though it is an integral part 
modify their egotistical and impulsive behaviors in order that these of the development in the Masonic search for Truth. No one can take the 
conscious personalities might open up to the world around them. place of the individual in discovering the Truth. 
Freemasonry is not a religion and each Freemason is free to 
This method is perhaps what most distinguishes Freemasonry from 
practice the religion of their own choice in an atmosphere of complete other initiatory societies because it does not impose any ready-made ethics, 
tolerance for this choice. teach any particular belief o r contain any global truth. It refuses the comfort 
The Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis -Misraïm is a M a- of the truth of others. Neither does it impose any restrictions on the search 
sonic Rite that, if not secret, is discreet in the world . A recent decision to for Truth, rather it enhances one's possibilities by creating a place outside of 
appear more visible for a certain time allows us to make known the first the daily routine where rituals and symbols encourage inner reflection. In 
step to those who might be interested in joining or affiliating with our this way, Masons have the freedom to present works touching on the 
Order. highest philosophical, moral and metaphysical issues and to discuss them in 
an atmosphere of openness and nobility and great tolerance, the very basis 
CONCLUSION of all spiritual development. To know how to find the meaning of the 
Sacred is a certain key to advancement toward complete fulfillment. 
To the general public, Freemasonry may appear complex and 
confusing. It is not a “secret society”, however, but a society with secrets.
MODERN MASONRY 
Above all, Freemasons share the knowledge and serenity of those who 
want to be and are masters of themselves and their destiny. Modern Masonry is divided into two main approaches: liberal and 
traditional. The first has a philosophical or h umanistic approach, whereas 




the great Laws of the Universe, and presented at a level more easily the second is spiritualistic. In a general way one can say that liberal, 
accessible to the human being: it appears as a f our own psychic reflection o humanistic Freemasonry is concerned almost exclusively with the great 
faculities and the Mason ought to try and establish this harmony within . In- sociological questions and work toward the progress of humanity. Spirit u­
dispensable keys are available to each person to help open the doors to the alistic or traditional Freemasonry is directed toward the glory of the Great 
interior. Architect of the Universe. The spiritualistic masonries trace their origins 
to England and are characterized by the practice of rituals work exclu­
MASONRY: A SCHOOL AND A TECHNIQUE sively. 
The other, liberal, tradition - to which Memphis -Misraïm 
The wo rd school implies a system of learning and that is what the belongs and which is French in its origin s - directs its work to study and 
Freemason partakes of from the time of one's request for admission into the symbolic research, strongly influenced by esotericism and the Sacred 
Order until one's full personal blossoming. Sciences (astrology, kabbala, mythology etc...), as well as psychology 
Freemasonry is a school of freedom where the thoughts and and philosophy. 
conscience of each member may be freely expressed. The Freemason seeks These diverse tendencies may seem to be in opposition to one 
to avoid instability and psychomental disorders that characterize the another but in reality h ave a common vocation, that of being a beacon for 
ordinary person because the ultimate goal of the Order is personal humanity, to bring to human beings a profound understanding of the web 
reintegration into the State of Original Perfection. By the teachings, each of their destinies and to unite them beyond all that usually divides the 
person must discover this by themselves; even though it is an integral part profane world. The aim is to form free beings and little by little, to 
of the development in the Masonic search for Truth. No one can take the modify their egotistical and impulsive behaviors in order that these 
place of the individual in discovering the Truth. conscious personalities might open up to the world around them. 
This method is perhaps what most distinguishes Freemasonry from 
Freemasonry is not a religion and each Freemason is free to 
other initiatory societies because it does not impose any ready-made ethics, practice the religion of their own choice in an atmosphere of complete 
teach any particular belief o r contain any global truth. It refuses the comfort tolerance for this choice. 
of the truth of others. Neither does it impose any restrictions on the search The Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis -Misraïm is a M a-
for Truth, rather it enhances one's possibilities by creating a place outside of sonic Rite that, if not secret, is discreet in the world . A recent decision to 
the daily routine where rituals and symbols encourage inner reflection. In appear more visible for a certain time allows us to make known the first 
this way, Masons have the freedom to present works touching on the step to those who might be interested in joining or affiliating with our 
highest philosophical, moral and metaphysical issues and to discuss them in Order. 
an atmosphere of openness and nobility and great tolerance, the very basis 
of all spiritual development. To know how to find the meaning of the CONCLUSION 
Sacred is a certain key to advancement toward complete fulfillment.
To the general public, Freemasonry may appear complex and 
MODERN MASONRY confusing. It is not a “secret society”, however, but a society with secrets. 
Above all, Freemasons share the knowledge and serenity of those who 
Modern Masonry is divided into two main approaches: liberal and want to be and are masters of themselves and their destiny. 
traditional. The first has a philosophical or h umanistic approach, whereas




THE NAME OF THE RITE:


Rite: it is the set of rules and ceremonies practiced in our Tradition. 
The Rite is an initiatic way in itself. 

Ancient: Originally in our Rite, we find the Rite of Misraïm (Venice, 
Italy - 1788) and the Rite of Memphis (Montauban, France - 1815). It was our 
Grand Master Giuseppe GARIBALDI, founder of the modern Italian state, 
who prepared and achieved t he fusion of the two Rites in 1881. 

Primitive: the current Rite of Memphis -Misraïm descends directly 
from the Primitive Rite of Paris in 1721, and from the Primitive Rite of Phila-
delphes in Narbonne in 1779. 

Memphis: Is a city of ancient Egypt situated at the point of the delta 
of the Nile. It is there that the Rite was created by Initiates in contact with this 
ancient civilization. 

Misraïm: this Hebrew word is the plural of “Egyptian”. It appears in 
documents associated with the Sociniens, a group in Venice. Their constitu-
tional patent was given by Cagliostro. 

Sovereign Sanctuary: specific to the Rite of Memphis -Misraïm. This 
term stands for the government of the Rite.




THE NAME OF THE RITE: 


Rite: it is the set of rules and ceremonies practiced in our Tradition. 
The Rite is an initiatic way in itself. 

Ancient: Originally in our Rite, we find the Rite of Misraïm (Venice, 
Italy - 1788) and the Rite of Memphis (Montauban, France - 1815). It was our 
Grand Master Giuseppe GARIBALDI, founder of the modern Italian state, 
who prepared and achieved t he fusion of the two Rites in 1881. 

Primitive: the current Rite of Memphis -Misraïm descends directly 
from the Primitive Rite of Paris in 1721, and from the Primitive Rite of Phila­
delphes in Narbonne in 1779. 

Memphis: Is a city of ancient Egypt situated at the point of the delta 
of the Nile. It is there that the Rite was created by Initiates in contact with this 
ancient civilization. 

Misraïm: this Hebrew word is the plural of “Egyptian”. It appears in 
documents associated with the Sociniens, a group in Venice. Their constitu­
tional patent was given by Cagliostro. 

Sovereign Sanctuary: specific to the Rite of Memphis -Misraïm. This 
term stands for the government of the Rite. 




