International News Limited Domain Pricing Per Year
.com* $9.99 | .net* $9.99 | .org* $9.99 | .info* $9.99 | .us* $9.99 | .biz* $9.99 | .ws* $9.75 | .name* $7.95
Save even more on multi-year registrations!
Visit International News Limited for the best values on: domain names, domain transfers and more!

Click Here For Your Up To Date World Live Sports Scores

INLNews YahooMail HotMail GMail AOLMailUSA MAILYahooMail HotMailGMail AOLMail MyWayMail CNNWorld IsraelVideoNs INLNs NYTimes WashNs AustStockEx WorldMedia JapanNs AusNs World VideoNs WorldFinance ChinaDaily IndiaNs USADaily BBC EuroNs ABCAust WANs NZNews QldNs MelbAge AdelaideNs TasNews ABCTas DarwinNsUSA MAIL

USA Economist 
also see and 
for world-USA-UK historical Video News for September and October 2008

Click here for email login for

Visit International News Limited for the best values on:                     domain names, domain transfers and more!
all from $9.99

International News Limited Domain Pricing Per Year
.com* $9.99 | .net* $9.99 | .org* $9.99 | .info* $9.99 | .us* $9.99 | .biz* $9.99 | .ws* $9.75 | .name* $7.95
Save even more on
multi-year registrations!
International News Limited for the best values on: domain names, domain transfers and more!
Iraq  Zimbabe  Myanmar Radovan KaradzicChina  » All Full Coverage

ABC News Video  FOX News Video  FOXBusiness Video  CNN Video  AP Video  BBC News Video  Reuters Video  AFP Video  CNET Video
CNBC Video  Australia 7 News Video   Rocky Mountain News Elections Video Video  NPR Audio  Kevin Sites in the Hot Zone Video
Richard Bangs Adventures Video  Charlie Rose Video   Expanded Books Video  Assignment Earth Video Video
Guinness World Records Video Video  AccuWeather Video  You Witness News User Video

NPR Audio BY CATEGORY Top Stories  Politics  World  Business  Sports  Technology  Health & Science  Arts  U.S.

VIEW LOCAL VIDEO KVUE-TV Austin  WJZ 13 Baltimore  WBZ Boston  WCNC Charlotte  CBS 2 Chicago

CBS 11 Dallas  CBS4 Denver  13 News, WVEC Hampton Roads  11 News Houston  CBS 2 / KCAL 9 Los Angeles

WHAS TV11 Louisville  CBS4 Miami  WCCO Minneapolis  WWL-TV, Channel 4 New Orleans  CBS 2 New York

CBS 3 Philadelphia KTVK 3TV Phoenix  KDKA Pittsburgh  KGW NewsChannel 8 Portland, Ore. Raleigh

CBS 13 / CW 31 Sacramento  KENS 5 - TV San Antonio  Channel 8 San Diego  CBS 5 San Francisco

KING5 Seattle Spokane/Coeur d'Alene  KMOV Channel 4 St. Louis  FOX 11 Tucson

Video by Category
U.S. Business  World  Entertainment  Sports  Tech  Politics Science Health Environment Weather Opinion  Odd

Video by Topic Campaign '08   Wall Street  Iraq  Gas Prices  Mideast Conflict  Climate Change

More INL News Video !Finance Sports

 'Why didn't nobody notice?'

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 'Why did nobody notice?'
The Queen has questioned why experts failed to predict the credit crunch, saying the situation is 'awful'. » More
Why banks won't pass on rate cuts
Royal Family - full coverage

So you want to become the President of the United States of America?

Opposite sides, same views:- Opposames! 
see By Paul Vigay 25th March, 2000

Mr Tony Blair the Ex-Prime Minister Britain was a guest of the annual Bilderberg meeting in 1993, together with his colleague Kenneth Clarke. Hang on a minute though..... Aren't those two on opposite sides? 

What about Bilderberg attendees Margaret Thatcher and Denis Healey - 

and you thought we lived in a democracy where your vote actually counted.

Paul Vigay looks into the shady world of global conspiracies and manipulations.
His findings are at least eye-opening, at worst downright frightening. Have you ever wondered if there really is a 'global elite'? Some secret group of people who control world events and hide their agenda from public knowledge?

Could there be a group of people; politicians, heads of multinational companies, directors of world banking organisations and even royalty, who decide what policies will determine the way ordinary people live - and die?

As David Icke says, it is relatively easy for a small group of people to control the masses when everyday we give our power and freedom away, fearing to step out from the comfort of our 'hassle free zone'. Who perpetrate the 'Problem, Reaction, Solution' events which shape and manipulate our perceived 'democracy and freedom'? If you control governments and the media you control the world, or do you? What if a problem so terrible, so grotesque, so 'unbelievable' begins to occur with startling regularity? Do you demand answers? Do you demand what 'the government' is going to do about it? Do you pass the problem to someone else do deal with? What happens if that person you hand the solution to, is the person who created the problem in the first place? So forms the basis for the problem, reaction, solution method of controlling the people with the minimum of effort. Imagine a scenario where a lone-gunman walks into a crowded shopping centre and guns down a number of innocent people. Terrible enough, but what if at a later time, some innocent school children in a quiet, peaceful school are the targets? The more outrageous and disgusting an event, the more people will demand something must be done; "Guns must be banned", "Something must be done now!". 

Believe it or not, David Icke predicted just such a scenario in his 1994 book "The Robots' Rebellion", before we witnessed the terrible events at Dunblane. 

Supposing someone, somewhere wanted the end 'solution' to be "to ban guns". Obviously, gun clubs, enthusiasts and legitimate people are going to complain, perhaps with the backing or at least, indifference, of the general public. After all "it doesn't affect us does it". You need to somehow manipulate the public to demand that you offer the solution. You need a public 'reaction', for which you need to stage a perceived 'problem'. The more horrific and unbelievable you can make it, the more the public will demand what you wanted to do in the first place.

Incidentally, this could account for why Margaret Thatcher was one of Tony Blair's first guests at Number Ten, something the independent media were quick to pick up on after New Labour won power. The same goes for US presidents. Every one since Jimmy Carter has been a Bilderberg representative. Democrat, Republican - it doesn't matter. They all have the same policies, decided upon at top secret meetings held annually in hidden locations.

What exactly are 'The Bilderbergers' then? What are their aims?

This article, mainly extracts from "The Bilderberg Group... the Trilateral Commission... covert power groups of the West", by Robert Eringer, (Pentacle Books, 1980) tries to expose some of their secret agenda. As the concepts and plans behind the global elite could pose such a threat to our freedom, I will periodically return to this subject in order to keep Enigma readers aware of the world around them. If anything in this article, or any keywords on the cover of this issue, strike a chord with you, or if you have further information, please do not hesitate to contact me at the editorial address.

Well if you are thinking of becoming the president of the USA well you should consider becoming a Freemans as most of the USA Presidents have been Freemasons and/or have strong Freemanon and/ot other Fremaosn associated secret societies like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group.
Also if you are thinking about becomeing the President of the USA and want to live out  your whole term of  office and/or make sure your reputation stays in tact, so you are not forced to resign form some scandal.Then again it pays ot be a member  of the Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies like like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Biilderberg Group. other presidents of the USA like the Kennedy family and Ronald Regan and Richard Nixon tried tp buck the system and go it alone, without joining Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies  like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group. Look what happened to them. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was shot during a motorcade drive through downtown Dallas, so that gave Freemason Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatic right to be the President of the Uniited States of America. Ronald Reagan - shot and wounded by John W. Hinkley, Jr. If tge bullet had been a little to the left Ronald Regan would have doed and well known Freemason Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush would have automaticlly become the president of the USA a lot earlier than he did.  In fact Ronald Regan had stated publiclt that during the early days o fhis presidential election campagn that he definately would not have George Herbert Walker Bush in his team as Vice President and if elected President of the USA, he would have all secret societies investigated. Yet, for some reason he has not said publicly, he suddenly cxhanged his mind and announced that he was making George Busg his running mate as the Vice President of he won the USA Presential Elections. and certainly did not speak again about investigating any sectret societies. Richard Nixon was forced to resign as a result of the famous Watergate Scandal. In the face of likely impeachment for his role in theWatergate scandal,[1] Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. He was later pardoned by his successor, Gerald Ford, for any federal crimes he may have committed while in office. Gerald Ford is was also a well known Fremason. So the Watergate Scandal was fairly convenient for helping Gerald Ford in the position of the President of the USA.
  • Abraham Lincoln - assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
  • James Garfield - assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau
  • William McKinley - assassinated by Leon F. Czolgosz
  • John Kennedy - assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald

Presidents who suffered attempted assassinations

  • Andrew Jackson - would-be assassin: Richard Lawrence (both derringers misfired)
  • Harry Truman - Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola attempted to storm Blair House, residence of Truman
  • Gerald Ford - would be assassins: Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme and Sara Jane Moore, in two separate incidences
  • Ronald Reagan - shot and wounded by John W. Hinkley, Jr
The history evidence is fairly clear, if you are keen about trying ot become the President of the United States of Ameerica, all these problems can be solved by joining uo with either
the Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies  like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group. By doing so yo will make a lot of loyal friends, become rich and powerful, and even if you do not make it to the top of the food chain as the President of the USA, you are sure ot end up with a great well paid job as a public servant working as an assistant to one of the other Freemason Presidents of the USA. 

If you do join the Freemasons, and become the President of the USA, you mae have a great momument built with your name on it,  like the one build below to honout the First Freemason President of The USA George Washington. the name goerge seems ot be very popular when it comes to Freemason USA President..The have in fact been two George Bush Presidents. James is also a popular name to name you son,if you think yoy would like to groom him up for a shot to become the President of the United Stated of America.

Print E-mail
On February 22, 1910, George Washington’s 178th birthday, Masonic leaders from across the nation exterior551.jpgmet in Alexandria, Virginia and formed an association for the purpose of building a great memorial to honor America’s foremost Freemason. February 22, 2010, the 100th Anniversary of the founding of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association, will be a day of great festivities.

In honor of the occasion, the Conference of Grand Masters of North America, hosted by the Grand Lodge of Virginia, will be held in nearby Arlington. Delegates will attend the Association’s Annual Meeting and celebrate the 100th Anniversary and Washington’s 278th birthday at the Memorial.

At the Annual Meeting, a new portrait of George Washington as a Freemason will be unveiled. Painted by local artist, Christopher Erney, the portrait will be a new interpretation of Washington. Prints of the portrait will be available at the meeting. Complementing the portrait is a new video. It presents George Washington as the inspiration for the founding of America and explores the founding of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association. Underwritten by the Masonic Charity Foundation of Oklahoma, it will be available on DVD and as a download from the Memorial’s website for Masonic education.

The Memorial's new logo to commemorate the occasion was also designed by local artist Christopher Erney.  The logo combines the Washington Family Crest with numerous Masonic symbols. Its Square and Compasses is taken from the Memorial’s 1923 cornerstone affirms the Association's motto "In Memoriam Perpetuam" as it supports Freemasonry in a new century of service.

Following the Annual Meeting, the International Order of DeMolay will rededicate the colossal bronze statue of George Washington in Memorial Hall and reaffirm the role of DeMolay young men in Freemasonry. The statue was a gift to the Memorial from the DeMolay and 2010 marks the 60th Anniversary of its unveiling by President and Past Grand Master Harry S. Truman.

On display during the celebration will be the Trowel and Gavel used at the 1793 Cornerstone Laying of the United States Capitol by George Washington and the 1752 Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4 Bible upon which a young Washington took upon himself his Masonic obligations. 

The new White House Stones Exhibit will be inaugurated at the celebration. Each stone in the exhibit is marked by one of the Scots Masons who helped build the White House in the 1790s. The stones were discovered during the restoration of the White House by President Harry S. Truman in 1948. President Truman had the stones labeled and one was sent to each U.S. Grand Lodge and other Masonic organizations. The Exhibit reassembles nearly 50 stones. The Exhibit also includes minute books from Lodge No. 8 of Edinburgh recording the stonemasons’ marks and noting those who have “gone to America.” A matching Minute Book of Federal Lodge No. 1 will show those Scots masons forming the first lodge in 1793 on White House grounds. The exhibit is supported by the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, Valley of Washington, Orient of the District of Columbia, and by the Grand Lodge, F.A.A.M., of the District of Columbia. A gala reception will be held in Grand Masonic Hall and while the Annual Meeting is being held the ladies will enjoy an entertaining program in the North Lodge Room. A Centennial Celebration souvenir booklet containing a brief history of the Association including historic and current photographs will be distributed and several commemorative gift items will also be available and on display.
2010 is a unique celebration year for the Memorial Association. Together we are celebrating 100 years of dedication to Freemasonry’s greatest brother and honoring the countless brothers who built and sustain the Memorial. Equally important, 2010 marks a pledge of rededicated service, trusting in God that the century ahead will be filled with success and achievement. The Association shines as a bright light of Masonry as it fulfills its mission: “To inspire humanity through education to emulate and promote the virtues, character and vision of George Washington, the Man, the Mason and Father of our Country.”

To learn more, please visit the Memorial’s website:

What is Freemasonry?

Freemasonry is the oldest fraternal organization in the world. It is dedicated to promoting improvement in the character of its members. A Mason is taught to be a good citizen. To be of good character. To care for those less fortunate, and to give back to his community. The Masonic fraternity contributes over $1 Billion each year to its philanthropic pursuits. Over $750 Million of that in the United States alone. The Crippled Children's and Burns Hospitals sponsored by Shrine Masons are world famous for their ability to help those most in need. Freemasonry traces its roots to the Middle Ages. It is from associations of stone masons, who built the magnificent cathedrals, castles, and monasteries of Europe that the fraternity started. These groups, eventually, began to accept members who were not actual working masons. At that time they adopted the term "Accepted" Masons, and Freemasonry was born.

Is Masonry A Religion?
No, it is not a religion. This is not to say that masons do not have religious beliefs. One of the tenets of the Masonic Fraternity is that its members are free to express their beliefs in the religion of their choice. However, it is also a condition of membership that each recognize that the wonders of the universe are not here as a result of our doing. But rather as a result of a Supreme Being, who brings order and purpose to our existence. Is Masonry A Secret Society? This is a widespread misconception, and is completely untrue. The so-called secrets of Freemasonry have actually been in print for well over a century. The fraternity does nothing to hide its existence, its purpose or its membership. The lessons taught in our meetings are meant for the improvement and education of our members. As such, there are portions of these lessons that are not discussed with those outside of the fraternity. Grand Lodge - Local Lodges A Grand Lodge is the governing body for a series of Local Lodges. The Local Lodge is where individual members belong. It is also where instruction is given and the actual work of the Fraternity is conducted. The first Grand Lodge was founded in London, England in 1717. It is from them that other countries petitioned for their own charters. They formed in groups, establishing their own Grand Lodges, which in turn gave charters to Local Lodges. Today, there are more than 150 Grand Lodges worldwide with a collective membership of more than 6,000,000. What Are The Requirements For Membership? Membership in the Masonic Fraternity is an act of free will. A man must ask for the opportunity. The potential member must be at least eighteen years of age, of sound moral character, and able to express his belief in a Supreme Being. One member of the Local Lodge being petitioned, as well as one other Mason, must be willing to sign his petition. His election is by unanimous consent. Masonic Charity The Masonic Fraternity believes that its members have an obligation to give back to their communities, and to benefit others. It is an important point to emphasize that Masons are taught to go about these tasks in a quiet, unassuming fashion. This is meant to impress upon our members that it is the work, and not the individual, that is of importance. It is also to preserve the dignity of those for whom the work is performed. The philanthropic work of our Grand Lodge jurisdiction and its appendant bodies are as follows:
Freemasonry - A Way of Life As the oldest, largest, and best known fraternal organization in the world, Freemasonry opens its doors to all who endorse its teachings. A strong belief in family, community, pride in our country, and sound ethical and moral values are what distinguish the Masonic fraternity. Our strength lies in the unity of our conviction to these ideals.