THE RITE OF MISRAIM HISTORY OF THE RITE
OF
The first mention of the Rite was in Venice in 1788. A group of MEMPHIS -MISRAIM
Socinians (an anti-trinitary Protestant sect) asked a patent of constitution 
from Cagliostro who was then in Trieste (he came to Venice and stayed for Historically, this Masonic Obedience, that celebrated its bi­
six weeks). They did not want to participate in his Magical-Kabbalistic centennial in 1988, origin ated when the two rites of Memphis and 
rituals, so they chose to work at the Templar Rite. So Cagliostro conferred Misraïm were merged in 1881 by Garibaldi, who became its first Grand 
their only Masonic Light. He had the first three Degrees of English Master. The Rite of Misra ïm had been founded in Venice in 1788. Its 
Freemasonry and the higher Degrees from Germany, which was greatly filiation came through Cagliostro who had entrusted it with the lower 
influenced by the Templar tradition. The name of Misra ïm is the plural form (first) Degrees of The Grand Lodge of England and the higher Degrees 
of Egyptian, which is the only reminder of t his Egyptian Rite which gave of German Templar Masonry. The Rite of Memphis was constituted in 
their obediential personality. It spread rapidly to Milan, Genoa, Naples, and Montauban in 1815 by Freemasons who had taken part in the Mission to 
appeared in France with Michel Bedarride who had received the Grand Egypt with Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. To these two rites were added 
Mastery (ultimate powers) in 1810, in Naples, from B.. . DeLasalle. From 
initiatic Degrees which came from esoteric obediences of the 18t h 
1810 to 1 813, the three Bedarride brothers successfully developed the Rite in Century: The Primitive Rite, The Rite of Philadelphes, etc... 
France, almost under the protection of The Scottish Rite. Indeed, it had 
illustrious Masons at its helm: the Count of Muraire, Sovereign Grand 
During the 19th Century, the Carbonaris recruited members in 
Commander of The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; the Duke Decazeo, Misraïm and Memphis. They had numerous Lodges in France, and some 
the Duke of Saxe -Weimar, the Duke of Leicester, the Lieutenant General of their dignitaries were very influential persons, such as the Duke 
Baron Teste, etc... Decazeo and the Count Muraire, who were both Grand Commander of 
the Scottish Rite. 
During the White Terror, Misraïm quickly became the Masonic 
Obedience which transmitted the required Third Degree to the Carbonari, In France, the Obedience is the meeting place of Masons who 
and this group then had 22 Lodges in Paris, 6 in Lyon, 6 in Metz, 5 in share an attraction for esoterics, hermeticism, symbolism, etc. There are 
Toulouse, 3 in Bordeaux, 3 in Geneva, 3 in Lausanne, and 1 in Courtray. The about 90 Lodges in France, not counting the higher Degree workshops . In 
police of the restauration obtained its dissolution because it was fiercely these Works hops are a few hundred members among whom we find 
anticlerical and anti-royalist. After being clandestine for 18 years, it was Masons from all Obediences who are most qualified in the field of 
restored in 1838 and dissolved once more in 1841. Again brought out of the esoterics. Some are even at the helm of other, more secret organizations. 
undergro und in 1848, Misraïm evolved towards its merger with the Rite of 
Memphis in 1881, which was the realization of Garibaldi. The Rite of Memphis -Misra ïm perpetuates the tradition of 
attachment to the principles of tolerance and freedom of thought which 
THE RITE OF MEMPHIS made it the refuge and recruitment ground of the Carbonaris during the 
Reign of the White Terror in the 19th Century. 
Most of the members who accompanied Bonaparte on the Mission 
in Egypt were Masons belonging to the old initiatic Rites: Philaletes, African 
Brothers, the Primitive Rite, and all were Masons of the Grand Orient of 
France. Having discovered in Cairo a Gnostic-Hermetic survival, and in 
Lebanon the Druse-Masonry that Gerard de Nerval had also met, and which 
dated back to the operative Masonry which had accompanied their 
protectors, the Templars, the Brothers of the Mission in Egypt decided to 
renounce the Masonic affiliation which had come from the Grand Lodge of 
England and to start again with a new Rite that would owe nothing to 
England, who was then the number one enemy. And thus was born the Rite 
of Memphis in 1815, in Montauban, under the direction of Samuel Harris 
and Marconis de Negre.


HISTORY OF THE RITE THE RITE OF MISRAIM 
OF
MEMPHIS -MISRAIM The first mention of the Rite was in Venice in 1788. A group of 
Socinians (an anti-trinitary Protestant sect) asked a patent of constitution 
Historically, this Masonic Obedience, that celebrated its bi- from Cagliostro who was then in Trieste (he came to Venice and stayed for 
centennial in 1988, origin ated when the two rites of Memphis and six weeks). They did not want to participate in his Magical-Kabbalistic 
Misraïm were merged in 1881 by Garibaldi, who became its first Grand rituals, so they chose to work at the Templar Rite. So Cagliostro conferred 
Master. The Rite of Misra ïm had been founded in Venice in 1788. Its their only Masonic Light. He had the first three Degrees of English 
filiation came through Cagliostro who had entrusted it with the lower Freemasonry and the higher Degrees from Germany, which was greatly 
(first) Degrees of The Grand Lodge of England and the higher Degrees influenced by the Templar tradition. The name of Misra ïm is the plural form 
of German Templar Masonry. The Rite of Memphis was constituted in of Egyptian, which is the only reminder of t his Egyptian Rite which gave 
Montauban in 1815 by Freemasons who had taken part in the Mission to their obediential personality. It spread rapidly to Milan, Genoa, Naples, and 
Egypt with Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. To these two rites were added appeared in France with Michel Bedarride who had received the Grand 
Mastery (ultimate powers) in 1810, in Naples, from B... DeLasalle. From 
initiatic Degrees which came from esoteric obediences of the 18t h
Century: The Primitive Rite, The Rite of Philadelphes, etc... 1810 to 1 813, the three Bedarride brothers successfully developed the Rite in 
France, almost under the protection of The Scottish Rite. Indeed, it had 
illustrious Masons at its helm: the Count of Muraire, Sovereign Grand 
During the 19th Century, the Carbonaris recruited members in 
Misraïm and Memphis. They had numerous Lodges in France, and some Commander of The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; the Duke Decazeo, 
of their dignitaries were very influential persons, such as the Duke the Duke of Saxe -Weimar, the Duke of Leicester, the Lieutenant General 
Decazeo and the Count Muraire, who were both Grand Commander of Baron Teste, etc... 
the Scottish Rite.
During the White Terror, Misraïm quickly became the Masonic 
In France, the Obedience is the meeting place of Masons who Obedience which transmitted the required Third Degree to the Carbonari, 
share an attraction for esoterics, hermeticism, symbolism, etc. There are 
and this group then had 22 Lodges in Paris, 6 in Lyon, 6 in Metz, 5 in 
about 90 Lodges in France, not counting the higher Degree workshops. In Toulouse, 3 in Bordeaux, 3 in Geneva, 3 in Lausanne, and 1 in Courtray. The 
these Works hops are a few hundred members among whom we find police of the restauration obtained its dissolution because it was fiercely 
Masons from all Obediences who are most qualified in the field of anticlerical and anti-royalist. After being clandestine for 18 years, it was 
esoterics. Some are even at the helm of other, more secret organizations. restored in 1838 and dissolved once more in 1841. Again brought out of the 
undergro und in 1848, Misraïm evolved towards its merger with the Rite of 
The Rite of Memphis -Misra ïm perpetuates the tradition of Memphis in 1881, which was the realization of Garibaldi. 
attachment to the principles of tolerance and freedom of thought which 
made it the refuge and recruitment ground of the Carbonaris during the THE RITE OF MEMPHIS 
Reign of the White Terror in the 19th Century.
Most of the members who accompanied Bonaparte on the Mission 
in Egypt were Masons belonging to the old initiatic Rites: Philaletes, African 
Brothers, the Primitive Rite, and all were Masons of the Grand Orient of 
France. Having discovered in Cairo a Gnostic-Hermetic survival, and in 
Lebanon the Druse-Masonry that Gerard de Nerval had also met, and which 
dated back to the operative Masonry which had accompanied their 
protectors, the Templars, the Brothers of the Mission in Egypt decided to 
renounce the Masonic affiliation which had come from the Grand Lodge of 
England and to start again with a new Rite that would owe nothing to 
England, who was then the number one enemy. And thus was born the Rite 
of Memphis in 1815, in Montauban, under the direction of Samuel Harris 
and Marconis de Negre. 


The Memphis -Misraïm higher Degree Workshops must work: the As the Rite of Misra ïm regrouped the Jacobites who were 
4th Degree (Secret Master), the 9th Degree (Master Elect of Nine), the 13th nostalgic of the Republic and the Carbonari, the Rite of Memphis 
Degree (Royal Arch), the 14th Degree (Grand Elect of the Sacred Vault), very q uickly regrouped the semi -retired of the ex-great army and the 
the 18th degree (Knight Rose-Cro ix), the 28th Degree (Knight of the Sun), Bonapartists faithful to the Eagle. The two Rites, moreover, had the 
the 30th Degree (Knight Kadosh), the 32nd Degree (Prince of the Royal same Grand Master in 1816, a prelude to the future merger. But the 
Secret), and the 33rd Degree (Sovereign Grand Inspector General). The Grand Orient was then monarchist in its majority, its seal was 
66th Degree (Patriarch Grand Consecrator) is conferred only to certain comprised of the Fleur-de-Lis, and it succeeded in obtaining the 
Brothers who could be called upon to act as Consecrator, and a certain dissolution of Memphis. But that did not last, however, and in 1826 
particular preparation is required. Some have compared it to an Episcopal this Rite took up its work again inside the same Grand Orient. 
Consecration. Dissolved in 1841, just like Misra ïm, Memphis also became 
clandestine and returned from the underground only in 1848, with the 
The 87th, 88th, 89th, and 90th Degrees comprise what is referred advent of the Republic. Dissolved again in 1850, reactivated in 1853, 
to in textbooks as the Arcana Arcanorum. Those who are admitted to the Memphis join ed the Grand Orient in 1862 because it was obliged to 
95th Degree become the protectors and conservators of the Rite as their do so by a decision of the Prince-President. With numerous Lodges 
name, Patriarch Grand Conservator, indicates. It is among them that the abroad, it had illustrious people within its ranks, such as Louis Blanc, 
International Grand Master chooses the members who serve on the and Garibaldi, who soon became the unifier of Memphis and 
International Sovereign Sanctuary, supreme governing body of the Rite. Misraïm. 

Additionally, the 66th, 90th, and 95 Degrees may be conferred on 
Masons compense for their valor, their knowledge, and their fidelity; in re THE RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAIM 
the 95th Degree confers upon them the right to sit on the “Council of 
Sages” in their quality as Grand Conservator of the Rite. The Rites of Memphis and Misra ïm, until 1881, followed 
parallel roads and even in concert in the same particular climate. 
Other Degrees , such as the Royal Arch, are not mandatory and are Indeed, the Rites begin to regroup Masons of the Grand Orient of 
left to the choice of the Brothers. Knighthood (Chivalry) is transmitted to France and of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite who were 
certain Brothers with the 20th Degree (Knights Templar or Knight of the interested by the studies of the esoterics of Masonic symbolism: 
Temple), descended directly from the Ancient Strict Templar Observance Gnosis, Kabbalah, even Hermetics and Occultism. Now, these two 
and the Knights Beneficent of the Holy City of Jean-Baptiste Willermoz. Rites had inherited and were the depositors of the old initiatic 
Obediences of the 18th Century: The Rite of Philalethes, The Rite of 
The Lodges of Memphis -Misraïm work the Egyptian Rite. On their Philadelphia, The Hermetic Rite, The Primitive Rite, etc., and all this 
altars, they add to the traditional interlacing of the Compass and Square, the represented, in Misra ïm: 90 Degrees; and in Memphis: 95 Degrees. 
Rule, symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe and of Divine Law. How to administer and use this ill -assorted ensemble? When 
Garibaldi was appointed the first International Grand Master, “ad 
Since March 1990, the President of the National Council elect in- vitam” (the Brothers abroad had not suffered the political 
sures the administration of all the Blue Lodges of the Rite in France and in persecutions like in France), a kind of classification was made, which 
the Associate Countries. was not hierarchical in the beginning but which quickly became such. 
In fact, the 95 Degrees of the Rite of Memphis -Misra ïm should be 
On the 10th of 1991, the French Obedience was admitted May, considered an ambulatory where rests old Masonic Degrees that are 
into C.L.I.P.S.A.S. (Center of Liaison and Information of the Masonic Po w- not practiced anymore, or very little, and not as a scale of values. 
ers, Signatories of the Call of Strasbourg), thus registering its action on the Furthermore, the agreements of 1863 with the Grand Orient of 
sides of European and liberal Freemasonry. France, and of 1896 with the Grand Lodge of the Scottish Rite, which 
was to become the the Grand Lodge o f France, speak only of the 
The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm perpetuates its traditions of fidelity classical 33 Degrees (Rite of Perfection, followed by the Ancient and 
to democratic principles and to the initiatic Sciences. Accepted Scottish Rite). 


As the Rite of Misra ïm regrouped the Jacobites who were The Memphis -Misra ïm higher Degree Workshops must work: the 
nostalgic of the Republic and the Carbonari, the Rite of Memphis 4th Degree (Secret Master), the 9th Degree (Master Elect of Nine), the 13th 
very q uickly regrouped the semi -retired of the ex-great army and the Degree (Royal Arch), the 14th Degree (Grand Elect of the Sacred Vault), 
Bonapartists faithful to the Eagle. The two Rites, moreover, had the the 18th degree (Knight Rose-Cro ix), the 28th Degree (Knight of the Sun), 
same Grand Master in 1816, a prelude to the future merger. But the the 30th Degree (Knight Kadosh), the 32nd Degree (Prince of the Royal 
Grand Orient was then monarchist in its majority, its seal was Secret), and the 33rd Degree (Sovereign Grand Inspector General). The 
comprised of the Fleur-de-Lis, and it succeeded in obtaining the 66th Degree (Patriarch Grand Consecrator) is conferred only to certain 
dissolution of Memphis. But that did not last, however, and in 1826 Brothers who could be called upon to act as Consecrator, and a certain 
this Rite took up its work again inside the same Grand Orient. particular preparation is required. Some have compared it to an Episcopal 
Dissolved in 1841, just like Misra ïm, Memphis also became Consecration. 
clandestine and returned from the underground only in 1848, with the 
advent of the Republic. Dissolved again in 1850, reactivated in 1853, The 87th, 88th, 89th, and 90th Degrees comprise what is referred 
Memphis join ed the Grand Orient in 1862 because it was obliged to to in textbooks as the Arcana Arcanorum. Those who are admitted to the 
do so by a decision of the Prince-President. With numerous Lodges 95th Degree become the protectors and conservators of the Rite as their 
abroad, it had illustrious people within its ranks, such as Louis Blanc, name, Patriarch Grand Conservator, indicates. It is among them that the 
and Garibaldi, who soon became the unifier of Memphis and International Grand Master chooses the members who serve on the 
Misraïm. International Sovereign Sanctuary, supreme governing body of the Rite. 