Masonic Body Support Charity
Connecticut Grand Lodge The Masonic Charity Foundation, Connecticut Freemasons Foundation
Scottish Rite Schizophrenia Research, Masonic Museum and Library, Children's Learning Centers, and Scholarships
Knights Templar Eye Foundation and Research
Tall Cedars of Lebanon Muscular Dystrophy
Shrines of North America Crippled and Burned Children's Hospitals
Grotto Dental Care for Children with Special Needs Program and an annual grant to United Cerebral Research.
Eastern Star Cancer Research and Religious Scholarships
Amaranth Diabetes Research
Chapter, RAM RICRA
Council, Royal and Select Masters Arterial Sclerosis


Interested? For membership information, please visit our How to Join

George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3]– December 14, 1799) was the commander of theContinental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the first President of the United States of America (1789–1797).[4] For his central role in the formation of the United States, he is often referred to as the father of his country.[5][6]d the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1.
George Washington

Personal life Religious beliefs Monuments and memorials  Legacy Early life and education Career French and Indian War (Seven Years War) Militia versus regular army Between the wars American Revolution Presidency

Portrait of George Washington byGilbert Stuart

The Continental Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, lost New York City, and crossed the Delaware River in New Jersey, defeating the surprised enemy units later that year. As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies at Saratoga and Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and failure. Following the end of the war in 1783, King George IIIasked what Washington would do next and was told of rumors that he'd return to his farm; this prompted the king to state, "If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world." Washington did return to private life and retired to his plantation at Mount Vernon.[7]

He presided over the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 because of general dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. Washington became President of the United States in 1789 and established many of the customs and usages of the new government's executive department. He sought to create a nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war between Britain and France. His unilateral Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any involvement in foreign conflicts. He supported plans to build a strong central government by funding thenational debt, implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank. Washington avoided the temptation of war and a decade of peace with Britain began with the Jay Treaty in 1795; he used his prestige to get it ratified over intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.

Washington was awarded the very first Congressional Gold Medal with the Thanks of Congress.[8]

Washington died in 1799, and the funeral oration delivered by Henry Lee stated that of all Americans, he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[9] Washington has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of thegreatest U.S. Presidents.

Early life and education

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3] the first child of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, on their Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His father had four children by his first wife, Jane Butler: two died young, but two sons survived (Lawrence, born circa 1718, and Augustine, born circa 1720), making George the third son, but very much younger. Moving to Ferry Farm in Stafford County at age six, George was educated in the home by his father and eldest brother.[10] The growth of tobacco as a commodity in Virginia could be measured by the number of slaves imported to cultivate it. When Washington was born, the population of the colony was 50 percent black, mostly enslaved Africans and African Americans.[11]

In his youth, Washington worked as a surveyor, and acquired what would become invaluable knowledge of the terrain around his native Colony of Virginia.[12] His eldest brother's marriage into the powerful Fairfax family gained young George the patronage ofThomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the Proprietor of the Northern Neck, which encompassed some five million acres. In late July 1749, immediately following the establishment of the town of Alexandria, Virginia along the Potomac River, 17-year old George was commissioned as the first Surveyor of the newly created Culpeper County, Virginia in the interior of the colony. This appointment was undoubtedly secured at the behest of Lord Fairfax and his cousin (and resident land agent) William Fairfax of Belvoir, who sat on the Governor's Council.[13]


Washington embarked upon a career as a planter, which historians defined as those who held 20 or more slaves. In 1748 he was invited to help survey Lord Fairfax's lands west of the Blue Ridge. In 1749, he was appointed to his first public office, surveyor of newly created Culpeper County.[10][14] Through his half-brother, Lawrence Washington, he became interested in theOhio Company, which aimed to exploit Western lands. In 1751, George and his half-brother traveled to Barbados, staying at Bush Hill House,[15] hoping for an improvement in Lawrence's tuberculosis. This was the only time George Washington traveled outside what is now the United States.[16] After Lawrence's death in 1752, George inherited part of his estate and took over some of Lawrence's duties as adjutant of the colony.[17]

In late 1752, Virginia's newly arrived Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, divided command of the militia into four regions and George applied for one of the commands, his only qualifications being his zeal and being the younger brother of the former adjutant. Washington was appointed a district adjutant general in the Virginia militia in 1752,[10] which appointed him Major Washington at the age of 20. He was charged with training the militia in the quarter assigned to him.[18] At age 21, inFredericksburg, Washington became a Master Mason in the organization of Freemasons, afraternal organization that was a lifelong influence.[19][20]

In December 1753, Washington was asked by Governor Dinwiddie to carry a British ultimatum to the French Canadians on the Ohio frontier.[10] Washington assessed French military strength and intentions, and delivered the message to the French Canadians at Fort Le Boeuf in present dayWaterford, Pennsylvania. The message, which went unheeded, called for the French Canadians to abandon their development of the Ohio country. The two colonial powers were heading toward worldwide conflict. Washington's report on the affair was widely read on both sides of the Atlantic.

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

In 1754, Dinwiddie commissioned Washington a Lieutenant Colonel and ordered him to lead an expedition to Fort Duquesne to drive out the French Canadians.[10] With his American Indian allies led by Tanacharison, Washington and his troops ambushed a French Canadian scouting party of some 30 men, led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville.[21] Washington and his troops were subsequently overwhelmed at Fort Necessity by a larger and better positioned French Canadian and Indian force, in what was Washington's only military surrender. The terms of surrender included a statement that Washington had assassinated Jumonville after the ambush. Washington could not read French, and, unaware of what it said, signed his name.[22] Released by the French Canadians, Washington returned to Virginia, where he was cleared of blame for the defeat, but resigned because he did not like the new arrangement of the Virginia Militia.[22]

In 1755, Washington was an aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Monongahela expedition.[10] This was a major effort to retake the Ohio Country. While Braddock was killed and the expedition ended in disaster, Washington distinguished himself as the Hero of the Monongahela.[23] While Washington's role during the battle has been debated, biographer Joseph Ellis asserts that Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnant of the British and Virginian forces to a retreat.[24]Subsequent to this action, Washington was given a difficult frontier command in the Virginia mountains, and was rewarded by being promoted to colonel and named commander of all Virginia forces.[10]

In 1758, Washington participated as a Brigadier General in the Forbes expedition that prompted French evacuation of Fort Duquesne, and British establishment of Pittsburgh.[10]Later that year, Washington resigned from active military service and spent the next sixteen years as a Virginia planter and politician.[25]

 Militia versus regular army

As a colonial militia officer, albeit a high ranking one, Washington was acutely conscious of the disparity between officers in the militia and the regular British Army establishment. His eldest brother Lawrence had been fortunate to be awarded a commission in the British Army, as "Captain in a Regiment of Foot", in summer 1740, when the British Army raised a new regiment (the 61st Foot, known as Gooch's American Regiment) in the colonies, for service in the West Indies during the War of Jenkins' Ear.[26][27] Each colony was allowed to appoint its own company officers—the captains and lieutenants—and signed commissions were distributed by Colonel William Blakeney to the various governors.[28]Fifteen years later, when General Braddock arrived in Virginia in 1755 with two regiments of regulars (the 44th and 48th Foot), Washington sought to obtain a commission, but none were available for purchase.[29] Rather than serve as a militia lieutenant colonel, where he would be outranked by more junior officers in the regulars, Washington chose to serve in a private capacity as aide-de-camp to the general; as an aide, he could command British regulars.[30] Following Braddock's defeat, the British Parliament decided in November 1755 to create a new Royal American Regiment of Foot—later renamed King's Royal Rifle Corps. Unlike the earlier "American Regiment" of 1740–42, all of the officers were recruited in England and Europe in early 1756.

 Between the wars

On January 6, 1759, Washington married the widow Martha Dandridge Custis. Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend. Some historians believe George and Martha were distantly related.

Nevertheless, George and Martha made a good marriage, and together raised her two children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custisand Martha Parke Custis, affectionately called "Jackie" and "Patsy" by the family. Later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together—his earlier bout with smallpox followed, possibly, by tuberculosis may have made him sterile. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, where he took up the life of a planter and political figure.[31]

Washington's marriage to Martha, a wealthy widow, greatly increased his property holdings and social standing. He acquired one-third of the 18,000 acre (73 km²) Custis estate upon his marriage, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children. He frequently bought additional land in his own name. In addition, he was granted land in what is now West Virginia as a bounty for his service in the French and Indian War. By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km2), and had increased the slave population there to more than 100 persons. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.[32]

Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity. Like most Virginia planters, he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting his tobacco crop. Extravagant spending and the unpredictability of the tobacco market meant that many Virginia planters of Washington's day were losing money. (Thomas Jefferson, for example, would die deeply in debt.)

Washington began to pull himself out of debt by diversification. By 1766, he had switched Mount Vernon's primary cash crop from tobacco to wheat, a crop which could be sold in America, and diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, and weaving. Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.[33]

During these years, Washington concentrated on his business activities and remained somewhat aloof from politics. Although he expressed opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, he did not take a leading role in the growing colonial resistance until after protests of the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) had become widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal drafted by his friend George Mason, which called for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed. Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, and, for Washington at least, the crisis had passed. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges." In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, which called for, among other things, the convening of a Continental Congress. In August, Washington attended theFirst Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.[34]

American Revolution

After fighting broke out in April 1775, Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Washington had the prestige, the military experience, the charisma and military bearing, the reputation of being a strong patriot, and he was supported by the South, especially Virginia. Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.[10]

Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts in July 1775,[10] during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. British arsenals were raided (including some in the Caribbean) and some manufacturing was attempted; a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) was obtained by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[35] Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston and Washington moved his army to New York City.

Although negative toward the patriots in the Continental Congress, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These were bold articles about an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire.[36] Washington's refusal to become involved in politics buttressed his reputation as a man fully committed to the military mission at hand and above the factional fray.

In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York and offer a negotiated settlement. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly declared independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. His army's subsequent nighttime retreat across the East River without the loss of a single life or materiel has been seen by some historians as one of Washington's greatest military feats.[37] This and several other British victories sent Washington scrambling out of New York and across New Jersey, which left the future of the Continental Army in doubt. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a counterattack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another one at Princeton in early January. These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate victory, however, as many did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles.[38]

British forces defeated Washington's troops in the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. Howe outmaneuvered Washington and marched into Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. Thisattempt failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.[39]

Washington's army camped at Valley Forge in December 1777, staying there for the next six months. Over the winter, 2,500 men of the 10,000-strong force died from disease and exposure. The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a full-scale training program supervised by Baron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff. The British evacuated Philadelphia to New York in 1778 but Washington attacked them at Monmouth and drove them from the battlefield. Afterwards, the British continued to head towards New York. Washington moved his army outside of New York.

In the summer of 1779 at Washington's direction, General John Sullivan carried out a decisive scorched earth campaign that destroyed at least forty Iroquois villages throughout present-day central and upstate New York in retaliation for Iroquois and Tory attacks against American settlements earlier in the war. Washington delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia. The surrender at Yorktown on October 17, 1781, marked the end of most fighting. Though known for his successes in the war and of his life that followed, Washington suffered many defeats before achieving victory.

In March 1783, Washington used his influence to disperse a group of Army officers who had threatened to confront Congress regarding their back pay. By the Treaty of Paris (signed that September), Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.[40]

On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession. At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief, emulating the Roman general Cincinnatus. He was an exemplar of the republican ideal of citizen leadership who rejected power. During this period, there was no position of President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, the forerunner to the Constitution.

Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in 1784,[10] was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and was unanimously elected president of the Convention. He participated little in the debates involved (though he did vote for or against the various articles), but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected. After the Convention, his support convinced many, including the Virginia legislature, to vote for ratification; the new Constitution was ratified by all 13 states.


The Electoral College elected Washington unanimously in 1789, and again in the 1792 election; he remains the only president to have received 100% of the electoral votes. At his inauguration, he insisted on having Barbados Rum served.[41] John Adams was elected vice president. Washington took the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City although, at first, he had not wanted the position.[42]

The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, already wealthy, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. Washington attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts. To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names suggested.

Washington proved an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character, he held regular cabinet meetings to debate issues before making a final decision. In handling routine tasks, he was "systematic, orderly, energetic, solicitous of the opinion of others but decisive, intent upon general goals and the consistency of particular actions with them."[43]

Washington reluctantly served a second term as president. He refused to run for a third, establishing the customary policy of a maximum of two terms for a president which later became law by the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.[44]

Domestic issues

Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped that they would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation. His closest advisors formed two factions, setting the framework for the future First Party System. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton had bold plans to establish the national credit and build a financially powerful nation, and formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Jeffersonian Republicans, strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda, but Washington favored Hamilton over Jefferson.

The Residence Act of 1790, which Washington signed, authorized the President to select the specific location of the permanent seat of the government, which would be located along the Potomac River. The Act authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for this seat. Washington personally oversaw this effortthroughout his term in office. In 1791, the commissioners named the permanent seat of government "The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia" to honor Washington. In 1800, the Territory of Columbia became the District of Columbia when the federal government moved to the site according to the provisions of the Residence Act.[45][46]

In 1791, Congress imposed an excise on distilled spirits, which led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. By 1794, after Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U.S. district court, the protests turned into full-scale riots known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked theMilitia Act of 1792 to summon the militias of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and several other states. The governors sent the troops and Washington took command, marching into the rebellious districts.[47] There was no fighting, but Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself. It also was one of only two times that a sitting President would personally command the military in the field. These events marked the first time under the new constitution that the federal government used strong military force to exert authority over the states and citizens.

Foreign affairs

In 1793, the revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt," to America. Genêt issued letters of marque and reprisal to American ships so they could capture British merchant ships. He attempted to turn popular sentiment towards American involvement in the French war against Britain by creating a network of Democratic-Republican Societies in major cities. Washington rejected this interference in domestic affairs, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced his societies.

Hamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution. John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington and Hamilton, however, mobilized public opinion and won ratification by the Senate by emphasizing Washington's support. The British agreed to depart their forts around the Great Lakes, the Canadian-U.S. boundary was adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with that country. This angered the French and became a central issue in political debates.

Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address (issued as a public letter in 1796) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.[48] Drafted primarily by Washington himself, with help from Hamilton, it gives advice on the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people. While he declined suggested versions[49] that would have included statements that morality required a "divinely authoritative religion," he called morality "a necessary spring of popular government." He said, "Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle."[50]

Washington's public political address warned against foreign influence in domestic affairs and American meddling in European affairs. He warned against bitter partisanship in domestic politics and called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good. He warned against 'permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world',[51]saying the United States must concentrate primarily on American interests. He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but warned against involvement in European wars and entering into long-term "entangling" alliances. The address quickly set American values regarding religion and foreign affairs.

Retirement and death

After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief. He devoted much time to farming.

On July 4, 1798, Washington was commissioned by President John Adams to be Lieutenant General and Commander-in-chief of the armies raised or to be raised for service in a prospective war with France. He served as the senior officer of the United States Army between July 13, 1798, and December 14, 1799. He participated in the planning for a Provisional Army to meet any emergency that might arise, but did not take the field.[10][52]

On December 12, 1799, Washington spent several hours inspecting his farms on horseback, in snow and later hail and freezing rain. He sat down to dine that evening without changing his wet clothes. The next morning, he awoke with a bad cold, fever, and a throat infection called quinsy that turned into acute laryngitis and pneumonia. Washington died on the evening of December 14, 1799, at his home aged 67, while attended by Dr. James Craik, one of his closest friends, Dr. Gustavus Richard Brown, Dr. Elisha C. Dick, andTobias Lear V, Washington's personal secretary. Lear would record the account in his journal, writing that Washington's last words were "'Tis well." Modern doctors believe that Washington died largely because of his treatment, which included calomel and bloodletting, resulting in a combination of shock from the loss of five pints of blood, as well asasphyxia and dehydration.[53]

Throughout the world men and women were saddened by Washington's death. Napoleon ordered ten days of mourning throughout France and in the United States thousands wore mourning clothes for months.[52][54] To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and herself following his death. Only three letters between the couple have survived.

Washington's interment and new tomb

On December 18, 1799, a funeral was held at Mount Vernon, and Washington was interred in a tomb on the estate.[55]

Congress passed a joint resolution to construct a marble monument in the United States Capitol for his body, supported by Martha. In December 1800, the United States House passed an appropriations bill for $200,000 to build the mausoleum, which was to be a pyramid that had a base 100 feet (30 m) square. Southern opposition to the plan defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have his body remain at Mount Vernon.[56]

In 1831, for the cenntenial of his birth, a new tomb was constructed to receive his remains. Also in that year, an attempt was made to steal the body of Washington, but proved to be unsuccessful.[57] Despite this, a joint Congressional committee in early 1832 debated the removal of Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol, built byCharles Bullfinch in the 1820s. Yet again, Southern opposition proved to be very intense, antagonized by a ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said "Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil."[58]

On February 16, 1832, John Augustine Washington, brother of George and resident of Mount Vernon, strongly refused to allow anyone to remove the body of George Washington from the estate.[59] This ended any talk of the movement of his remains, and he was moved to the new tomb that was constructed there on October 7, 1837, presented by John Struthers of Philadelphia. After the ceremony, members of the family gathered together, and the key to his tomb was thrown into the Potomac.

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments

The Washington CabinetOfficeNameTermPresidentGeorge Washington1789–1797Vice PresidentJohn Adams1789–1797Secretary of StateThomas Jefferson1790–1793


Edmund Randolph1794–1795Timothy Pickering1795–1797Secretary of TreasuryAlexander Hamilton1789–1795Oliver Wolcott, Jr.1795–1797Secretary of WarHenry Knox1789–1794

Timothy Pickering1794–1795James McHenry1796–1797Attorney GeneralEdmund Randolph1789–1794William Bradford1794–1795Charles Lee1795–1797

upreme Court Appointments by President George Washington

Supreme Court Appointments by President George Washington
Position Name Term

Chief Justice John Jay 1789–1795 (resigned)
John Rutledge 1795–1796 (rejected)
William Cushing 1796 (declined)
Oliver Ellsworth 1796–1800 (resigned)

Associate Justice James Wilson 1789–1798
William Cushing 1789–1810
John Blair 1789–1795
Robert H. Harrison 1789 (declined)

John Rutledge 1789–1791
James Iredell 1790–1799
Thomas Johnson 1792–1793
William Paterson 1793–1806
Samuel Chase 1796–1811

States joining the Union under Washington's Presidency


Original states: North Carolina - 1789 Rhode Island - 1790
New states: Vermont - 1791 Kentucky - 1792 Tennessee - 1796


Representative Henry Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade and father of the Civil War general Robert E. Lee, famously eulogized Washington as follows:

First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in humble and enduring scenes of private life. Pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding; his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting...Correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence and virtue always felt his fostering hand. The purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues...Such was the man for whom our nation mourns.[9]

Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government and the presidency in particular.

As early as 1778, Washington was lauded as the "Father of His Country".[60]

During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 of January 19, 1976, approved by President Gerald Ford on October 11, 1976, and formalized in Department of the Army Order 31-3 of March 13, 1978 with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976.[10] This restored Washington's position as the highest ranking military officer in U.S. history.

Monuments and memorials

Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States, along with the icons such as the flag and great seal. Perhaps the most prominent commemoration of his legacy is the use of his image on the one-dollar bill and the quarter-dollar coin. Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, andAbraham Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the most well-known American landmarks, was built in his honor. TheGeorge Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, constructed entirely with voluntary contributions from members of the Masonic Fraternity, was also built in his honor.[61]

Many things have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., only one of two capitals across the globe to be named after an American president (the other is Monrovia, Liberia). The state of Washington is the only state to be named after an American (Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia are all named in honor of British monarchs). George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him, as was Washington and Lee University (once Washington Academy), which was renamed due to Washington’s large endowment in 1796. Countless American cities and towns feature a Washington Street among their thoroughfares.

The Confederate Seal prominently featured George Washington on horseback, in the same position as a statue of him in Richmond, Virginia.

There is even a statue of Washington in London, the capital of his enemies. Based on Jean Antoine Houdon's marble statue in Richmond, Virginia, it was given to the British Nation in 1921 by the Commonwealth of Virginia. It stands in front of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square. It has been claimed that the soil on which the statue stands also comes from America since Washington is reported to have said that he would never stand on English ground.[62][63]

Washington and slavery

The slave trade continued throughout George Washington’s life. On the death of his father in 1743, the 11-year-old inherited 10 slaves. At the time of his marriage to Martha Custis in 1759, he personally owned at least 36 (and the widow's third of her first husband's estate brought at least 85 "dower slaves" to Mount Vernon). Using his wife's great wealth he bought land, tripling the size of the plantation, and additional slaves to farm it. By 1774 he paid taxes on 135 slaves (this does not include the "dowers"). The last record of a slave purchase by him was in 1772, although he later received some slaves in repayment of debts.[64]

Before the American Revolution, Washington expressed no moral reservations about slavery, but in 1786, Washington wrote to Robert Morris, saying, "There is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of slavery."[65] In 1778 he wrote to his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished "to get quit of negroes." Maintaining a large, and increasingly elderly, slave population at Mount Vernon was not economically profitable. Washington could not legally sell the "dower slaves," however, and because these slaves had long intermarried with his own slaves, he could not sell his slaves without breaking up families.[66]

As president, Washington brought seven slaves to New York City in 1789 to work in the first presidential household– Oney Judge, Moll, Giles, Paris, Austin, Christopher Sheels, and William Lee. Following the transfer of the national capital to Philadelphia in 1790, he brought nine slaves to work in the President's House Oney Judge, Moll, Giles, Paris, Austin, Christopher Sheels, Hercules, Richmond, and Joe (Richardson).[67] Oney Judge and Hercules escaped to freedom from Philadelphia, and there were foiled escape attempts from Mount Vernon by Richmond and Christopher Sheels.

Pennsylvania had begun an abolition of slavery in 1780, and prohibited nonresidents from holding slaves in the state longer than six months. If held beyond that period, the state's Gradual Abolition Law[68] gave those slaves the power to free themselves. Washington argued (privately) that his presence in Pennsylvania was solely a consequence of Philadelphia's being the temporary seat of the federal government, and that the state law should not apply to him. On the advice of his attorney general, Edmund Randolph, he systematically rotated the President's House slaves in and out of the state to prevent their establishing a six-month continuous residency. This rotation was itself a violation of the Pennsylvania law, but the President's actions were not challenged.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793[69] established the legal mechanism by which a slaveholder could recover his property, a right guaranteed by the Fugitive Slave Clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article IV, Section 2). Passed overwhelmingly by Congress and signed into law by Washington, the 1793 Act made assisting an escaped slave a federal crime, overruled all state and local laws giving escaped slaves sanctuary, and allowed slavecatchers into every U.S. state and territory.

Washington was the only prominent, slaveholding Founding Father who succeeded in emancipating his slaves. His actions were influenced by his close relationship with Marquis de La Fayette. He did not free his slaves in his lifetime, however, but included a provision in his will to free his slaves upon the death of his wife. At the time of his death, there were 317 slaves at Mount Vernon– 123 owned by Washington, 154 "dower slaves," and 40 rented from a neighbor.[70]

Martha Washington bequeathed the one slave she owned outright– Elisha– to her grandson George Washington Parke Custis. Following her death in 1802, the dower slaves were inherited by her grandchildren.

It has been argued that Washington did not speak out publicly against slavery, because he did not wish to create a split in the new republic, with an issue that was sensitive and divisive.[71] Even if Washington had opposed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, his veto probably would have been overridden. (The Senate vote was not recorded, but the House passed it overwhelmingly, 47 to 8.)[72]

Religious beliefs

Washington was baptized into the Church of England.[73][74] In 1765, when the Church of England was still the state religion,[75] he served on the vestry (lay council) for his local church. Throughout his life, he spoke of the value of righteousness, and of seeking and offering thanks for the "blessings of Heaven."

In a letter to George Mason in 1785, Washington wrote that he was not among those alarmed by a bill "making people pay towards the support of that [religion] which they profess," but felt that it was "impolitic" to pass such a measure, and wished it had never been proposed, believing that it would disturb public tranquility.[76]

His adopted daughter, Nelly Custis Lewis, stated: "I have heard her [Nelly's mother, Eleanor Calvert Custis, who resided in Mount Vernon for two years] say that General Washington always received the sacrament with my grandmother [Martha Washington] before the revolution."[77] After the revolution, Washington frequently accompanied his wife to Christian church services; however, there is no record of his ever taking communion, and he would regularly leave services before communion—with the other non-communicants (as was the custom of the day), until, after being admonished by a rector, he ceased attending at all on communion Sundays.[78][79] Prior to communion, believers are admonished to take stock of their spiritual lives and not to participate in the ceremony unless he finds himself in the will of God.[80][81] Historians and biographers continue to debate the degree to which he can be counted as a Christian, and the degree to which he was a deist.

Upon the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 at a celebration in Newburg, New York, Washington called upon one of his Chaplains, John Gano to offer the prayer of thanksgiving. Washington also requested that Gano baptize him as recorded in The Kentucky State Historical Society register. Virginia Baptists, who were witnesses, state that the baptism was in 1780 or 1781.[82]

He was an early supporter of religious toleration and freedom of religion. In 1775, he ordered that his troops not show anti-Catholic sentiments by burning the pope in effigy on Guy Fawkes Night. When hiring workmen for Mount Vernon, he wrote to his agent, "If they be good workmen, they may be from Asia, Africa, or Europe; they may be Mohammedans, Jews, or Christians of any sect, or they may be Atheists."[80][83] In 1790, he wrote a response to a letter from the Touro Synagogue, in which he said that as long as people remain good citizens, they don't have to fear persecution for having differing beliefs/faiths. This was a relief to the Jewish community of the United States, since the Jews had been either expelled or discriminated against in many European countries.

...the Government of the United States ... gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. ... May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and figtree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.

The United States Bill of Rights was in the process of being ratified at the time.

Personal life

Along with Martha's biological family noted above, George Washington had a close relationship with his nephew and heir Bushrod Washington, son of George's younger brotherJohn Augustine Washington. Bushrod became an Associate Justice on the US Supreme Court after George's death.

As a young man, Washington had red hair.[84][85] A popular myth is that he wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. Washington did not wear a wig; instead he powdered his hair,[86] as represented in several portraits, including the well-known unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction.[87]

Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life. He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President.[88] John Adams claims he lost them because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest the mercury oxide which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria probably contributed to the loss.[88] He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood.[88] Contrary to popular belief, none of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs.[88][89] The hippo ivory was used for the plate, into which real human teeth and bits of horses' and donkeys' teeth were inserted.[88] Dental problems left Washington in constant pain, for which he took laudanum. This distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office, including the one still used on the $1 bill.[88]

One of the most enduring myths about George Washington involves his chopping down his father's cherry tree and, when asked about it, using the famous line "I cannot tell a lie, I did it with my little hatchet." There is no evidence that this ever occurred.[90] It, along with the story of Washington throwing a silver dollar across the Potomac River, was part of a book of mythic stories written by Mason Weems that made Washington a legendary figure beyond his wartime and presidential achievements

See Also:

Cultural depictions of George Washington

Back of statue facing a city building whose facade is Greek columns covered by a huge U.S. flag
The statue of Washington outsideFederal Hall in New York City, looking on Wall Street
Profile of stone face jutting out from a mountainside. Three workers clamber over it, each about the height of the face's upper lip.
Construction on the George Washington portrait at Mount Rushmore, c. 1932. 
Shiny silver coin with profile of Washington bust. He faces left regally and wears a colonial-style queue in his hair. "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" is at top, "QUARTER DOLLAR" at bottom, "LIBERTY" at left, and "IN GOD WE TRUST" above "S" at right. Just below the bust is "JF uc" in tiny letters.
Washington is commemorated on the quarter
Gold coin with bust of Washington facing slightly left of but looking sternly straight at the viewer. "GEORGE WASHINGTON" is above, "1st PRESIDENT 1789–1797" below, and "JFM" in tiny letters at the bust's base.
Washington is also commemorated on some dollar coins.






External links


Obama meets with President Bush at White House

11.November 2008, 08:58 U.S. President-elect Barack Obama visited the White House on Monday for his first post-election meeting with President George W. Bush, a strikingly symbolic moment in the transition of power. Obama, who will take office on January 20, urged Bush to take immediate action in light of the financial crisis. US President George W. Bush (left) and President-elect Barack Obama meet in the Oval Office of the White House on November 10, 2008. Bush and Obama held private talks that likely included the faltering economy, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and terrorist threats.

Current president George W. Bush and first lady Laura greeted newly elected president Barack Obama and his wife, Michelle, with smiles and handshakes, even as Obama’s advisers reviewed some of Bush’s executive orders with an eye to reversing them after he is sworn in on Jan. 20. The two men met privately in the Oval Office for over an hour in talks thought to have encompassed the global financial crisis, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and other daunting challenges the Republican president will bequeath to his Democratic successor. It was their first face-to-face encounter following Obama’s resounding victory over Republican John McCain in Tuesday’s election, which will make him the United States’ first black president.
Obama, 47, had repeatedly attacked Bush’s "failed policies“ on the campaign trail, and the Illinois senator swept to power on a theme of change -- specifically, change from the unpopular president’s approach to economics and foreign affairs. Top congressional Democrats have asked the Bush administration to consider aid to the automakers through the financial bailout initiative that has so far covered banks and other financial services companies, and Obama urged Bush to act quickly at their meeting, according to The New York Times. Citing people familiar with their discussion, the Times said Bush indicated he might support some aid for the auto industry and a broader economic stimulus package if Obama dropped his opposition to a free-trade pact with Colombia. Obama’s aides say after taking office he will likely move quickly to roll back Bush’s executive orders that limit stem cell research and expand oil and gas drilling in some areas. But members of Obama’s team cautioned on Monday he had not yet decided whether to reverse executive orders. There was no outward sign of tension, however, when the Obamas stepped from their limousine at the south portico of the White House. Earlier, they had been cheered by crowds of onlookers as their motorcade sped through the capital. "Good morning,“ Laura Bush chirped, though it was well past noon. Obama put his hand on Bush’s back cordially as the two couples entered the mansion. The leaders then strolled down the colonnade side by side, chatting. Obama was the more animated of the two, gesturing with both hands. He had never set foot in the Oval Office before and was ushered in ahead of Bush. While their husbands met, the first lady gave Michelle Obama a tour of the White House living quarters, which will soon be her family’s new home and where daughters Malia, 10, and Sasha, 7, will be running the halls.