Additionally, the 66th, 90th, and 95 Degrees may be conferred on 
THE RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAIM Masons in recompense for their valor, their knowledge, and their fidelity; 
the 95th Degree confers upon them the right to sit on the “Council of 
The Rites of Memphis and Misra ïm, until 1881, followed Sages” in their quality as Grand Conservator of the Rite. 
parallel roads and even in concert in the same particular climate. 
Indeed, the Rites begin to regroup Masons of the Grand Orient of Other Degrees , such as the Royal Arch, are not mandatory and are 
France and of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite who were left to the choice of the Brothers. Knighthood (Chivalry) is transmitted to 
interested by the studies of the esoterics of Masonic symbolism: certain Brothers with the 20th Degree (Knights Templar or Knight of the 
Gnosis, Kabbalah, even Hermetics and Occultism. Now, these two Temple), descended directly from the Ancient Strict Templar Observance 
Rites had inherited and were the depositors of the old initiatic and the Knights Beneficent of the Holy City of Jean-Baptiste Willermoz. 
Obediences of the 18th Century: The Rite of Philalethes, The Rite of 
Philadelphia, The Hermetic Rite, The Primitive Rite, etc., and all this The Lodges of Memphis -Misraïm work the Egyptian Rite. On their 
represented, in Misra ïm: 90 Degrees; and in Memphis: 95 Degrees. altars, they add to the traditional interlacing of the Compass and Square, the 
How to administer and use this ill -assorted ensemble? When Rule, symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe and of Divine Law. 
Garibaldi was appointed the first International Grand Master, “ad 
vitam” (the Brothers abroad had not suffered the political Since March 1990, the President of the National Council elect in­
persecutions like in France), a kind of classification was made, which sures the administration of all the Blue Lodges of the Rite in France and in 
was not hierarchical in the beginning but which quickly became such. the Associate Countries. 
In fact, the 95 Degrees of the Rite of Memphis -Misra ïm should be 
considered an ambulatory where rests old Masonic Degrees that are On the 10th of May, 1991, the French Obedience was admitted 
not practiced anymore, or very little, and not as a scale of values. into C.L.I.P.S.A.S. (Center of Liaison and Information of the Masonic Po w­
Furthermore, the agreements of 1863 with the Grand Orient of ers, Signatories of the Call of Strasbourg), thus registering its action on the 
France, and of 1896 with the Grand Lodge of the Scottish Rite, which sides of European and liberal Freemasonry. 
was to become the the Grand Lodge o f France, speak only of the 
classical 33 Degrees (Rite of Perfection, followed by the Ancient and The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm perpetuates its traditions of fidelity 
Accepted Scottish Rite). to democratic principles and to the initiatic Sciences. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The Rite remembers its dead with honor - the Grand Master Constant 
CHEVILLON was assassinated by the Vichy militia in 1944, and Brother D E­
LAIVE, the Grand Master of Belgium, was beheaded by the Nazis the previous 
year. 
The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm actually gathers a few thousand 
members, mainly in Europe. It had, in the early part of the 20th Century, 
several thousand members in South America, but the political situation in 
the countries of that continent has been detrimental to all Masonry for many 
years and only recently has begun to spring up again. The Rite has Lodges 
in France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, Italy, Canada, the United States, 
Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Haiti, Australia, certain countries of Af-
rica, Madagascar, etc. Since the first General Grand Master, Garibaldi, the 
direction of the Rite has been assumed by various Grand Masters, among 
them: Dr. Gerard Encausse (PAPUS), Charles Detre (alias Teder), Jean Bri-
caud, Constant Chevillion, Charles-Henri Dupont, Robert Ambelain, 
Gerard Kloppel and George Claude Vieilledent, the latter since August, 
19 98. In 1964, the Lodges in South America decided that the International 
Grand Master should be from a French-speaking nation, and that the Rite's 
general headquarters should be in Paris. However, as of the International 
Sovereign Sanctuary meeting of August 14-18, 1998, held in New York, it 
was agreed that the title of Grand Master “ad vitam” (for life) was archaic, 
and that this should be eliminated. The President of the International Sover-
eign Sanctuary would assume the title of International Grand Master for a 
set term of office, after which a new International Grand Master would be 
elected from among the Grand Masters of the various National Sovereign 
Sanctuaries throughout the world where the Rite of Memphis -Misraïm has 
Lodges. The individual thus elected would hold the office for one term 
only, and would not be permitted to succeed himself.




The Rite remembers its dead with honor - the Grand Master Constant RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 
CHEVILLON was assassinated by the Vichy militia in 1944, and Brother DE-
LAIVE, the Grand Master of Belgium, was beheaded by the Nazis the previous 
year.
The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm actually gathers a few thousand 
members, mainly in Europe. It had, in the early part of the 20th Century, 
several thousand members in South America, but the political situation in 
the countries of that continent has been detrimental to all Masonry for many 
years and only recently has begun to spring up again. The Rite has Lodges 
in France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, Italy, Canada, the United States, 
Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Haiti, Australia, certain countries of Af­
rica, Madagascar, etc. Since the first General Grand Master, Garibaldi, the 
direction of the Rite has been assumed by various Grand Masters, among 
them: Dr. Gerard Encausse (PAPUS), Charles Detre (alias Teder), Jean Bri­
caud, Constant Chevillion, Charles-Henri Dupont, Robert Ambelain, 
Gerard Kloppel and George Claude Vieilledent, the latter since August, 
199 8. In 1964, the Lodges in South America decided that the International 
Grand Master should be from a French-speaking nation, and that the Rite's 
general headquarters should be in Paris. However, as of the International 
Sovereign Sanctuary meeting of August 14-18, 1998, held in New York, it 
was agreed that the title of Grand Master “ad vitam” (for life) was archaic, 
and that this should be eliminated. The President of the International Sover­
eign Sanctuary would assume the title of International Grand Master for a 
set term of office, after which a new International Grand Master would be 
elected from among the Grand Masters of the various National Sovereign 
Sanctuaries throughout the world where the Rite of Memphis -Misraïm has 
Lodges. The individual thus elected would hold the office for one term 
only, and would not be permitted to succeed himself. 




THE DIFFERENT FRENCH OBEDIENCES :



- The GRAND ORIENT OF FRANCE is a federation of Rites. It 
was founded in 1773. Numerically t his Obedience is the most important. 

- The GRAND LODGE OF FRANCE was founded in 1894. All its 
Lodges work the same Rite. 

- The GRAND LODGE FEMININE OF FRANCE worked, in the 
beginning, with the Grand Lodge of France. It acquired its independence in 
1901. 

- The INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION "DROIT HUMAIN" 
whose origin goes back to 1882, is an Obedience which gathers men and 
women. This International Order is represented throughout the world. 

Other more recent Obediences enrich universal Freemasonry by 
their diversities, among these are, namely: 



The GRAND LODGE TRADITIONAL And SYMBOLIC OPERA

The UNIVERSAL MIXED GRAND LODGE

The MIXED GRAND LODGE OF FRANCE



The ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM 
maintains privileged relations with these Obediences. They have been par-
ticularly developed in the course of the last few years.




THE DIFFERENT FRENCH OBEDIENCES : 



- The GRAND ORIENT OF FRANCE is a federation of Rites. It 
was founded in 1773. Numerically t his Obedience is the most important. 

- The GRAND LODGE OF FRANCE was founded in 1894. All its 
Lodges work the same Rite. 

- The GRAND LODGE FEMININE OF FRANCE worked, in the 
beginning, with the Grand Lodge of France. It acquired its independence in 
1901. 

- The INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION "DROIT HUMAIN" 
whose origin goes back to 1882, is an Obedience which gathers men and 
women. This International Order is represented throughout the world. 

Other more recent Obediences enrich universal Freemasonry by 
their diversities, among these are, namely: 



The GRAND LODGE TRADITIONAL And SYMBOLIC OPERA 

The UNIVERSAL MIXED GRAND LODGE 

The MIXED GRAND LODGE OF FRANCE 



The ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM 
maintains privileged relations with these Obediences. They have been par­
ticularly developed in the course of the last few years. 




SOME STATEMENTS FOR YOUR BETTER UNDERSTANDING: A BRIEF OVERVIEW : 

The Masonic Order is a carrier of promises. The Masonic Lodge is 
a hope. In its fullness it prepares man, by way of Initiation, to assume his The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm is the oldest French Obedience after 
evolution. the Grand Orient of France. Its origin goes back more than 200 years. 

Freemasons are builders. From the necessity of the apprenticeship, This Rite is, at the present time in relations with most of the French 
to the necessity of the trial. Freemasonry testifies that one could live his life 
and foreign Obediences. Its strength, its vigor and its repute is founded more 
in a healthy and fruitful activity and this by an altruism freed of its hin- on its specific features than on the number of its members. 
drances. 
An international Masonry, the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Mem­
The Lodge invites each to go towards himself. The free man is the phis -Misraïm is present in the United States, Canada, South America, the 
product of the work that he accomplishes. The Freemason therefore defeats Antilles, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australia, Europe, and elsewhere. 
his passions and dies to himself in order to be born again to his state of Ini-
tiation. In France, the Rite gathers Masons who share an affinity for Sy m­
bolism, Esotericism and Hermeticism. 
The application to enter into the Masonic Order is a sign of a 
search and of a commitment. This desire of going beyond oneself entails An Obedience defining itself as "Symbolic, Traditional and In i­
another vision for the profane of his duties - in the first place, to a concept tiatic," Memphis -Misraïm constitutes in fact two branches: one exclusively 
of the Divine, then to Humanity, and finally, towards himself. masculine, the other feminine. 