At the end of a two-hour visit, Bush and Obama had nothing to say to reporters and both camps were mostly tight-lipped. White House spokeswoman Dana Perino would only say that domestic and international issues were discussed and that Bush "again pledged a smooth transition.“ Obama spokeswoman Stephanie Cutter said the leaders agreed on the need to cooperate in the changeover "in light of the nation’s many critical economic and security challenges.“ Later, as Obama’s plane sat on the airport tarmac in Washington before taking off for Chicago, journalists onboard overheard snippets of a cell phone conversation the president-elect had with an unknown party. "I am not going to be spending too much time in Washington over the next several weeks,“ Obama said. Newly elected presidents traditionally visit the White House between election and inauguration but usually wait longer than Obama did. He came calling at Bush’s invitation after only six days, underscoring a sense of urgency in the transition. It will be the first wartime transfer of power in four decades and comes amid economic upheaval at home and abroad. Financial markets, struggling in a global credit crunch, are awaiting news of Obama’s appointments for key jobs such as Treasury secretary, but a spokeswoman for Obama said on Monday he would not make any Cabinet announcements this week. Obama said in his first post-election news conference on Friday he would not be rushed into making hasty decisions. Underscoring Obama’s assertion he will not act as a shadow president during the transition, an aide confirmed what the White House had been saying -- that he will not attend a global financial summit in Washington on Friday and Saturday. Bush, whose low approval ratings helped propel Obama to victory, has said he will do all he can to help in the changeover. Though visits by incoming presidents to the White House before taking office are a ritual dating back decades, there was little denying Obama’s tour carried special significance. The son of a black father from Kenya and white mother from Kansas, Obama made history by winning the presidency, an achievement seen as a breakthrough in U.S. race relations.

Michelle Obama Michelle Obama The new First Lady of the U.S.A.
Obama the Winner Obama wins a historic presidential election
Barack Obama President Obama Obama's victory speech in Chicago
US-Präsidentenwahl - Mount Rushmore The 44 US Presidents From Washington to Obama
White House Pets The beloved pets of past presidential families
John McCain Why McCain Lost McCain lost due to gaffes, Obama

Previous presidents of the United States of America

George Washington (February 22, 1732 - December 14, 1799) served as the first President of the United States of America (1789-1797), and led the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).

John Adams (October 30, 1735 - July 4, 1826). He was elected second President of the United States (1797-1801) after serving as America's first Vice President (1789-1797) for two terms. He is regarded as one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States.

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 - July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801-1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States.

James Madison, Jr.(March 16, 1751 - June 28, 1836), the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

 James Monroe (April 28, 1758 - July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state.

John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 - February 23, 1848) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the sixth President of the United States from March 4, 1825 to March 4, 1829. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties.

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 - June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837). He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.

Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 - July 24, 1862) was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. He was a key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System, and the first president who was not of British or Irish descent.

William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 - April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. The oldest President elected until Ronald Reagan in 1980, Harrison had served 30 days in office, still the shortest tenure in United States presidential history, before his death in April 1841.

John Tyler, Jr. (March 29, 1790 - January 18, 1862) was the tenth President of the United States (1841-1845), and the first ever to obtain that office via succession. He was also the first and one of only two (along with Andrew Johnson) to have no party affiliation during part of his term.


James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795-June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. A Democrat, Polk served as Speaker of the House (1835-1839) and Governor of Tennessee (1839-1841) prior to becoming president.

Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 - July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. Known as "Old Rough and Ready", Taylor had a 40-year military career in the U.S. Army.

Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 - March 8, 1874) was the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office.

Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 - October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. To date, he is the only president from New Hampshire. Pierce was a Democrat and a "doughface" (a Northerner with Southern sympathies) who served in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate.

James Buchanan, Jr. (April 23, 1791 - June 1, 1868) was the fifteenth President of the United States (1857-1861). To date he is the only President from Pennsylvania, and is the only never to marry.

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865), the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through the American Civil War, only to be assassinated as the war was coming to an end. Before becoming the first Republican elected to the Presidency, Lincoln was a lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, a member of the United States House of Representatives.

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 - July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865-69), succeeding to the Presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. He was one of only two U.S. Presidents to be impeached.


Ulysses S. Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 - July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 - January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877-1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876.

James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 - September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. His assassination, six months after he assumed the Presidency, means that his tenure is the second shortest in United States history.

Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 - November 18, 1886) served as the twenty-first President of the United States. Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the twentieth vice president under James Garfield.

Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 - June 24, 1908) was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Cleveland is the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and thus is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.

Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 - March 13, 1901) was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893.


Stephen Grover Cleveland was the only Democrat elected to the Presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1860 to 1912.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 - June 24, 1908) was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Cleveland is the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and thus is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.

William McKinley, Jr. (January 29, 1843 - September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the American Civil War to be elected.

Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 - January 6, 1919), was the twenty-sixth President of the United States. A leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Party, he was a Governor of New York and a professional historian, naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier.

William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 - March 8, 1930), the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration.

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 - February 3, 1924) was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. A leading intellectual of the Progressive Era, he served as President of Princeton University and then became the Governor of New Jersey in 1910.


Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the twenty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack, aged 57, in 1923. A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential newspaper publisher.

John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. (July 4, 1872 - January 5, 1933) was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923-1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His actions during the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight.

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 - October 20, 1964) was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929-1933). Besides his political career, Hoover was a professional mining engineer and author.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 - April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945 and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Franklin and Theodore Roosevelt were related but only distantly.

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 - December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945-1953). As the thirty-fourth vice president, he succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died less than three months after he began his fourth term.

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was the thirty-fourth President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general in the United States Army. During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful i

Picture: John_Fitzgerald_Kennedy_Library

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 - November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.

Picture: picture-alliance / dpa

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 - January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the thirty-sixth President of the United States (1963-1969) and thirty-seventh Vice President of the United States (1961-1963)

Picture: White_House_via_CNP

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 - April 22, 1994) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States (1969-1974), and the only president to ever resign from office. He was also the thirty-sixth Vice President of the United States (1953-1961).

Picture: EPA_FILES

Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr. July 14, 1913 - December 26, 2006) was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the fortieth Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974.

Picture: picture-alliance / dpa

James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) served as the thirty-ninth President of the United States from 1977 to 1981, and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize. Prior to becoming president, Carter served two terms in the Georgia Senate and as the 76th Governor of Georgia, from 1971 to 1975

Picture: DPA

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was the fortieth President of the United States (1981-1989) and the thirty-third Governor of California (1967-1975). Born in Illinois, Reagan moved to Los Angeles, California in the 1930s, where he was an actor, president of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG), and a spokesman for General Electric (GE).

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Bush held a multitude of political positions prior to his presidency, including Vice President of the United States in the administration of Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) and director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton served as the forty-second President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He was the fifteenth Democrat elected to that office. He was the third-youngest president, only older than Theodore Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy when he went into office.

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

George Walker Bush, born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third President of the United States. He served as the forty-sixth Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 before being sworn in as President on January 20, 2001. His term ends at noon (ET) on January 20, 2009.

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

Barack Hussein Obama II, born August 4, 1961 is the President-elect of the United States of America and the junior United States Senator from Illinois. Obama is the first black to be elected President of the United States.
He is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first black to serve as president of the Harvard Law Review.

 Bilderberg Group Investigations

by Paul Vigay (25th Mar 2000)

Paul Vigay looks into the shady world of global conspiracies and manipulations.
His findings are at least eye-opening, at worst downright frightening. Have you ever wondered if there really is a 'global elite'? Some secret group of people who control world events and hide their agenda from public knowledge?

Could there be a group of people; politicians, heads of multinational companies, directors of world banking organisations and even royalty, who decide what policies will determine the way ordinary people live - and die?

As David Icke says, it is relatively easy for a small group of people to control the masses when everyday we give our power and freedom away, fearing to step out from the comfort of our 'hassle free zone'. Who perpetrate the 'Problem, Reaction, Solution' events which shape and manipulate our perceived 'democracy and freedom'?

If you control governments and the media you control the world, or do you? What if a problem so terrible, so grotesque, so 'unbelievable' begins to occur with startling regularity? Do you demand answers? Do you demand what 'the government' is going to do about it? Do you pass the problem to someone else do deal with? What happens if that person you hand the solution to, is the person who created the problem in the first place? So forms the basis for the problem, reaction, solution method of controlling the people with the minimum of effort.

Imagine a scenario where a lone-gunman walks into a crowded shopping centre and guns down a number of innocent people. Terrible enough, but what if at a later time, some innocent school children in a quiet, peaceful school are the targets? The more outrageous and disgusting an event, the more people will demand something must be done; "Guns must be banned", "Something must be done now!".

Believe it or not, David Icke predicted just such a scenario in his 1994 book "The Robots' Rebellion", before we witnessed the terrible events at Dunblane.

Supposing someone, somewhere wanted the end 'solution' to be "to ban guns". Obviously, gun clubs, enthusiasts and legitimate people are going to complain, perhaps with the backing or at least, indifference, of the general public. After all "it doesn't affect us does it". You need to somehow manipulate the public to demand that you offer the solution. You need a public 'reaction', for which you need to stage a perceived 'problem'. The more horrific and unbelievable you can make it, the more the public will demand what you wanted to do in the first place.

Rising Crime? or Big Brother?

What if you want to install video cameras and monitoring equipment into towns and villages. Of course, this costs huge amounts of money, which could be spent on hospitals, research into illnesses or saving the environment, so you need the public to demand you do it, or at the minimum, not offer resistance when you propose it. You need the 'problem' of rising crime, which needs to be perpetuated throughout the media and on TV. People will then fear being mugged in the streets and approve the 'safety' offered by cameras and surveillance equipment - even though the need was not high enough in the first place.

Does such a group of people exist? There is ample evidence to say that there does, and what's more, once you become aware of the facts, you can see their influence in world events - even though seemingly forged by 'opposing factions'.

Democracy or Denial?

Why are the public losing interest in government and their right to vote? Is it because people think "it doesn't matter who you vote for, they both end up doing the same old things". How precise this turns out to be, once you dig deep enough.

No wonder The Sun newspaper decided to back Tony Blair of New Labour (what a joke) in the May 1997 UK general election. The chief executive of News International (the parent of The Sun) is Mr Andrew Knight, a member of the Bilderberg Group.

Opposite sides, same views:-

Mr Tony Blair was a guest of the annual Bilderberg meeting in 1993, together with his colleague Kenneth Clarke. Hang on a minute though..... Aren't those two on opposite sides? What about Bilderberg attendees Margaret Thatcher and Denis Healey - and you thought we lived in a democracy where your vote actually counted.

Incidentally, this could account for why Margaret Thatcher was one of Tony Blair's first guests at Number Ten, something the independent media were quick to pick up on after New Labour won power.

The same goes for US presidents. Every one since Jimmy Carter has been a Bilderberg representative. Democrat, Republican - it doesn't matter. They all have the same policies, decided upon at top secret meetings held annually in hidden locations.

What exactly are 'The Bilderbergers' then? What are their aims? This article, mainly extracts from "The Bilderberg Group... the Trilateral Commission... covert power groups of the West", by Robert Eringer, (Pentacle Books, 1980) tries to expose some of their secret agenda.

As the concepts and plans behind the global elite could pose such a threat to our freedom, I will periodically return to this subject in order to keep Enigma readers aware of the world around them. If anything in this article, or any keywords on the cover of this issue, strike a chord with you, or if you have further information, please do not hesitate to contact me at the editorial address.

The Global Manipulators: In Search of Answers
It is indeed intriguing when a prestigious collection of internationally powerful men lock themselves away for a weekend in some remote town far away from the Press to talk about world problems.
Since the late 1950s, the Bilderberg Group has been the subject of a variety of conspiracy theories. For the most part, conspiracy theories emanate from political extremist organisations, Right and Left. The 'Radical Right' view Bilderberg as an integral part of the 'international Zionist-communist conspiracy'.
At the other end of the political spectrum, the radical Left perceive Bilderberg to be a branch of the 'Rockefeller-Rothschild grand design to rule the world'. For many it is less frightening to believe in hostile conspirators than it is to face the fact that no one is in control. And after all, isn't conspiracy the normal continuation of normal politics by normal means?
Conspiracy or not, the Bilderberg Group is a fascinating example of behind-the-scenes 'invisible' influence-peddling in action.
Bilderbergers represent the elite and wealthy establishment of every Western nation. They include bankers, industrialists, politicians and leaders of giant multinational corporations. Their annual meetings, which take place at a different location each year, go unannounced, their debates unreported, their decisions unknown.
The group certainly fits C.Wright Mills's definition of a Power Elite: 'A group of men, similar in interest and outlook, shaping events from invulnerable positions behind the scenes.'
The New World Order
I began my investigation of Bilderberg while in Washington, D.C. in the autumn of 1975. I had read bits and pieces on Bilderberg in right-wing literature and so I went directly to its source, the Liberty Lobby, an ultra-conservative political pressure group located a stone's throw from Capitol Hill. There I interviewed one E.Stanley Rittenhouse, Liberty Lobby's legislative aide. Rittenhouse solemnly explained the existence of a Jewish-communist conspiracy to rule the world by way of a 'New World Order', whose eventual goal is one world government. To prove this point Rittenhouse incessantly recited passages from his handy pocket Bible and explained the evolution of this great conspiracy.
The Illuminati
It all goes back to the Illuminati, a secret society/fraternity formed in Bavaria in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, based on the philosophical ideals of Plato. John Ruskin, 'a secret disciple of the Illuminati' and a professor of art and philosophy at Oxford University in the 1870s, revived these ideals in his teachings.
A Privileged Ruling Class
The late Dr. Carroll Quigley, a distinguished professor at Georgetown University for many years, wrote in "Tragedy and Hope" that 'Ruskin spoke to the Oxford undergraduates as members of the privileged ruling class ... that they were possessors of a magnificent tradition of education, beauty, rule of law, freedom, decency, and self-discipline but that this tradition could not be saved, and indeed did not deserve to be saved, unless it could be extended to the lower classes in England and to the non-English masses throughout the world'.
Diamond Mining
Cecil Rhodes, a student and devoted fan of Ruskin, 'Feverishly exploited the diamond and gold fields of South Africa. With financial support from Lord Rothschild he was able to monopolise the diamond mines of South Africa as De Beers Consolidated Mines.
'In the middle of the 1890s Rhodes had a personal income of a least a million pounds a year which he spent so freely for his mysterious purposes that he was usually overdrawn on his account. These purposes centred on his desire to federate the English-speaking peoples and to bring all habitable portions of the world under their control.'
The founding of The Round Table
To this end, Rhodes, along with other disciples of Ruskin, formed a secret society in association with a group of Cambridge men who shared the same ideals. This society, which was later to become the original Round Table Group (better known in the 1920s as the 'Cliveden Set') was formed on February 5th 1881.
According to Dr. Quigley, "This group was able to get access to Rhodes's money after his death in 1902. Under the trusteeship of Alfred (later Lord) Milner, They sought to extend and execute the ideals that Rhodes had obtained from Ruskin."
"As governor-general of South Africa in the period 1897-1905, Milner recruited a group of young men, chiefly from Oxford and from Toynbee Hall, to assist him in organising his administration. Through this influence these men were able to win influential posts in government and international finance and became the dominant influence in British imperial and foreign affairs up to 1939. Under Milner in South Africa, they were known as Milner's Kindergarten until 1910. In 1909-1903 they organised semi-secret groups, known as Round Table Groups, in the chief British dependencies and in the United States."
The CFR and RIIA
It was at the Majestic Hotel in Paris in 1919 that the Round Table Groups of the United States and Britain emerged out from under a cloak of secrecy and officially became the (American) Council on Foreign Relations and the (British) Royal Institute for International Affairs.
To Mr Rittenhouse and his breed of religious isolationists at Liberty Lobby, Bilderberg evolved directly from the 'satanic-communist' Illuminati, and the Council on Foreign Relations - Royal Institute of International Affairs relationship.
I phoned Dr. Quigley at his office in Georgetown University's elite School of Foreign Service. A man of impeccable credentials, Quigley used "Tragedy and Hope" as a text for his courses on Western Civilisation.
Published in 1966, "Tragedy and Hope" has become a rare book to locate. Quigley apparently had trouble with his publisher over the book's distribution. The publisher claimed demand was poor. When Quigley sought and acquired the necessary demand, the publisher responded by saying that the plates had been destroyed.
In his book, 1310 pages in all, Quigley detailed how the intricate financial and commercial patterns of the West prior to 1914 influenced the development of today's world. It has been suggested that these revelations, especially in coming from a respected historian, did not amuse the higher echelons of big banking; hence a form of censorship resulted.
It is for this reason that "Tragedy and Hope", much to Quigley's annoyance, has become the Bible of conspiracy theorists and may be found for sale only through mail order book clubs which specialise in conspiracy literature.
Quigley, in his best Boston accent, dismissed the Radical-Right inter-pretation as 'garbage'. But he was quick to add, "To be perfectly blunt, you could find yourself in trouble dealing with this subject." He explained that his career as a lecturer in the government institution circuit was all but ruined because of the twenty or so pages he had written about the existence of Round Table Groups. I recently studied the late Dr. Quigley's private files on the Round Table Groups at the Georgetown University library. There I discovered great substance to his findings in the form of personal correspondence and notes of interviews and conversations.
Exhausted with right-wing cries of communist conspiracy, I wrote to the embassies in Washington of each one of the countries whose citizens are involved with Bilderberg. I received only three replies. A letter from the Royal Swedish Embassy states: 'Prominent Swedish businessmen in their private capacities are and have been members of the group. Swedish politicians have also - mostly as invited guests as I understand it - participated in meetings with the group. I may add that I am not aware of any official Swedish view on the Bilderberg Group.' The Canadian Embassy wrote: 'To our knowledge, the Canadian Government has no position with regard to this group.'
Official Denials
I telephoned all of the embassies. Out of twenty, the only one which had any information of Bilderberg was that of the Netherlands. The official I spoke with knew very little about the group but he speculated that its purpose was to make this 'a more liveable world'. A diplomat at the Embassy of West Germany exclaimed, 'Bilder What?', and he refuse to believe the existence of such a group. This was a familiar response, even from many university professors of politics whom I questioned.
Mark Felt, the former Assistant Director of the FBI, had never heard of Bilderberg. Neither had Michael Moffitt of the Institute for Policy Studies and co-author of Global Reach.
After spotting his Name on a poster advertising a seminar on the power elite, I phoned Dr. Peter David Beter, a former Counsel to the Import-Export Bank. Beter contends that Bilderberg Conferences are nothing more than social occasions where prostitutes and large amounts of alcohol are enjoyed. But these days, Dr. Beter's full-time profession consists of peddling a monthly 'Audio Letter' to a very gullible public. Beter was last heard by this author proclaiming that the Russians have secretly implanted nuclear missiles in the Mississippi River.
White House Enquiries
I wrote to President Gerald Ford at the White House to enquire about Bilderberg when I heard of his one-time involvement. His 'Director of Correspondence' replied and stated: 'The Conference does not intend that its program be secret, although in the interest of a free and open discussion, no records are kept of the meetings.' (I later learned that records are indeed kept of the meetings, although they are marked 'Strictly Confidential'.)
I wrote to David Rockefeller, Chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank, to enquire about Bilderberg. An assistant wrote back and he suggested I write to 'Mr. Charles Muller, a Vice President at Muden and Company, the organisation which assists with the administration of American Friend of Bilderberg, Incorporated'
I wrote to Mr. Muller and was sent the following printed message: "In the early 1950s a number of people in both sides of the Atlantic sought a means of bringing together leading citizens both in and out of government, for informal discussions of problems facing the Western world. Such meetings, they felt, would create a better understanding of the forces and trends affecting Western nations."
The first meeting that brought Americans and Europeans together took place under the chairmanship of H.R.H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands at the Bilderberg Hotel in Oosterbeck, Holland, from 29th May to 31st May, 1954. Ever since, the meetings have been called Bilderberg Meetings.

The first Bilderberg Meeting, in Oosterbeck, Holland, May 1954
Each year since its inception, Prince Bernhard has been the Bilderberg chairman. There are no members' of Bilderberg. Each year an invitation list is compiled by Prince Bernhard in consultation with an informal international steering committee; individuals are chosen in the light of their knowledge and standing. To ensure full discussion an attempt is made to include participants representing many political and economic points of view. Of the 80 to 100 participant, approximately one-third are from government and politics, the other are from many fields - finance, industry, labour, education and journalism. They attend in a personal and not in an official capacity. from the beginning participants have come from North America and Western Europe, and from various international organisations. The official languages are English and French. 'The meetings take place in a different county each year. Since 1957, they have been held in many Western European countries and in North America as well. The discussion at each meeting is centred upon topics of current concern in the broad fields of foreign policy, world economy, and other contemporary issues. Basic groundwork for the symposium is laid by means of working papers and general discussion follows. In order to assure freedom of speech and opinion, the gatherings are closed and off the record. No resolutions are proposed, no votes taken, and no policy statements issued during or after the meetings. In short, Bilderberg is a high-ranking and flexibly international forum in which opposing viewpoints can be brought closer together and mutual understanding furthered.' I wrote to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and received a reply from the Bureau of European Affairs at the State Department: 'In the early 1950s a number of people on both sides of the Atlantic sought a means of bringing together leading citizens ' And so on.
Official Business or Not?
I went to see Charles Muller at his Murden and Company office in New York City. He appeared to know little about Bilderberg and merely repeated information available on the printed message. It is claimed that "Government officials attend in a personal and not an official capacity". Mr. Muller was surprised to learn from me that the State Department acknowledged in a letter to Liberty Lobby that department officials Helmut Sonnenfeldt and Winston Lord attended a Bilderberg Conference at government expense in their official capacities. (as did Kenneth Clarke and Tony Blair in 1993) I tried to obtain interviews with both Sonnenfeldt and Lord. Their secretaries channelled me through to many different offices. Finally, Francis Seidner, a public affairs advisor, advised me to mind my own business. Back in London and armed with a list of Bilderberg participants (available on request - Ed.), I sought out and conducted an interview with Lord Roll, chairman of the S.G. Warburg Bank. Roll gave little away and he stated outright that records of Bilderberg Conferences do not exist. (Little did he realise that I had one in my briefcase?) I wrote to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and they replied: 'Thank you for your letter enquiring about the Bilderberg Group. Unfortunately, we can find no trace of the Bilderberg Group in any of our reference works on international organisations.' (Much later, I learned that the Foreign Office has on occasion paid the way for British members to attend Bilderberg Conferences.) A letter to one-time member Sir Paul Chambers brought this response: 'I am under obligation not to disclose anything about the Bilderberg Group to anybody who is not a member of that Group, I am very sorry that I cannot help, but I am clearly powerless to do so and it would be wrong in the circumstances to say anything to you about Bilderberg.' Sir Paul suggested I write to the Bilderberg secretariat at an address in the Hague. I did so and was again sent a copy of the standard printed message. I had eagerly looked forward to the next Bilderberg Conference, which in 1976 was to be held in Hot Springs, Virginia. For the first time since 1954, the meeting was cancelled. The international steering committee felt it inappropriate to conduct a conference that year because permanent chairman Prince Bernhard was under such heavy public scrutiny after having been publicly disgraced for taking a bribe from the Lockheed Aircraft Company.
UK Meeting in 1977
So my first Bilderberg Conference took place a year later, in April 1977, at the serene Devon resort of Torquay. It is the Bilderberg custom to book a whole hotel for the weekend conference. The five-star Imperial Hotel was no exception and it, too, was emptied to accommodate over 100 Bilderberg participants. Even the Imperials permanent guests were told to find lodging elsewhere for the weekend. I managed a booking at the Imperial for three nights before the Bilderbergers moved in. On Thursday, two days before the conference was due to begin, heavy lorries and workmen unloaded large wooden file cabinets and sealed crates. I was not allowed access to the conference hall, despite assurances from a Bilderberg secretary that 'We have nothing to hide'. At 2 am Friday morning with the night club finally closed and the Imperial asleep, I tiptoed down five flights of stairs from my room to the conference hall. To my surprise, the doors were unlocked and unguarded. I slipped into the darkened hall and inspected the locked file cabinets, glass translation booth and electronic equipment for tape-recording and translation. Having already consumed a half-dozen whiskies, I could not repulse an urge to purloin a mahogany and brass-plated Bilderberg gavel. It now sits atop my desk, a trophy of my research. Like all others, I was thrown out of the hotel on the Friday to make way for American Secret Servicemen and Special Branch bodyguards. The Bilderbergers arrived later, mostly by way of a quiet entry through Exeter Airport 10 miles form Torquay. They held their hush-hush meetings and then, just as quietly, disappeared back to their respective banks, multinational corporations and government jobs, perhaps a little more the wiser than when they arrived.

As you can see from the article above, people 'in the know' seem intent on keeping the purpose and attendees to each Bilderberg meeting top secret. The meetings still continue annually with the 1998 meeting having occurred only a few weeks ago at the remote Turnberry Hotel in Ayreshire, Scotland. Not long afterwards, I managed to obtain a list of attendees to this, most recent, meeting. The full list appears on the following page, for the benefit of, and to aid the personal research of, Enigmareaders. One noticeable omission from the list, is British Prime Minister Mr Tony Blair. Does this mean that he is on the way out? It's interesting to note that William Hague (leader of the Opposition) and Tony Blair's own Secretary of State for Defence, Mr George Robertson were both present, as were (as usual) international media moguls.

Other resources on this site
  • Linking the people.... - Our ongoing project to connect the dots and cross-reference all the attendees of Bilderberg meetings.
  • 1999 attendees - A list of attendees at the Bilderberg meeting 1999.
Other sites you may be interested in visiting

Part of a series of articles on
Core Articles

Freemasonry · Grand Lodge · Masonic Lodge · Masonic Lodge Officers · Grand Master · Prince Hall Freemasonry · Regular Masonic jurisdictions


History of Freemasonry · Liberté chérie ·Masonic manuscripts

Masonic Bodies
Views of Masonry
People and Places
Other related articles
This box: view  talk  edit

This is a list of notable Freemasons. Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation which exists in a number of forms worldwide. Throughout history some members of the fraternity have made no secret of their involvement, while others have not made their membership public. In some cases, membership can only be proven by searching through the fraternity's records. Such records are most often kept at the individual Lodge level, and may be lost due to fire, flood, deterioration, or simple carelessness. Grand Lodge governance may have shifted or reorganized, resulting in further loss of records on the member or the name, number, location or even existence of the Lodge in question. In areas of the world where Masonry has been suppressed by governments, records of entire Grand Lodges have been destroyed. Because of this, masonic membership can sometimes be difficult to verify.

Standards of "proof" for those on this list may vary widely; some figures with no verified Lodge affiliation are claimed as Masons if reliable sources give anecdotal evidence suggesting they were familiar with the "secret" signs and passes, but other figures are rejected over technical questions of irregularity in the Lodge that initiated them. Where available, specific Lodge membership information is provided; where serious questions of verification have been noted by other sources, this is indicated as well.phy/esoterica/reuss_t/reuss_t.html GL of BC&Y article on Reuss










  • Burl Ives, American actor and singer,[26] Magnolia (now Magnolia-La Cumbre) Lodge No. 242, California









  • Manuel L. Quezon, First president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under U.S. occupation rule in the early period of the 20th century. Raised March 17, 1908 at Sinukuan Lodge No. 272 (renamed Sinukuan Lodge No. 16). first Filipino Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands that was established in 1917.[188]








  • John Yarker - English occultist - 1° Lodge of Integrity No. 189 (later 163) Manchester, October 25, 1854, affiliated with Fidelity Lodge No. 623 April 27, 1855 - Expelled from the Ancient and Accepted Rite and Demitted (from all regular Freemasonry), 1862[244]


  • Duiliu Zamfirescu Romanian novelist, poet, short story writer, lawyer, nationalist politician, journalist, diplomat and

    Welcome to Burbank Masonic Lodge No. 406

    Famous Masons
    U.S. Presidents Presidential Candidates Declaration of Independence Signers Foreign Leaders
    Supreme Court Justices U.S. Senators U.S. Military Leaders U.S. Pioneers
    Civic Leaders Medical Leaders Sports Authors, Publishers and Poets
    Entertainers Religeous Leaders Industry and Commerce Other Famous Freemasons


          George Washington, 1st President, 1789 - 1797, Commanding General during American Revolution, made a Mason August 4, 1753, in Fredericksburg Lodge (now No. 4), A. F. & A. M., Fredericksburg, Virginia.
          James Monroe, 5th President, 1817 - 1825, made a Mason November 9, 1775, in Williamsburg Lodge (now No. 6), A.F. & A.M., Williamsburg, Virginia.
          Andrew Jackson, 7th President, 1829 - 1837 Harmony Lodge No. 1, Nashville, Tennessee, an Honorary Member of Federal Lodge No. 1, F. & A.M., Washington, D.C., and Jackson Lodge No. 1, F. & A.M., Tallahassee, Florida. In 1822 and 1823 he served as the Grand Master of Masons in Tennessee.
          James Knox Polk, 11th President, 1845 - 1849, made a Mason September 4, 1820, in Columbia Lodge No. 31, F. & A.M., Columbia, Tennessee.
          James Buchanan, 15th President, 1857 - 1861, made a Mason January 24, 1817, in Lodge No. 43 (it has no name), F. & A.M., Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
          Andrew Johnson, 17th President, 1865 - 1869, made a Mason during May, 1851, in Greeneville Lodge No. 119 (now No. 3), F. & A.M., Greeneville, Tennessee.
          James Abram Garfield, 20th President. 1881, made a Mason November 22, 1864, in Columbus Lodge No. 30 F. & A.M., Columbus, Ohio.
          William McKinley, 25th President, 1897 - 1901, made a Mason May 3, 1865, in Hiram Lodge No. 21, A.F. & A.M., Winchester, Virginia.
          Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President, 1901 - 1909, made a Mason April 24, 1901, in Matinecock Lodge No. 806, F. & A.M., Oyster Bay, New York.
          William Howard Taft, 27th President, 1909 - 1913 - Chief Justice Supreme Court 1921 - 1930, made a "Mason at Sight" in an "Occassional Lodge" called for that purpose on February 18, 1909, in the Scottish Rite Cathedral, Cincinnati, Ohio, by Charles S. Hoskinson, Grand Master of Masons in Ohio.
          Warren Gamaliel Harding, 29th President, 1921 - 1923, made a Mason August 27, 1920, in Marion Lodge No. 70, F. & A.M., Marion, Ohio.
          Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President, 1933 - 1945, made a Mason November 28, 1911, in Holland Lodge No. 8, F. & A.M., New York, New York, the same Lodge in which George Washington, the Nation's first President, held Honorary membership.
          Harry S. Truman, 33rd President, 1945 - 1951, made a Mason March 18, 1909, in Belton Lodge No. 450, A.F. & A.M., Belton, Missouri. He served as the Grand Master of Masons of Missouri in 1940.
    Initiated: February 9, 1909, Belton Lodge No. 450, Belton, Missouri.
    In 1911, several Members of Belton Lodge separated to establish Grandview Lodge No. 618, Grandview, Missouri, and Brother Truman served as its first Worshipful Master. At the Annual Session of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, September 24-25, 1940, Brother Truman was elected (by a landslide) the ninety-seventh Grand Master of Masons of Missouri, and served until October 1, 1941. Brother and President Truman was made a Sovereign Grand Inspector General, 33º, and Honorary Member, Supreme Council on October 19,1945 at the Supreme Council A.A.S.R. Southern Jurisdiction Headquarters in Washington D.C., upon which occasion he served as Exemplar (Representative) for his Class. He was also elected an Honorary Grand Master of the International Supreme Council, Order of DeMolay. On May 18, 1959, Brother and Former President Truman was presented with a fifty-year award, the only U.S. President to reach that golden anniversary in Freemasonry.
          Gerald R. Ford, Jr. 38th President, 1974 - 1977. He was raised to the Sublime degree of Master Mason on May 18, 1951 in Columbia Lodge No. 3, F. &.A.M., of Washington, D.C., as a courtesy for Malta Lodge No. 465, F. & A.M. of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
          Lyndon Baines Johnson 1908-1973. 36th President, 1963 - 1969. Entered Apprentice degree Johnson City Lodge No. 561, Johnson City, Texas October 30, 1937. Did not advance.