This birth into a new existence, is the delivery in question of the In France, the Rite amounts to about a thousand members, among 
being. This is the key to Initiation. them some esotericists of a very high level of which some are at the head of 
more closed Organizations. 
One doesn't enter into Freemasonry as one enters into religion, one 
will have understood it! The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm perpetuates besides, the tradition of 
attachment to the principles of tolerance and liberty of thought which made 
The Masonic engagement constitutes nothing other than the search 
it, in the 19th Century, under the White Terror, the refuge and nursery of the 
for personal harmony, put into concrete form first through the Lodge to Carbonari. 
which one becomes affiliated. 

This awareness is acquired progressively, already by the exercise 
of rituals, but also by a totality of work. The symbolic studies in particular, 
allows to define the place that occupies Man among the other kingdoms 
that is the mineral, the vegetable, the animal, in order to result in striving 
for justification with the regard to the Univers e, that is to say who goes 
"toward the United." 

Otherwise, as it is established that Freemasonry has brought many 
to Humanity, it is important to remember here that, victim of intolerance, it 
has paid a heavy price for its contribution.


A BRIEF OVERVIEW : SOME STATEMENTS FOR YOUR BETTER UNDERSTANDING: 

The Masonic Order is a carrier of promises. The Masonic Lodge is 
The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm is the oldest French Obedience after 
a hope. In its fullness it prepares man, by way of Initiation, to assume his 
the Grand Orient of France. Its origin goes back more than 200 years. evolution. 

This Rite is, at the present time in relations with most of the French Freemasons are builders. From the necessity of the apprenticeship, 
and foreign Obediences. Its strength, its vigor and its repute is founded more 
to the necessity of the trial. Freemasonry testifies that one could live his life 
on its specific features than on the number of its members. in a healthy and fruitful activity and this by an altruism freed of its hin­
drances. 
An international Masonry, the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Mem-
phis -Misraïm is present in the United States, Canada, South America, the 
The Lodge invites each to go towards himself. The free man is the 
Antilles, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australia, Europe, and elsewhere. product of the work that he accomplishes. The Freemason therefore defeats 
his passions and dies to himself in order to be born again to his state of Ini­
In France, the Rite gathers Masons who share an affinity for Sym- tiation. 
bolism, Esotericism and Hermeticism. 
The application to enter into the Masonic Order is a sign of a 
An Obedience defining itself as "Symbolic, Traditional and In i- search and of a commitment. This desire of going beyond oneself entails 
tiatic," Memphis -Misraïm constitutes in fact two branches: one exclusively another vision for the profane of his duties - in the first place, to a concept 
masculine, the other feminine. of the Divine, then to Humanity, and finally, towards himself. 

In France, the Rite amounts to about a thousand members, among This birth into a new existence, is the delivery in question of the 
them some esotericists of a very high level of which some are at the head of being. This is the key to Initiation. 
more closed Organizations. 
One doesn't enter into Freemasonry as one enters into religion, one 
The Rite of Memphis -Misraïm perpetuates besides, the tradition of will have understood it! 
attachment to the principles of tolerance and liberty of thought which made 
The Masonic engagement constitutes nothing other than the search 
it, in the 19th Century, under the White Terror, the refuge and nursery of the 
Carbonari. for personal harmony, put into concrete form first through the Lodge to 
which one becomes affiliated. 

This awareness is acquired progressively, already by the exercise 
of rituals, but also by a totality of work. The symbolic studies in particular, 
allows to define the place that occupies Man among the other kingdoms 
that is the mineral, the vegetable, the animal, in order to result in striving 
for justification with the regard to the Univers e, that is to say who goes 
"toward the United." 

Otherwise, as it is established that Freemasonry has brought many 
to Humanity, it is important to remember here that, victim of intolerance, it 
has paid a heavy price for its contribution. 




Conscious of the limits of this century of science and technology yet The Lodge is, symbolically, a closed and sacred place. It is in this 
powerful in its foundation inherited from the Temples of M emphis, the Rite place, in this Workshop, that the bonds and privileged relationships of Lib­
invites each to pass from the rational Knowing of today, in the strict sense of erty, Equality, and Fraternity will be instituted between the Brothers . 
the term, to inner Knowledge. 
Masonic discipline is founded on a Tradition, it sets to work a hu­
It invites its members to become part of a process, and a living inte- man and sacred experience, it constitutes a liberating Authority. 
gration of the Symbolic, which is neither intellectual or morally judgmental. 
This system is a renewed vision of the world at the dawn of the XXIst century. The degrees of instruction conferred by the Order of Memphis -
Misraïm are divided into three series which constitute: 
If modern Freemasonry feels sometimes a hesitation to enroll in the 
historic flow of the world, it is because after having lived as a journeyman - from the First to the Third Degree, SYMBOLIC Masonry, 
from 1723 until today, it has collided with the limits of its immense desire to - from the Fourth to the Thirty-Third Degree, PHILOSOPHICAL 
progress. Masonry, 
- from the Thirty-Fourth to the Ninetieth Degree, HERMETIC or 
Freemasonry continues its desire to arrive at universal fraternity ESOT ERIC Masonry. (The grades above the Ninetieth are Administrative in 
through education, as well as through life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. nature, and are reserved for the members of the various Sovereign Sanctuar­
ies). 
However, despite its best efforts, we still see poverty, injustice, self-
is hness, and tyranny active in today’s world. SYMBOLIC Masonry gives an explanation of symbolism and dis­
poses the beginnings of philosophical research. 
The "fight for profane Life" appears to have taken modern Masonry 
out of the "fight for Spiritual Love." The possession of material goods does PHILOSOPHICAL Masonry teaches the philosophy of history, as 
not - and cannot - satisfy the Soul and Mind. well as the ancient myths. Its object is to put the student on the track of origi­
nal research of the causes and effects. 
The Temple of Man and Humanity must be raised. The Rite of Mem-
phis -Misraïm invites all beings of good will, who are not satisfied with words HERMETIC and ESOTERIC Masonry is occupied with high phi­
alone, and for whom enlightened acts constitute the only real contribution to losophy, studies the religious myths of the different ages of Humanity and 
the good of Humanity, to this immense worksite, and partake. admits the most advanced philosophical and esoteric work. 

The Ancient and Primitive Rite Memphis -Misraïm addresses itself to 
sincere seekers, desirous of perfecting themselves by working on symbolism 
and esotericism, notably anxious to search for the elements to answer the seri-
ous problems of our times.




The Lodge is, symbolically, a closed and sacred place. It is in this Conscious of the limits of this century of science and technology yet 
place, in this Workshop, that the bonds and privileged relationships of Lib- powerful in its foundation inherited from the Temples of M emphis, the Rite 
erty, Equality, and Fraternity will be instituted between the Brothers . invites each to pass from the rational Knowing of today, in the strict sense of 
the term, to inner Knowledge. 
Masonic discipline is founded on a Tradition, it sets to work a hu-
man and sacred experience, it constitutes a liberating Authority. It invites its members to become part of a process, and a living inte­
gration of the Symbolic, which is neither intellectual or morally judgmental. 
The degrees of instruction conferred by the Order of Memphis - This system is a renewed vision of the world at the dawn of the XXIst century. 
Misraïm are divided into three series which constitute: 
If modern Freemasonry feels sometimes a hesitation to enroll in the 
- from the First to the Third Degree, SYMBOLIC Masonry, historic flow of the world, it is because after having lived as a journeyman 
- from the Fourth to the Thirty-Third Degree, PHILOSOPHICAL from 1723 until today, it has collided with the limits of its immense desire to 
Masonry, progress. 
- from the Thirty-Fourth to the Ninetieth Degree, HERMETIC or 
ESOT ERIC Masonry. (The grades above the Ninetieth are Administrative in Freemasonry continues its desire to arrive at universal fraternity 
nature, and are reserved for the members of the various Sovereign Sanctuar- through education, as well as through life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 
ies).
However, despite its best efforts, we still see poverty, injustice, self­
SYMBOLIC Masonry gives an explanation of symbolism and dis- is hness, and tyranny active in today’s world. 
poses the beginnings of philosophical research. 
The "fight for profane Life" appears to have taken modern Masonry 
PHILOSOPHICAL Masonry teaches the philosophy of history, as out of the "fight for Spiritual Love." The possession of material goods does 
well as the ancient myths. Its object is to put the student on the track of origi- not - and cannot - satisfy the Soul and Mind. 
nal research of the causes and effects. 
The Temple of Man and Humanity must be raised. The Rite of Mem­
HERMETIC and ESOTERIC Masonry is occupied with high phi- phis -Misraïm invites all beings of good will, who are not satisfied with words 
losophy, studies the religious myths of the different ages of Humanity and alone, and for whom enlightened acts constitute the only real contribution to 
admits the most advanced philosophical and esoteric work. the good of Humanity, to this immense worksite, and partake. 