    Presidential Candidates:

          Dewey, Thomas E. - New York Governor
          Dole, Bob - former U.S. Senator/Majority Leader, Kansas; Russell Lodge No. 177, Kansas
          Goldwater, Barry - Former Senator from Arizona
          Humphrey, Hubert H. - Vice President of the United States
          McGovern, George - Senator from South Dakota
          Stassen, Harrold E. - Minnesota Governor &emdash; Fellowship Shekinah Lodge No. 257, St. Paul, MN; 33º, Grand Cross A.A.S.R., S.J.
          Wallace, Governor George C. - Presidential Candidate who was nearly assasinated

    Of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration of Independence, the following were known to be members of a Masonic lodge:

          Benjamin Franklin - 1 of 13 Masonic signers of Constitution of the U.S. member of St. John's Lodge, Tun Tavern, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Past Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania
          Elbridge Gerry, member of Philanthropic Lodge, Marblehead, Massachusetts.
          John Hancock, made a Master Mason, at the age of 23, in 1760, in Merchants Lodge No. 1, Quebec City, the first civilian Lodge established in Canada after the Conquest. In 1763, he went to Boston, Massachusetts, where he affiliated with St. Andrew's Lodge.
          William Hooper, member of Hanover Lodge, Masonborough, North Carolina.
          Richard Stockton, charter member, and first Master of St. John's Lodge, Princeton, New Jersey.
          Matthew Thornton, made a Mason in a Lodge attached to a British Regiment of Foot during the Siege of Louisburg, Canada, in 1745, serving in a New Hampshire Colonial Regiment as a surgeon. Baron Von Steuben, while at Valley Forge, is said to have conferred the higher Degrees on him and to have been the only Signer who attained the 32nd Degree of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite.
          George Walton, member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Savannah, Georgia.
          William Whipple, member of St. Johnþs Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, New Jersey.
          The following named Signers have been referred to as members of the Fraternity by various Masonic writers, and in Masonic publications, but their Lodge affiliation is not known:
          Roger Sherman, claimed to have been made a Mason prior to the American Revolution. A Masonic Apron said to be worn by him is in the collection at Yale University.
          Josiah Bartlett, one so named is listed as a charter member of King Solomon's Lodge, Charlestown, Massachusetts. Descendants, however, say he was not a member of the Craft. There is doubt that this Bartlett is the signer, and records of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts do not show his Lodge affiliation.
          Philip Livingston, often referred to as a Mason, but this is open to debate. Records of the Grand Lodge of New York do not disclose his name. Several members, named Livingston, are noted in the records of Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City, New York.
          Joseph Hewes. Records of Unanimity Lodge No. 7, Edenton, North Carolina, show his name as a visitor on St. John's Day, December, 1776.
          Robert Treat Paine, member of a Massachusetts Lodge. The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts records do not show his affiliation He was said to be present at the celebration of St. John's Day, Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in June, 1759.
          Thomas McKean, noted as a frequent visitor to Perseverance Lodge No. 2l, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The McKean genealogy has stated he was a Mason, although his name is not found on the records of the Grand Lodge of Delaware, which was not organized until the close of the American Revolution. A brother, Samuel McKean, was a member of the Fraternity.
          John Penn, known to have attended Lodges in North Carolina, but his Masonic affiliation is not known.
          Lyman Hall, claimed to have been a member of Solomons Lodge No. 1, Savannah, Georgia.
          William Ellery, claimed as a member of a Lodge in Boston, Massachusetts.
          Thomas Nelson, Jr., claimed to have visited Lodge No. 9, Yorktown, Virginia, after the Siege of that place was lifted in the Revolutionary War, accompanied by Lafayette and Washington.
          Absence of definite proof of the Masonic affiliation of the Signers named in the foregoing paragraphs, precludes the possibility of knowing. This is also the case with Thomas Jefferson; John Adams; Benjamin Rush, Robert Morris; John Witherspoon; George Wythe; Francis Lightfoot Lee; Richard Henry Lee, and others. Caesar Rodney, of Delaware fame, had a son Caesar Augustus Rodney - a member of the Craft. George Read, another Signer from Delaware, had a son - George M. Read - who was Grand Master of Pennsylvania. Samuel Huntington had a son who was Grand Master of Ohio.

    Foreign Leaders:

          Abbott, Sir John J.C. - Prime Minister of Canada 1891-92
          Miguel Aleman (Mexican President 1947-52)
          Allende, Salvador - Former President of Chile, Lodge Progresso No. 4, Valpariso
          Emilio Aguinaldo (Phillippine Patriot and General)
          Ataturk, Mustapha Kemal, Former President of Turkey 1923-1938
          Barclay, E-J. - President of Liberia in 1930 - 1941. Depute-Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Liberia in 1930
          Barrientos, Rene. - 1925-1969. President of Bolivie 1964
          Batista, Mariano. 1832-1907. - President of Bolivia in 1892.
          Benes, Eduard - President of Czechoslovakia 1935-1938. Lodge Ian Amos Komensky No. 1, Prague and Lodge Pravda Vitezi
          Bennett, Viscount R.B. - Prime Minister of Canada 1930-35
          Bertrand, Francisco - 1870-1926 President of Honduras.
          Sveinn Bjornsson (1st President of Iceland)
          Bolivar, Simon. 1783-1830 - Hero of the Independence of South American countries from Spain. Known as the George Washington of South America.
          Bonaparte, Napolean - Military Leader, Emperor of France (and his four brothers)
    There is serious doubt about Napoleon Bonapart being a Mason among Masonic researchers. His four brothers memberships are well documented.
          Bonaparte, Joseph 1768-1844. - King of Naples
          Borden, Sir Robert L. - Prime Minister of Canada 1911-1920
          Botha, Pik - Former Foreign Minister of South Africa
          Bowell, Sir Mackenzie - Prime Minister of Canada 1894-96
          Brant, Joseph - Chief of the Mohawks 1742 - 1807
          King Charles XIII (King of Sweden 1748-1818)
          Churchill, Winston, Sir. 1874-1965. - Former Prime Minister Member of the Studholme Lodge 1591, of London.
          Diefenbaker, John G. - Prime Minister of Canada 1957-63
          Doumer, Paul - President of France
          Doumergue, Gaston - President of France
          Edward VIII - King of England who abdicated the throne in less than 1 year
          Edward VII - King of England
          Frederic II - King of Prussia
          Frederick the Great, King of Prussia 1740-86
          Francis I Holy Roman Emperor, 1745-65.
          Francis II Holy Roman Emperor, 1768-1806.
          Frederic VII - King of Denmark. 1806-1863.
          Garibaldi, Giuseppe. 1807-1882. - Deputy of Rome.
          George VI - King of England during W.W. II 
          Georges II 1895-1952. - King of Greece
          Gustave V - King of Sweden 1907 - 1950.
          Gustavus VI Adolphus (King of Sweden 1792-1809)
          Joffre 1852-1931 - Marshall of France.; Kamehemeha IV King of Hawaii (1854-63).
          Kemehemeha V King of Hawaii (1863-72).; Lafayette, Marquis de - French Supporter of Amerian Freedom; Leopold I - King of Belgium (1831-65)
          MacDonald, Sir John A. - Prime Minister of Canada 1867-73 and 1878-91; Mitterand, Alexandre - President of France
          Peter the Great (Emperor of Russia 1689-1725); Tirpitz, Alfred Von 1849-1930 - German Naval officer responsible for submarine warfare
          William I (King of Prussia 1861- 88); William II (King of the Netherlands (1792-1849); William IV (King of England (1830-37)

    United States Supreme Court Justices:

          Baldwin, Henry ; Black, Hugo L.Blair, John Jr.,; Blatchford, Samuel; Burton, Harold H. ; Byrnes, James F.; Catton, John; Clark, Thomas C.
          Clarke, John H.; Cushing, William ; Devanter, Willis Van; Douglas, William O.; Ellsworth, Oliver; Field, Stephen J. ; Harlan, John M. ; Jackson, Robert H.; Lamar, Joseph E. 
          Marshall, Thurgood ; Marshall, John - Chief Justice 1801 - 1835; Mathews, Stanley; Minton, Sherman; Moody, William H.; Nelson, Samuel
          Paterson, William - Signer US Constitution ; Pitney, Mahlon; Reed, Stanley F.; Rutledge, Wiley B. Stewart, Potter, Swayne, Noah H., Todd, Thomas, Trimble, Robert 
          Vinson, Frederick M. - Chief Justice 1946 - 1953, Warren, Earl - Chief Justice 1953 - 197?, Governor of California, Grand Master of California, Woodbury, Levi , Woods, William B. 

    United States Senators:

          Bryan, Richard; Burns, Conrad; Byrd, Robert; Dirksen, Everett; Douglas, Stephen; Ervin Samual J. Jr, who headed "Watergate" Committee
          Glenn, John H. - First American to orbit the earth in a space craft. Member of Concord #688 Concord, Ohio.
          Grassley, Charles; Hatfield, Mark; Helms, Jesse; Hollings, Ernest; Johnston, Bennett Jr.
          Kemp, Jack - Secretary of HUD, New York; Fraternal Lodge No. 625 in Hamburg, NY, Quarterback for Buffalo Bills; Lott, Trent; Nunn, Sam; Simpson, Alan; Thomas, Craig

    United States Military Leaders:

          Aldrin, Edwin E. "Buzz" Astronaut; second man on the moon, Montclair Lodge No. 144 New Jersey.
          Allen, Ethan - General, Revolutionary War; Windsor, Vermont
          Arnold, Gen. Henry "Hap" - Commander of the Army Air Force during World War II
          Bradley, Omar N. - Five Star General of the Army, World War II, U.S.
          Byrd, Richard E. Admiral - Arctic & Anarctic explorer, 1st to fly over North Pole
          Cooper, Gordon "Gordo" - Astronaut
          Chenault, Claire L. - World War II General
          Clark, Mark - World War II General, European Theater
          Doolittle, James - General, famous World War II Air Force Pilot
          Farragut, Admiral David G. (First Admiral of the U.S. Navy)
          Grissom, Virgil (Gus) - Astronaut
          Irwin, Jim - Astronaut
          James, Daniel "Chappie" - General, U.S. Air Force
          Jones, John Paul - Founder and First Admiral of the U.S. Navy - St. Bernard Lodge No. 122 (now St. Cuthbert No. 41)
          King, Ernest J. - World War II Five Star Admiral, Comander of Pacific Theater
          Knox, Henry - Revolutionary War General
          LaMay, Curtis E. - Air Force General, Commander of Strategic Air Command
          MacArthur, Douglas - Five Star General, Allied Commander in the Pacific in World War II,
    “Duty, Honor, Country” Speech
          Marshall, George C. - Five Star General, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff World War II, Post war Secretary of State and Architect of the Marshall Plan.
          McClellan, George B. - General, Union Army
          Murphy, Audie - Most decorated American Soldier of World War II
          Peary, Robert E. Admiral - First man to reach the North Pole (1909) - Kane Lodge No. 451, NY
          Perry, Matthew Calbraith - Commodore; responsible for opening relations with Japan; Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City
          Pershing, John Joseph "Blackjack" - General of the Armies, Commander of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I
          Pickett, George E. - Maj. Gen. (CSA), led "Pickett's Charge" at Gettysburg
          Pike, Zebulon - Military explorer who discovered Pike's Peak, which is named for him
          Rickenbacker, Eddie - Great American Air Force Ace
          Ridgeway, Matthew B. - US Military Leader, General who succeeded MacArthur in Korea
          Schirra, Wally - Astronaut
          Schwartzkopf, Norman - Former U.S. General, Desert Storm commander
          Stillwell, Joseph - World War II General
          Wainwright, Johnathon - World War II General, survived Battan Death March

    Pioneers who helped settle the United States:

          Astor, John Jacob - Fur trader and financier
          Austin, Stephen F. - Father of Texas, Louisiana Lodge No. 109, St. Genevieve, Missouri.
          Blair, John - Signer US Constitution
          Bougainville, Louis-Antoine - Navigator.1729-1811
          Bowie, James - Died at the Alamo
          Brearley, David - Signer US Constitution
          Burbank, Luther - Pioneering botanist
          Burnett, David G. - 1st President of the Republic of Texas
          Carson, Christopher "Kit" - Frontiersman, scout and explorer; Montezuma Lodge No. 109, 
    New Mexico.
          Clark, William - Explorer (Lewis and Clark)
          Clemens, Samuel L. - Mark Twain - writer
          Cody, William F. "Buffalo Bill" - Indian fighter, Wild West Show
          Colt, Samuel - Firearms inventor
          Crockett, David - American Frontiersman and Alamo fame
          Dayton, Jonathan - Signer US Constitution
          Dubois, W.E.B. - Educator/Author/Historian
          Ellery, William - One of nine Masonic signers of the Declaration of Independence
          Fitch, John - Inventor of the Steamboat
          Fuller, Alfred (Fuller Brush)
          Fulton, Robert - Inventor of 1st Submarine and Steam powered warship
          Gatling, Richard J. - Built the "Gatling Gun"
          Hall, Prince - Founded African Lodge in U.S. African Lodge is the Grandfather of Prince Hall Masonry.
          Henry, Patrick - Patriot
          Henson, Mathew - Explorer
          Henson, Josiah - Inspired the novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
          Houston, Sam - 2nd and 4th President of the Republic of Texas
          Jones, Anson - 5th President of the Republic of Texas
          Key, Francis Scott - Wrote U.S. National Anthem
          Lewis, Meriwether - Explorer (Lewis and Clark)
          Lamar, Mirabeau B. - 3rd President of the Republic of Texas
          Lindbergh, Charles - Aviator. First solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean - member of Keystone Lodge No. 243, St. Louis, MO
          Marshall, James W. - Discovered Gold at Sutter's Mill California 1848
          McHenry, James - Signer of the U.S. Constitution - Spiritual Lodge No. 23, Maryland
          Revere, Paul - Famous Midnight Ride - Grand Master of Massachusetts
          Rush, Benjamin - one of nine Masonic signers of the Declaration of Independence.
          Stanford, Leland - California pioneer - Drove the golden spike linking the intercontinetal railroad and founded Stanford University
          Travis, Colonel William B. - died at Alamo
          Wright, Orville and Wilber - Inventors of Airplane

    Other Civic Leaders:

          Bradley, Thomas - Mayor of Las Angeles, CA
          Carnahan, Melvin - Governor of Missouri
          Clinton, DeWitt - Governor of New York
          Freeman, Orville - Former Governor of Minnesota and Secretary of Agriculture.
          Hawkins, Augustus F. - US Congressman from California
          Hoover, J. Edgar - Director of FBI
          La Guardia, Fiorella H. - La Guardia Airport, Mayor of New York 1930's and 40's
          New, Harry S. - Postmaster General who established Airmail
          Poinsett, Joel R. - U.S. Minister to Mexico who developed the Poinsettia
          Rangal, Charles B. - U.S. Congressman from New York
          Stassen, Harold - Statesman, signer of U.N. Charter
          Stokes, Louis - U.S. Congressman from Ohio
          Stokes, Carl B. - First Black elected Mayor, Cleveland, Ohio
          Thompson, Tommy - Governor of Wisconsin, Secretary of Health and Human Services 2001 -
          Young, Andrew - Former Mayor of Atlanta

    Medical Leaders:

          Desaguliers, Jean-Theophile - Physician. Inventor of the planetarium. 1683-1744.Jenner, Edward - Inventor - Vaccination
          Mayo, Drs. William and Charles - Founded the Mayo Clinic
          Menninger, Karl A. - Psychiatrist famous for treating mental illness
          Mesmer, Franz Anton 1734-1815 - practiced Mesmerism which led to Hypnotism
          Still, Andrew T. - American Physician who devised treatment of Osteopathy
          Wootton, Percy, MD - President American Medical Association (1997- )

    Sports Heroes:

          Alexander, Grover C.
          Ballard, Harold Owner Toronto Maple Leafs NHL team. Corinthian No. 481, Toronto, ON.
          Brown, Mordecai P.C.
          Chandler, Albert “Happy”
          Cobb, Tyrus R. “Ty” - Baseball Hall of Fame Player
          Combs, Earle Bryan - Baseball Hall of Fame
          Corchran, Gordon “Mickey”
          Dempsey, Jack - Heavyweight boxing champion
          Hornsby, Rogers - An original member of the Baseball Hall of Fame
          Hubbel, Carl - Baseball; Meeker Lodge No. 479, Oklahoma
          Johnson, John A 'Jack' - Heavyweight boxing title holder
          Mathewson, Christopher “Christy”
          Palmer, Arnold - Golf Pro
          Rickey, Branch - Baseball Legend, Signed Jackie Robinson (first black in major league).
          Robinson, Sugar Ray - World Champion Boxer
          Starr, Bart - Football Quarterback - Green Bay Packers.
          Wagner, Honus - Baseball batting legend
          Young, Cy - Famous baseball pitcher for whom the Cy Young Award is named

    Authors, Publishers and Poets:

          Abbott, Robert Sengstacke - Founder/publisher Chicago Defender
          Burns, Robert - National Poet of Scotland; St. David's Lodge No. 174, Tarbolton, Scotland.
          Chagall, Marc - Artist, painter.
          Collodi, Carlo - Author of Pinocchio
          Conan Doyle, Arthur - 1859-1930. Member of Phoenix Lodge 257, Portsmouth, in 1886. Author of Sherlock Holmes
          Dac, Pierre. 1895-1975 - Humorist
          Doyle, Sir Author Conan - Writer - Sherlock Holmes
          Fleming, Sir Alexander - USA. Invented penicillin. 1881-1955.
          Fortune, Timpothy Thomas - Journalist
          Gannett, Frank E. - Hobosco Lodge No. 716, Ithaca, NY - media empire
          Gibbon, Edward - Author of "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"
          Gray, Harold Lincoln - Creator of "Little Orphan Annie"
          Guest, Edgar A. - Poet; "The Lambskin Apron"
          Haley, Alex - Author
          Harvey, Paul - Radio personality
          Johnson, John H. - Publisher EBONY and Jet magazines
          Kipling, Rudyard - Author.  Nobel Prize in 1907.
          Lemon, Mark - Founder of Punch, humorous British magazine
          Pushkin, Aleksander - Russian Poet
          Salten, Felix - Creator of Bambi
          Scott, Sir Walter - Writer
          Service, Robert, Poet of the Klondike Gold Rush
          Swift, Johathan - Wrote Gulliver's Travels
          Tolstoi, Leo - Russian Author
          Voltaire, François-Marie Arouet 1694-1778. - French writer and philosopher
          Wallace, Lewis - Wrote "Ben Hur"
          Wilde, Oscar. 1854-1900. - Writer

    Entertainment Industry:

          Accuff, Roy - Country Western Singer 
          Armstrong, Louis - Jazz Musician.  Montgomery Lodge No. 18, PHA, New York.
          Arnold, Eddy - Country Western Singer 
          Atkins, Chet - Musician, Guitar
          Autry, Gene - Singer — Actor - Western Heritage Museum, Catoosa Lodge No. 185, Catoosa, Oklahoma
          Bach, Jahann Christian - Composer
          Bassie, William "Count" - Orchestra leader/composer, Wisdom Lodge No. 102 PHA, Chicago and Shriner, New York.
          Beethoven, Ludwig Van. - 1770-1827. Composer
          Berlin, Irving - Composer/Entertainer
          Borgnine, Ernest - Actor
          Brown, Joe E.
          Burns, Bob
          Cantor, Eddie
          Caine, Michael - Actor
          Cervi, Gino 1901-1974. - Italian Actor, famous for his roles in films as "Don Camillo"
          Clark, Roy - Country western singer; Jenks Lodge No. 497, Oklahoma
          Coburn, Charles D.
          Cohan, George M. - Composer/Broadway star
          Cole, Nat 'King' - Great ballad singer
          Cody, William F. “Buffalo Bill”
          Costello, Lou - Comedian
          Crisp, Donald
          Crosby, Norm - Entertainer
          DeMille, Cecil B. - Epic Film Director
          Dix, Richard
          Eastwold, Scott - Musician,
          Ellington, Duke - Jazz composer, arranger and stylist
          Fairbanks, Douglas, Sr. - Silent film actor
          Fields, W.C. - Actor
          Gable, Clark - Actor
          Gibson, Hoot - Cowboy actor; Truth Lodge No. 628, Los Angeles, CA
          Gilbert, Sir William S. - Was the librettis for "Pirates of Penzance"
          Gilbert and Sullivan - Composers and playwrights
          Godfrey, Arthur - Actor
          Goethe, Johann Wolfgang 1749-1832.
          Griffith, David W.
          Grock - Swiss Circus Clown
          Hampton, Lionel - Orchestra Leader/Composer
          Handel, George Fredrick - Composer
          Handy, William C. - Composer "Father of the Blues"
          Hardy, Oliver - Actor - Comedian (Laurrel & Hardy)
          Hayden, Franz Josef F. 1732-1809 - Composer
          Hershfield, Harry - Radio entertainer
          Hersholt, Jean
          Houdini, Harry - Magician
          Ives, Burl - Entertainer
          Jolson, Al - Fame as the first 'talking picture' the Jazz Singer. St. Cecile Lodge No. 568, New York
          Jones, Charles “Buck”
          Keaton, Buster - Movies, Comedian
          Kellar, Harry
          Kern, Jerome - Composer
          Lincoln, Elmo - First actor to play Tarzan of the Apes (1918)
          Lizt, Franz. Composer
          Lloyd, Harold C. - Silent movie comedian
          Mayer, Louis B. - Film producer who merged to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)
          Meichior, Lauritz
          Miller, Glenn - Musician, Band Leader
          Mix, Tom - U.S. Marshal turned actor. Stared in over 400 western films
          Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus - Child musical genius - composer
    Mozart's Magic Flute is the background music for this page
          Powell, Dick
          Ringling Brothers - All 7 brothers and their father were Masons.
          Rogers, Roy - American cowboy and screen star, Hollywood Lodge No. 355, California
          Rogers, Will - Actor; Claremore Lodge No. 53, Oklahoma
          Sellers, Peter 1925-1980 - Actor, Chelsea Lodge # 3098.
          Sibelius, Jean 1865-1957 - Composer (Finland)
          Skelton, Richard B. “Red” - Comedian/Entertainer
          Smith, John Stafford - Wrote the music that became the US National Anthem.
          Sousa, John Philip - Composer - Led the U.S. Marine Band from 1880 - 1892
          Stratton, Charles "Tom Thumb" - Entertainer
          Thomas, Danny - Actor, Entertainer
          Thurston, Howard - Last of the great vauderville magicians.
          Tillis, Mel - Country Singer
          Warner, Jack - Warner Brothers Studio fame
          Wayne, John - Actor; Marion McDaniel Lodge No. 56, Tucson, AZ
          Wagner, Richard
          Whiteman, Paul - "King of Jazz"
          Wyler, William - Director of "Ben Hur"
          Wynn, Ed
          Zanuck, Darryl F. - Co-founder of 20th Century Productions in 1933
          Ziegfeld, Florenz - His Ziegfeld's Follies began in 1907

    Religious Leaders:

          Allen, Richard Founder/First Bishop AME Church
          Baker, James C. (Bishop, Methodist Church, organized first Wesley Foundation in U.S.)
          Baylor, Robert E. B. (Baptist clergyman, founder of Baylor University)
          Ballou, Hosea (Founder, Universalist Church)
          Booth, Rev. William - Founder of the Salvation Army
          Bradley, Preston (founder of the Peoples Church)
          Calvo, Father Francisco - Catholic Priest who started Freemasonry in Costa Rica 1865
          Evans, Hugh I. (National head of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A.)
          Fisher, Geoffrey - Archbishop of Canterbury 1945 - 1961
          Frank, Eugene M. (Methodist Bishop)
          Jackson, Reverend Jesse - Minister and founder of the Rainbow Coalition
          Low, Titus (President of Methodist Council of Bishops)
          Newton, Joseph Fort - Christian Minister
          Peale, Norman Vincent - Minister and Founder of "Guidepost"
          Sanders, Bishop Carl J. - United Methodist Church
          Sexson, Mark - Minister and Founder: Intl. Order of Rainbow for Girls
          Wesberry, Dr. James P. - Former Exec. Dir./Editor Southern Baptist Publication Sunday

    Industrialists and Entrepreneurs:

          Balfour, Lloyd - Jewelry
          Bell, Lawrence - Bell Aircraft Corp
          Carson, Curtis L. - Entrepreneur
          Chrysler, Walter P. - Founded Chrysler Corporation
          Citroen, Andre - French Engineer and motor car manufacturer 1878-1935
          Dow, William H. - Dow Chemical Co.
          Drake, Edwin L - American Pioneer of the Oil industry
          Dunlop, John Boyd - Tire Manufacturer
          Faber, Eberhard - Head of the Eberhard Fabor Pencil Company
          Ford, Henry - Pioneer Automobile Manufacturer
          Forten, James - Abolitionist/Manufacturer
          Gillette, King C. - Gillette Razor Co.
          Hilton, Charles C. - is listed as a mason on many lists as founder of Hilton Hotels, but the hotel chain was founded by Conrad Hilton, who was a staunch Catholic who left most of his estate to support Catholic charities. It is doubtful if he was a Mason, to say the least.
          Hoe, Richard M. - Invented the rotory press, revolutinizing newspaper printing
          Hoover, Frank - Vacuum cleaner fame
          Lake, Simon - Built first submarine successfull in open sea.
          Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent 1743-1794 - Chemist
          Lipton, Sir Thomas - Famous Yachtsman, Founder Lipton Tea Company
          MacAdam, John - Invented "blacktop pavement"
          Maytag, Fredrick - Maytag appliances
          Mecherle, George Jacob - Founder, State Farm Insurance
          Mellon, Andrew - American industrialist, banker and philanthropist.
          Nash, Charles - Automotive industry
          Olds, Ransom E. - American automobile pioneer
          Penney, James C. - Retailer (J.C. Penney)
          Sanders, Harland "Colonel" - Founder Kentucky Fried Chicken Restaurants
          Sarnoff, David - Father of T.V. (RCA)
          Teets, John W. - Chairman and President of Dial Corporation
          Thomas, Dave - Founder of Wendy's Restaurant
          Watson, Thomas - Founder of IBM

    Other Famous Masons:

          Agha Khan. 1877-1957.
          Appleton, Sir Edward Victor - English physicist. Nobel prize 1947. Isaac Newton Lodge, No. 859, Cambridge.
          Arnold, Benedict - Major General and early American Revolution war hero. Changed allegiance and sided with British, being named a traitor ever since. Affiliated member of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, CT.
          Ashmole, Elias - Founder member of the Royal Society, first known English speculative Mason at Warrington, Lancashire, in 1646.
          Bartholdi, Frederic A. - Designed the Statue of Liberty
          Baylor, Robert E. B. - Founder Baylor University
    Beard, Daniel Carter - Founder Boy Scouts movement in United States, Mariners Lodge No. 67, New York City.
          Bellamy, Rev. Francis - Authored U.S. Pledge of Allegiance
          Benitez, Conrado, 1889-1971. Philippines.
          Borglum, Gutzon and Lincoln, - Father and son who carved Mt. Rushmore
          Brundage, Avery - Olympic Committee
          Campbell, Sir Malcolm - Land speed record holder
          Casanova - Italian Adventurer, writer and entertainer
          Chagrin, Jean Francious - Designer of The Arc De Triomphe in Paris, France
          DuBois, W.E.B. - Educator/scholar
          Dunant, Jean Henri 1828-1910 - Founder of the Red Cross
          Evers, Medger Wiley - Civil Rights Leader
          Gompers, Samuel - Founder of American Federation of Labor (AFL of AFL-CIO)
          Gris, Juan - Spanish Artist - Synthetic Cubism
          Guillotin, Joseph Ignace - Inventor of the "Guillotin"
          Hedges, Cornelius - "Father" of Yellowstone National Park
          Hoban, James - Architect for the U.S. Captial
          Hooks, Benjamin L. - Former Executive Director, NAACP
          Houdon, Jean-antoine 1741-1828 - Sculptor
          Jones, Melvin - One of the founders of the Lions International
          Khan III, Aga - Statesman
          Lafontaine, Henri - Nobel Prize in 1913.
          Land, Frank S. - Founder Order of DeMolay
          Leazer, Gary - Investigated Freemasonry for Southern Baptist Convention and later joined Freemasonry
          Lewis, John L. - Long time leader of The United Mine Workers
          Livingston, Robert - Co-Negotiator for purchase of Louisiana Territory
          Madison, James - Hiram Lodge, Westmoreland County, Virginia
          Mays, Benjamin - Educator/former President Atlanta University
          Metcalfe, Ralph H. - Olympic Champion
          Michelson, Albert Abraham - Successfully measured the speed of light in 1882
          Montgolfier, Jacques and Joseph - Co-developers of the first practical hot-air balloon
          Morris, Dr. Robert - Poet and Founder of the Order of Eastern Star
          Naismith, James - Inventor of Basketball
          Otis, James - Famous for "Taxations without Representation is Tyranny"
          Papst, Charles F. - Coined the term "Athletes Foot"
          Pound, Roscoe - Former Dean Harvard Law School
          Pullman, George - Built first sleeping car on train.
          Randolph, A. Phillip - Founder - first president, International Brotherhood Sleeping Car Porters.
          Retief, Piet - Afrikaans leader and one of the founders of the South African nation.
          Rhodes, Cecil - Rhodes Scholarship
          Sax, Antoine Joseph - Invented the Saxophone (1846)
          Schoonover, George - Founder of "The Builder"
          William Mark Sexton (International Order of Rainbow for Girls)
          Schadow, Johann G. (Prussian Court Sculptor)
          Schweizer, J. Otto
          Thomas, Lowell - Brought Lawrence of Arabia to public notice. radio announcer/newsman
          Wadlow, Robert Pershing - Tallest human on record being almost 9 feet tall
          Washington, Booker T. - Educator/Founder Tuskegee Institute
          Webb, Matthew - First man to swim the English Channel (1875)

          King George VI, 1895-1952 
          Past Grand Master, United Grand Lodge of England. 
          Past Grand Master Mason, Grand Lodge of Scotland. 
          The late King's full name was Albert Frederick Arthur George of the house of Windsor (formerly Saxe-Coburg-Gotha). He studied in Trinity College at Cambridge and served in WWI. He was created Duke of York in 1920. 
          A son of George V, he reigned from the time his brother, Edward VIII, abdicated in 1936, until his death in 1952. 
          He was initiated in Naval Lodge No. 2612 in December 1919, the ceremony being conducted by Lord Ampthill. In 1922 he was appointed Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of England, and in 1924 was made Provincial Grand Master for Middlesex. He was invested and installed by his great uncle, H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. He held the latter position until he ascended the throne in 1938. 
          As king, he accepted the rank of Past Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, and was ceremonially installed at the Albert Hall in London before an audience of Masons from all parts of the world. 
          In 1935 he accepted and was installed Grand Master Mason of Scotland, and affiliated with the Lodge of Glamis, No. 99, Scotland, where his father-in-law, the Earl of Strathmore, was a Past Master. 
          He created the precedent of the English Sovereign's active participation in Masonic ceremonies, and personally conducted the installation of three Grand Masters (of the United Grand Lodge of England) - the Duke of Kent at Olympia in 1939, the Earl of Harewood in Freemason's Hall in 1943 and the Duke of Devonshire in Albert Hall in 1948. Only his last illness prevented his installing the Earl of Scarbrough in 1951. 
          Toward the end of his reign, he stated that he had always regarded Masonry as one of the strongest influences of his life. He was a Royal Arch Mason and was a First Principal. He was a Past Grand Master of the Mark Lodge and former Ruler of the Mark Province of Middlesex (1931-37). He held the rank of Past Grand Master, and of Knight Commander of the Temple, was a 33rd Degree, and Grand Inspector General in the Ancient and Accepted Rite of Rose Croix. 
          Said he of Masonry: "The world today does require spiritual and moral regeneration. I have no doubt, after many years as a member of our Order, that Freemasonry can play a most important part in this vital need" 


    United States Presidents
    and The Illuminati / Masonic Power Structure.