The Ancient and Primitive Rite Memphis -Misraïm addresses itself to 
sincere seekers, desirous of perfecting themselves by working on symbolism 
and esotericism, notably anxious to search for the elements to answer the seri­
ous problems of our times. 




MEMPHIS -MISRAÏM, A RITE FOR THE FUTURE THE INTERNATIONAL GRAND-MASTERS: 

1838 Jean Etienne MARCONIS France 
The Freemasonry of tomorrow will be even more united in order to 
1869 Marquis de BEAUREGARD Egypt 
contribute to man’s success in becoming enriched by his differences. 1874 Salvadtore A. ZOLA Egypt 
1881 Joseph GARIBALDI* Italy 
Today, Freemasonry gathers in the world about seven million men 1900 Ferdinand DELLI ODI Italy 
and women. According to their sensitivity and their aspirations, they are 
1902 John YARKER Great Britain
based on humanist and social or spiritual and esoteric foundations; these peo- 1913 Theodore REUSS Germany 
ple are divided into different Obediences and practice various different Rites. 1936 Guérino TROILO Argentina 
1946 Georges LAGREZE France 
But, whatever their specificities, they meet in the first three levels, 
1966 Robert AMBELAIN France 
or Degrees, which constitutes a non-dogmatic center of individual perfection 1985 Gérard KLOPPEL France 
and the basis of Universal Masonry. 
In 1990, the title of the International Presiding Officer was changed. And the 
In the symbolic plan, which constitutes a method of perfection, the President of the International Sovereign Sanctuary now serves for a term of 
Mason must trim the "Rough Ashlar," which means, symbolically, to remove three years. 
little by little the being of his imperfections thus permitting himself to pro-
gress toward Knowledge. The Initiation orientates him on the path, it will be President of the International Sovereign Sanctuary: 
the developer. 
1998 Georges Claude VIEILLEDENT France 
All Masonry is thus in essence, initiatic, and the Light given to the 
profane is the same whatever the Obedience where it is diffused. It is only in The Sovereign Grand Masters of the USA: 
the development of this Light that the different sensitivities will define them-
selves. 1998 Ronald Cappello 

The principal specificities of the Order Memphis -Misraïm reside in Since 1998, the Sovereign Grand Master of the USA has the title of 
the following principles: President of the National Council. He is elected by the National Council for a 
period of three years. 
- to vivify the Tradition transmitted by Ancient Egypt;
- to develop the spiritual value of the initiatic quest; No religious test shall ever be required of any petitioner for the 
- to inspire an opening whereby in telligence of the heart and esoteric benefits of Masonry other than a steadfast belief in the existence and perfec­
knowledge harmonize in our time; tion of a Supreme Being and no Lodge in this Rite shall receive any candi­
- to practice a Rite that permits man to find the way to his own date without the acknowledgment of such belief. Lodges work with the tradi­
interior realization. tional Square, Compass, and Sacred Book, to which they add the Ruler which 
symbolizes the Great Architect of the Universe and the Divine Law. 









*First International Grand Master 




THE INTERNATIONAL GRAND-MASTERS: MEMPHIS -MISRAÏM, A RITE FOR THE FUTURE 

1838 Jean Etienne MARCONIS France 
1869 Marquis de BEAUREGARD Egypt The Freemasonry of tomorrow will be even more united in order to 
1874 Salvadtore A. ZOLA Egypt contribute to man’s success in becoming enriched by his differences. 
1881 Joseph GARIBALDI* Italy 
1900 Ferdinand DELLI ODI Italy Today, Freemasonry gathers in the world about seven million men 
1902 John YARKER Great Britain and women. According to their sensitivity and their aspirations, they are 
1913 Theodore REUSS Germany based on humanist and social or spiritual and esoteric foundations; these peo­
1936 Guérino TROILO Argentina ple are divided into different Obediences and practice various different Rites. 
1946 Georges LAGREZE France 
1966 Robert AMBELAIN France But, whatever their specificities, they meet in the first three levels, 
1985 Gérard KLOPPEL France or Degrees, which constitutes a non-dogmatic center of individual perfection 
and the basis of Univers al Masonry. 
In 1990, the title of the International Presiding Officer was changed. And the 
President of the International Sovereign Sanctuary now serves for a term of In the symbolic plan, which constitutes a method of perfection, the 
three years. Mason must trim the "Rough Ashlar," which means, symbolically, to remove 
little by little the being of his imperfections thus permitting himself to pro­
President of the International Sovereign Sanctuary: gress toward Knowledge. The Initiation orientates him on the path, it will be 
the developer. 
1998 Georges Claude VIEILLEDENT France
All Masonry is thus in essence, initiatic, and the Light given to the 
The Sovereign Grand Masters of the USA: profane is the same whatever the Obedience where it is diffused. It is only in 
the development of this Light that the different sensitivities will define them-
1998 Ronald Cappello selves. 

Since 1998, the Sovereign Grand Master of the USA has the title of The principal specificities of the Order Memphis -Misraïm reside in 
President of the National Council. He is elected by the National Council for a the following principles: 
period of three years.
- to vivify the Tradition transmitted by Ancient Egypt; 
No religious test shall ever be required of any petitioner for the - to develop the spiritual value of the initiatic quest; 
benefits of Masonry other than a steadfast belief in the existence and perfec- - to inspire an opening whereby in telligence of the heart and esoteric 
tion of a Supreme Being and no Lodge in this Rite shall receive any candi- knowledge harmonize in our time; 
date without the acknowledgment of such belief. Lodges work with the tradi- - to practice a Rite that permits man to find the way to his own 
tional Square, Compass, and Sacred Book, to which they add the Ruler which interior realization. 
symbolizes the Great Architect of the Universe and the Divine Law.



*First International Grand Master


Was Jesus really Jewish?

Posted on Sunday, October 15, 2006

L' illustre Fratello massone del GOI Vittorio Vanni sul 2012 !

Posted on Sunday, October 15, 2006--- Vittorio Vanni wrote:

>
> Caro Leo,
> non me ne frega nulla della piscina e non ci penso
> nemmeno a riposarmi.
> Ho investito tutti i miei risparmi in kalasnikof e
> passo i miei scarsi
> ritagli di tempo a lubrificarli.
> Nel 2012 avrò solo 70 anni e l'artrosi al dito
> indice della mano destra mi
> sarà risparmiata.
>
>
> Sto armando inoltre una nave corsara per ripulire il
> Mediterraneo dagli
> imbecilli. Il suo vessilo è sopra riprodotto e non
> sarà mai ammainato perché
> la madre degli imbecilli è sempre incinta.
> A noi, Fratelli della costa!
> Victor, dit Lascomune.
>
 

Vittorio Vanni è un notissimo saggista e pubblicista con 3 libri al suo attivo (saggi di storia della Massoneria e di filosofia esoterologica o metafisica come lui l’ama chiamare), numerosissime presentazioni e prefazioni a saggi di argomento filosofico ed esoteriologico, centinaia di articoli pubblicati su numerosissime riviste in Italia e all’estero; storico delle religioni ed esperto indiscusso di simbolismo, direttore e curatore , insieme a Ovidio La pera, da ormai qualche anno, della collana martinista della Casa Editrice Chiari di Firenze, fa infine parte del Comitato di Redazione di Hiram, rivista ufficiale del Grande Oriente d’Italia ed è componente effettivo ormai da molti anni del Comitato di Revisione dei rituali del Grande Oriente d’Italia, il più antico e riconosciuto Ordine Iniziatico Massonico italiano.

Le secret ...

Posted on Sunday, October 15, 2006

 

FROM THE LETTERS OF ILLUMINATION OF SAID NURSI A TRUE MASTER

Posted on Sunday, October 15, 2006

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,
THE MERCIFUL, THE COMPASSIONATE
And from Him do we seek help
The First Letter

In His Name, be He glorified!
And there is nothing but it glorifies Him with praise.

[This consists of the brief answers to four questions]

FIRST QUESTION
Is Hazrat Khidr alive? If he is alive, why do some important religious scholars not accept this?
T h e A n s w e r : He is alive, but there are five degrees of life. He is at the second degree. It is because of this that some religious scholars have been doubtful about it.
The First Level of Life is that of our life, which is very restricted.
The Second Level of Life is that of the lives of Khidr and Ilyas (May Allah grant them peace), which is free to an extent. That is to say, they can be present in numerous places at the same time. They are not permanently restricted by the requirements of humanity like us. They can eat and drink like us when they want to, but are not compelled to like us. The saints are those who uncover and witness the realities of creation, and the reports of their adventures with Khidr are unanimous and elucidate and prove this level of life. There is even one degree of sainthood which is called ‘the degree of Khidr.’ A saint who reaches this degree receives instruction from Khidr and meets with him. But sometimes the one at that degree is mistakenly thought to be Khidr himself.
The Third Level of Life is that of Idris and Jesus (May Allah grant them peace) which, being removed from the requirements of humanity, enters an angelic life and acquires a luminous fineness. Quite simply, Idris and Jesus are present in the heavens with their earthly bodies, which have the subtlety of bodies from the World of Similitudes and the luminosity of star-like bodies. The Hadith the meaning of which is, “At the end of time, Jesus (Upon whom be peace) will come and will act in accordance with the Shari’a of Muhammed (PBUH),†indicates that at the end of time the religion of Christianity will be purified and divest itself of superstition in the face of the current of unbelief and atheism born of Naturalist philosophy, and will be transformed into Islam. At this point, just as the collective personality of Christianity will kill the fearsome collective personality of irreligion with the sword of heavenly Revelation, so too, representing the collective personality of Christianity, Jesus (Upon whom be peace) will kill the Dajjal, who represents the collective personality of irreligion, that is, he will kill atheistic thought.
The Fourth Level of Life is that of the martyrs. According to the Qur’an, the martyrs have a level of life higher than that of the other dead in their graves. Since the martyrs sacrificed their worldly lives in the way of truth, in His perfect munificence, Almighty Allah bestows on them in the Intermediate Realm a life resembling earthly life, but without the sorrow and hardship. They do not know themselves to be dead, thinking only that they have gone to a better world. They enjoy themselves in perfect happiness and do not suffer the pains of separation that accompany death. For sure the spirits of the dead are immortal, but they know themselves to be dead. The happiness and pleasure they experience in the Intermediate World are not equal to that of the martyrs. Like if two men in their dreams enter a beautiful palace resembling Paradise; one knows that he is dreaming and the pleasure and enjoyment he receives are deficient. He thinks: “If I wake up, all this enjoyment will disappear.†While the other man does not know he is dreaming, and he experiences true happiness and pleasure.
The way the martyrs and other dead benefit from life in the Intermediate Realm is thus different. It has been established by innumerable incidents and narrations and it is certain that the martyrs manifest life in that way and think that they are alive. Indeed, this level of life has been illuminated and proved on repeated occasions by many occurrences like Hamza (May Allah be pleased with him) - the lord of the martyrs - protecting those that have recourse to him and performing and making performed matters in this world. I myself, even, had a nephew and student called Ubeyd. He was killed at my side and in my place and became a martyr. Then, when I was being held as a prisoner-of-war at a place three months’ distance away, I entered his grave in a true dream, which was in the form of a dwelling-place under the earth, although I did not know where he was buried. I saw him living the level of life of martyrs. He evidently thought that I was dead, and said that he had wept much for me. He thought that he was alive, but having retreated from the Russian invasion, had made himself a good home under the ground. Thus, through a number of conditions and indications, this unimportant dream afforded the conviction as certain as witnessing it concerning the above-mentioned truth.
The Fifth Level of Life is that of the life of the spirits of the dead in their graves. Yes, death is a change of residence, the liberation of the spirit, a discharge from duties; it is not annihilation, non-existence, and a going to nothingness. Many evidences like innumerable occurrences of the spirits of the saints assuming forms and appearing to those who uncover the realities, and the other dead having relations with us while awake or sleeping and their telling us of things that are conformable with reality, - evidences like these illuminate and prove this level of life. In fact, the Twenty-Ninth Word about the immortality of man’s spirit demonstrates this level of life with incontrovertible proofs.
SECOND QUESTION
Verses like the following in the All-Wise Qur’an, the Criterion of Truth and Falsehood,
Who creates death and life that He may try you, which of you is the best in conduct,
make it understood that “like life, death too is created, and it too is bounty.†Whereas apparently death is dissolution, non-existence, decay, the extinction of life, the annihilator of pleasures; how can it be created and a bounty?
T h e A n s w e r : As was stated at the end of the answer to the First Question, death is a discharge from the duties of life; it is a rest, a change of residence, a change of existence; it is an invitation to an eternal life, a beginning, the introduction to an immortal life. Just as life comes into the world is through a creation and a determining, so too departure from the world is through a creation and determining, through a wise and purposeful direction. For the death of plant life, the simplest level of life, shows that it is a more orderly work of art than life. For although the death of fruits, seeds, and grains appear to occur through decaying, rotting, and dissolution, their death is in fact a kneading which comprises an exceedingly well-ordered chemical reaction and well-balanced combining of elements and wise formation of particles; this unseen, well-ordered and wise death appears through the life of the new shoots. That is to say, the death of the seed is the start of life of the shoot; indeed, since it is like life itself, this death is created and well-ordered as much as is life.
Moreover, since the death of the fruits of living beings and animals in the human stomach is the beginning of their rising to the level of human life, it may be said “such a death is more orderly and created than their own life.â€
Thus, if the death of plant life, the lowest level of life, is thus created, wise, and ordered, so also must be the death that befalls human life, the most elevated level of life. And like a seed sown in the ground becomes a tree in the world of the air, so too a man who is laid in the earth will surely produce the shoots of an everlasting life in the Intermediate Realm.
As for the aspects of death that are bounties, we shall point out tour of them.
The First: It is a great bounty because it is a being freed from the duties and obligations of life, which have become burdensome, and because it is a door through which to join and be united with the ninety-nine out of a hundred of one’s friends who are already in the Intermediate Realm.
The Second: It is a release from the narrow, irksome, turbulent, and agitated prison of this world, and, manifesting an expansive, joyful, troublefree immortal life, it is to enter the sphere of mercy of the Eternally Beloved One.
The Third: There are numerous factors like old age which make the conditions of life arduous and show death to be a bounty far superior to life. For example, if together with your very elderly parents who cause you much distress were now in front of you your grandfather's grandfathers in all their pitiful state, you would understand what a calamity is life, and what a bounty, death. Also for example, it is understood how difficult are the lives in the conditions of winter of the beautiful flying insects, the lovers of the beautiful flowers, ... and what mercy are their deaths.
The Fourth: Just as sleep is a comfort, a mercy, a rest, particularly for those afflicted by disaster and the wounded and the sick, so too is death, the elder brother of sleep, a pure bounty and mercy for those struck by disaster and suffering tribulations which drive them to suicide. However, as is proved decisively in many of the Words, for the people of misguidance, like life, death too is pure torment, pure affliction, but it is outside the discussion here.
THIRD QUESTION
Where is Hell?
T h e A n s w e r:
Say: the knowledge is with Allah alone * None knows the Unseen save Allah.
According to some narrations, Hell is beneath the earth. As we have explained in other places, in its annual orbit, the globe of the earth traces a circle around an area that in the future will the place of the Great Gathering and Last Judgement. It means Hell is beneath the area of its orbit. It is invisible and unperceptible because it consists of veiled and lightless fire. In the vast distance travelled by the earth are many creatures that are invisible because they are without light. Like the moon loses its existence when its light withdraws, we are also unable to see numerous lightless globes and creatures which are in front of our eyes.
There are two Hells, the Lesser and the Greater. In the future, the Lesser will be transformed into the Greater and is like its seed; in the future it will become one of its habitations. The Lesser Hell is under the earth, that is, at the earth’s centre. It is the inside and centre of the globe. It is known in geology that in digging downwards, the heat for the most part increases one degree every thirty-three metres. That means that since half the diametre of the earth is around six thousand kilometres, the fire at the centre is at a temperature of around two hundred thousand degrees, that is, two hundred times hotter than fire at the circumference; this is in agreement with what is related by Hadiths. This Lesser Hell performs many of the functions of the Greater Hell in this world and Intermediate Realm, and this is indicated in Hadiths. Just as in the World of the Hereafter, the earth will pour its inhabitants into the arena of the resurrection within its annual orbit, so too at the Divine command will it hand over the Lesser Hell within it to the Greater Hell.
Some of the Mu’tazilite imams said that “Hell will be created later†but this is mistaken and foolish, and arises from Hell not having completely opened up at the present time and developed into a form entirely appropriate to its inhabitants. In order to see with our worldly eyes the dwelling places of the World of the Hereafter within the veil of the Unseen and to demonstrate them, either the universe has to be shrunk to the size of two provinces, or our eyes have to he enlarged to the size of stars, so that we can see and specify their places. The knowledge is with Allah, the dwelling-places of the Hereafter are not visible to our worldly eyes, but as indicated by certain narrations, the Hell of the Hereafter is connected with our world. In a Hadith it is said of the intense heat of summer, “It gives an inkling of Hell.†That is to say, that Greater Hell is not visible to the tiny and dim eyes of the minds of this world. However, we may look with the light of the Divine Name of All-Wise, as follows:
The Greater Hell beneath the earth's annual orbit has as though made the Lesser Hell at the earth's centre its deputy and made it perform some of its functions. The possessions of the All-Powerful One of Glory are truly extensive; wherever Divine wisdom pointed out, He situated the Greater Hell there. Yes, an All-Powerful One of Glory, an All-Wise One of Perfection Who is owner of the command of ‘Be!’ and it is has tied the moon to the earth before and eyes in perfect wisdom and order, and with vast power and perfect order tied the earth to the sun, and has made the sun. travel together with its planets with a speed close to that of the annual rotation of the earth, and with the majesty of His Dominicality, according to one possibility, made it travel towards the sun of suns, and like a feet decked out with electric lights has made the stars luminous witnesses to the sovereignty of His Dominicality. It is not far from the perfect wisdom, tremendous power, and sovereignty of Dominicality of one thus All-Glorious to make the Greater Hell like the boiler of an electric light factory and with it set fire to the stars of the heavens which look to the Hereafter, and give them heat and power. That is, give light to the stars from Paradise, the world of light, and send them fire and heat from Hell, and at the same time, make part of that Hell a habitation and place of imprisonment for those who are to be tormented. Furthermore, He is an All-Wise Creator Who conceals a tree as large as a mountain in a seed the size of a finger-nail. It is surely not far then from the power and wisdom of such an All-Glorious One to conceal the Greater Hell in the seed of the Lesser Hell in the heart of the globe of the earth.
I n S h o r t : Paradise and Hell are the two fruits of a branch of the tree of creation which stretches out towards eternity. The fruits’ place is at the branch’s tip. And they are the two results of the chain of the universe; and the places of the results are the two sides of the chain. The base and heavy are on its lower side, the luminous and elevated on its upper side. They are also the two stores of this flood of events and the immaterial produce of the earth. And the place of a store is according to the variety of the produce, the bad beneath, the good above. They are also the two pools of the flood of beings which flows in waves towards eternity. As for the pool's place, it is where the flood stops and gathers. That is, the obscene and filthy below, the good and the pure above. They are also the two places of manifestation, the one of beneficence and mercy, the other of wrath and tremendousness. Places of manifestation may he anywhere; the All-Merciful One of Beauty, the All-Compelling One of Glory, establishes His places of manifestation where He wishes.
As for the existence of Paradise and Hell, they have been proved most decisively in the Tenth, Twenty-Eighth, and Twenty-Ninth Words. Here, we only say this: the existence of the fruit is as definite and certain as that of the branch; the result as the chain; the store as the produce; the pool as the river; and the places of manifestation as definite and certain as the existence of mercy and wrath.
FOURTH QUESTION
Like metaphorical love for objects of love can be transformed into true love, can the metaphorical love that most people have for this world also be transformed into true love ?
T h e A n s w e r : Yes, if a lover with metaphorical love for the transitory face of the world sees the ugliness of the decline and transience on that face and turns away from it. If he searches for an immortal beloved and is successful in seeing the world’s other two most beautiful faces that of mirror to the Divine Names and the tillage of the Hereafter, his illicit metaphorical love then starts to be transformed into true love. But on the one condition that he does not confuse his own fleeting and unstable world which is bound to his life with the outside world. If like the people of misguidance and heedlessness he forgets himself, plunges into the outside world, and supposing the general world to be his private world becomes the lover of it, he will fall into the swamp of Nature and drown. Unless, extraordinarily, a hand of favour saves him. Consider the following comparison which will illuminate this truth.
For example, if on the four walls of this finely decorated room are four full-length mirrors belonging to the four of us, then there would be five rooms. One would be actual and general, and four, similitudes and personal. Each of us would be able to change the shape, form, and colour of his personal room by means of his mirror. Should we paint it red, it would appear red, should we paint it green, it would appear green. Likewise, we could give it numerous states by adjusting the mirror; we could make it ugly, or beautiful, give it different forms. But we could not easily adjust and change the outer and general room. While in reality the general and personal rooms are the same, in practice they are different. You can destroy your own room with one finger, but you could not make one stone of the other stir.
Thus, this world is a decorated house. The life of each of us is a full-length mirror. We each of us have a world from this world, but its support, centre, and door is our life. Indeed, that personal world of ours is a page. Our life is a pen; many things that are written with it pass to the page of our actions. If we have loved our world, later we have seen that since it is constructed on our life, we have perceived and understood that it is fleeting, transitory, and unstable like our life. Our love for it turns towards the beautiful impresses of the Divine Names to which our personal world is the mirror and which it represents. Moreover, if we are aware that that personal world of ours is a temporary seed-bed of the Hereafter and Paradise, and if we direct our feelings for it like intense desire, love, and greed, towards the benefits of the Hereafter, which are its results, fruits, and shoots, then that metaphorical love is transformed into true love. Otherwise, manifesting the meaning of the verse,
Those who forget Allah; and he made them, forget their own souls.
Such are the. rebellious transgressors,
a person will forget himself, not think of life’s fleeting nature, suppose his personal, unstable world to be constant like the general world, and imagine himself to be undying; he will fix himself on the world and embrace it with intense emotions; he will drown in it and depart. Such love will be boundless torment and tribulation for him. For an orphan-like compassion, a despairing softness of heart will be born of that love. He will pity all living beings. Indeed, he will feel sympathy for all beautiful creatures