    By: Robert Howard

      Hard Truth/Wake Up America


    Ezekiel, 33:6

    Updated 09/28/2001


    I have always seen list's of famous Masons. To just look at the name means very little. When you date and place those names in the proper time line and placement of power you begin to see the deception and vastness of this power elite. What will shock you even more is to learn who the powers are behind the Freemasons. Notice the death's of non Masonic presidents or those who lost favor, and the shuffling of the vice presidents to get them in the position of takeover before the presidents were killed or removed. Note also the number of presidential running mates who lost the race for presidency were Masons also. A win win situation regardless of the outcome of the election. The Mason's have controlled this country from the beginning. Another interesting fact to consider is that of the 37 Presidents of the United States before Jimmy Carter, at least 18 or 21 (depending on which source you believe) were close relatives. That comes to somewhere between 48.6 percent and 56.7 percent-far to much to be coincidence, as any conspiritologist (or mathematician) would tell you. Of the 224 ancestors in the family tree of 21 Presidents, we find 13 Roosevelt's, 16 Coolidge's, and 14 Tyler's. Another source manages to relate 60 percent of the Presidents and link most of them to the super-rich Astor family. This data does not include genealogies of the five most recent President. Psychologist G. William Domhoff claims that a large part of America's Ruling elite, just like that of Europe, are related by marriage. (Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)

    This article is not intended to defame this country's forefathers. See Secret Societies All I am doing here is listing the facts. I will list other authors articles for you to refer to as corroboration. These names were compiled from the Masons own list of famous names posted on there websites. (See Links Below), along with other reputable sources. The names used in this document have been used from that list along with a brief summary of who they were,(*Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edition.) and the role they played in our history.
    Keep in mind, you can not be a Christian and a practicing Mason, its an oxymoron. There are those who would write history in a form to hide its true meaning and agenda's.Rewriting U.S. History So it has been from the beginning.  (The Masons write most of American History, for example the Mason's own Encyclopedia Britannica). The red dates are confirmed Mason Power years over this country as far as the Presidency, or Vice Presidency is concerned. This Page will be updated often. Please revisit.

    Legend: (A) American; (AI) American Independent; (D) Democrat. (F) Federalist. (DR) Democrat-Republican. (Ind) Independent. (IR) Independent -Republican (NR) National Republican. (P) People's; (Pr) Progressive; (R) Republican. (S) Socialist; (SR) States Rights (W) Whig. (U) Union.

    (S.C.J) Supreme Court Judge

    I will let the facts speak for themselves.

    As a Mason goes through the 32 degrees of the Scottish rite, he ends up giving worship to every Egyptian pagan god, the gods of Persia, gods of India, Greek gods, Babylonian gods, and others.  As you come to the 17th degree, the Masons claim that they will give you the password that will give him entrance at the judgment day to the Masonic deity, the great architect of the universe.  It is very interesting that this secret password is "Abaddon"

    Revelation 9:11 They had a king over them, the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon"  The 'angel' of the Abyss (Hell) is really the chief demon whose name is Abaddon.  Masons claim then, that the deity they worship is Abaddon! 

    Abaddon and Apollyon both mean Destroyer. See: Destruction of the Trade Centers: Occult Symbolism Indicates Enemies Within Our Own Government


     "The world is governed by people far different from those imagined by the public." 
     Benjamin Disraeli, Victorian-era Prime Minister of Britain,

    Mat 21:42] Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the scriptures: 'The stone that the builders (aka Freemasons) rejected has become the cornerstone; by the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes'?
    [Mat 21:43] Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit.

    "The great strength of our Order lies in its concealment; let it never appear in any place in its own name, but always concealed by another name, and another occupation. None is fitter than the lower degrees of Freemasonry; the public is accustomed to it, expects little from it, and therefore takes little notice of it. Next to this, the form of a learned or literary society is best suited to our purpose, and had Freemasonry not existed, this cover would have been employed; and it may be much more than a cover, it may be a powerful engine in our hands... A Literary Society is the most proper form for the introduction of our Order into any state where we are yet strangers." (as quoted in John Robinson's "Proofs of a Conspiracy" 1798, re- printed by Western Islands, Boston, 1967, p. 112)

    1534 Church of Jesu. ( aka Society of Jesus, Jesuits the power behind Freemasonry) Also headquarters of the Knights of Malta.

    Founded in 1534 by Ignatius Loyola founder of the Illuminati, to combat the reformation and propagate the faith. (Reformation being salvation thru grace instead of the Catholic Church.) The Jesuit General, and the other high Jesuit Generals, they are sorcerers. They are LUCIFERIAN, and they worship what they would call Lucifer. They do not believe in Satan. They believe in Lucifer. This society is the power behind the Presidents, and the rest of the world.. The Jesuits obviously wrote the Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion, because they have carried out every protocol in that little handbook. They have carried everything out. The Black Pope

    1590's - Sir Francis Bacon, beginning in the early 1590's, began the detailed plans by which North America would be colonized.  He was the supreme adept in the Rosicrucian Society, and established the super secret Knights of the Helmet [Ibid., p. 123-129], a society established along the lines of Rosicrucianism.  And, finally, Bacon was responsible for the modern birth of Freemasonry, as detailed by Masonic author, George V. Tudhope, in his book, Bacon Masonry , ISBN 1-56459-108-5, reprinted by Kessinger's Publishing. Thus, we can see that the occult activities of our original occult Forefathers mentioned above was merely the outworking of an occult plan originally conceived "thousands of years before Columbus ever sailed"!  Our Masonic forefathers were merely following the details of the occult plan as envisioned specifically by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1590's, operating according to the vision provided him by his Guiding Spirit. Masonic Forefathers

    1733 - In the United States, the first Masonic circles began to appear in 1733; by the time of the American Revolution, nearly 150 lodges existed throughout the colonies.

    1761 - James Otis, born in Mass. Known for his famous challenge to the British -imposed writs of assistance- general search warrants designed to enforce more strictly the trade and navigation laws in North America. At this time he also reportedly coined the euphonious, oft-quoted phrase, " Taxation without representation is tyranny." He was chosen as speaker of the house in 1766. Confirmed Mason.

    1764 - Samuel Adams, born in Boston. A major propagandist, opposing British officials and policies, as well as British taxation in the colonies. In 1773 he participated in the planning of the Boston Tea Party. Adams also signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Served as delegate to the Continental Congress until 1781, and became governor of Massachusetts from 1794-97. Confirmed Mason and Illuminatist.

    Other Parts of the World England. 1765-1795 Edmund Burke, born Dublin Ireland. Entered the House of Commons in 1765. As a member of Parliament he became known as a Political thinker and important in the history of political theory. Confirmed Mason.

    1773 It’s just like Freemasonry. The lower Freemasons have no idea that the High Shriner Freemasons are working for the Jesuit General. They think that they’re just doing works and being good people. But the bottom line is that the high-level Freemasons are subject, also, to the Jesuit General because the Jesuit General, with Fredrick the Great, wrote the High Degrees, the last 8 Degrees, of the Scottish Rite Freemasonry when Fredrick protected them when they were suppressed by the Pope in 1773.So, you have the alignment with the Jesuit Order and the most powerful Freemason they had in the craft, Fredrick the Great, during their suppression. That is an irrefutable conclusion. And then, when you see the Napoleonic Wars, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars carried out by Freemasonry, everything Napoleon did, and the Jacobins, whatever they did, completely benefited the Jesuit Order. The Black Pope

    1775 - Joseph Warren, born Roxbury, Mass. Solder and leader in the American Revolution who sent Paul Revere and William Dawes to Lexington and Concord on their famous ride to warn local patriots that British troops were being sent against them. Helped draft a group of protests to Parliament known as the "Suffolk Resolves. "Confirmed Mason. In December 1769 Warren, received commission for the Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, appointing him Provincial Grand Master of Masons in Boston and within 100 miles of the same. The commission was dated May 30,1769. When the Earl of Dumfries succeeded Dalhousie as Grand Master of Scotland he issued another appointment to Warren, dated March 7,1772, constituting Warren "Grand Master of Masons for the Continent of America," thus extending his original limits.

    1775 - Paul Revere, born in Boston. Hero of the American Revolution whose dramatic horseback ride on the night of April 18, warning Boston-area residents that the British were coming. Confirmed Mason. GRAND MASTER GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS A.F. & A.M. 1795 - 1797

    1776 - John Hancock, born in Mass. Wrote and the first to sign the Declaration of Independence, and served nine terms as the Governor of Mass. Confirmed Mason.

    1776 - Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston. Was one of the diplomats chosen to negotiate peace with Great Britain, and who helped draft the Declaration of Independence, one of the 56 who signed this document, and was instrumental in achieving the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. Was also a Mason. Franklin was the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and published the first Masonic book in America. Was also a member of Sir Francis Dashwood's Hell Fire Club, along with the Collins family of Satanists. Both Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were members of this purely Satanic group who practiced satanic sexual occult rituals. (The Illuminati Bloodlines, Fritz Springmeier)


    "Remains of ten bodies at Ben Franklin's home"

    Workmen have dug up the remains of ten bodies hidden beneath the former London home of Benjamin Franklin, the founding father of American Independence.

    The remains of four adults and six children were discovered during the 31.9 million restoration of Franklin's home at 36 Craven Street, close to Trafalgar Square. Researchers believe that there could be more bodies buried beneath the basement kitchens.

    Initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were buried at the time Franklin was living in the house, which was his home from 1757 to 1762, and from 1764 to 1775. Most of the bones show signs of having been dissected, sawn or cut. One skull has been drilled with several holes. Paul Knapman, the Westminster coroner, said yesterday: "One cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime. There is still a possibility that I may have to hold an inquest." Ten Bodies Found Under Ben Franklin's Home

    1776 The Illuminati formed a committee entitled the Biblical Destruction Group. This committee disbanded 50 years later. To Eliminate the Opiate" (out of print) by Rabbi Antelman. The APOCRYPHA

    1776 "From the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt is said to have issued the sect known as ‘the Illuminati of Bavaria’ founded by Adam Weishaupt. Its nominal founder, however, seems to have played a subordinate though conspicuous role in the organization of this sect." [Occult Theocracy, Lady Queenborough, originally published in 1933] On May 1, 1776, the Order of the Illuminati was officially founded in the old Jesuit stronghold of Bavaria. The Company would now use the Jewish House of Rothschild to finance the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon the Freemason with his Jesuit-trained advisor, Abbe Sieyes. In spite of the historical writings of the Jesuit Abbe Barruel, who blamed the Rothschild's and Freemasonry for the Revolution, it was the Society of Jesus that used these very tools to carry out the Revolution and punish the monarchs who dared to expel the Jesuits from their dominions. The Jesuits, having been expelled from the Spanish Empire, found refuge in Corsica. From there they raised up their great avenger, Napoleon Bonaparte. The Black Pope

    1776, Adam Weishaupt, a famous Mason, had developed the Illuminati, a secret society within a secret society. One Masonic historian himself has stated that the goals include "found[ing] a new Hierarchy, to overturn all authority, and to press down all the Social Order under the level of Equality." Another Masonic historian stated "the express aim of the Order was to abolish Christianity, and overturn all civil government." In Weishaupt's own words, the Illuminati "will by degrees, and in silence, possess themselves of the government of the States, and make use of those means for this purpose...." illuminati_faq.htm

    1777 - Baron Von Steuben, born in Magdeburg, Prussia. German officer who proved indispensable to the cause of U.S. independence by converting the Revolutionary Army into a disciplined fighting force. While in France as agents of the newly formed U.S. government, Benjamin Franklin, and Silas Deane, learned of Steuben's plight that he had been obliged to leave for unsavory conduct, from Hohenzollern Hechingen, where he was made a knight of the Order of Fidelity in the neighboring margravate of Baden and Durlach, which brought about his availability. This prompted a letter of introduction, from Benjamin Franklin, and Silas Deane on his behalf, introducing him to Gen. George Washington as a "Lieut Genl. in the King of Prussia's service," who was fired with " Zeal for our cause. Confirmed Mason.

    1777 - Lafayette. French noble who fought with the American colonist against the British in the American Revolution. Confirmed Mason and a member of the Illuminati. Appointed a major general by the colonist, he quickly struck up a lasting friendship with the American commander in chief, George Washington, also a Confirmed Mason. Charles Taze Russell (founder of the Watchtower and Bible Tract Society), also a Confirmed Mason. His stepmother who was executor of his will. His mother was the one chosen to dance with famous Mason and Illuminati Lafayette when he was in Philadelphia. 1.(Nevin, Adelaide Mellier. The Social Mirror A Character Sketch of the Women of Pittsburgh) 2. (Vicinity during the first Century of the County’s existence. Society of to-day. Pittsburgh, PA: T.A. Nevin Publisher, 1888, p. 19.; b. The Pittsburgh Directory) 3. (1878-79 showing Elizabeth the widow of John, and c. John Russell in the 1850 Census, and John Russell’s Will.) Secrets Of The Watchtower Bible And Tract Society

    1779 - John Paul Jones, Scottish- born navel hero in the U.S. War of Independence, renowned for his victory over British ships of war off the east coast of England (Sept. 23 1779).Confirmed Mason.

    1782, On July 16, the year after the British surrendered to the Americans,  representatives of the world's secret societies convened the Congress of Wilhelmsbad in Europe and formally joined Masonry and the Illuminati. In the next four years the Order was able to secretly establish several lodges in America. In 1785, for example, the Columbian Lodge of the Order of the Illuminati was established in New York City. Its members included Governor DeWitt Clinton, Clinton Roosevelt ...(p.92 New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies, William T. Still, 1990)

    "When the Mason learns that the key to the warrior on the block is the proper application of the dynamo of living power, he has learned the mystery of his Craft. The seething energies of Lucifer are in his hands and before he may step onward and upward, he must prove his ability to properly handle energy." (Manly P. Hall, The Lost Keys of Freemasonry, p. 124; )

    The question of precisely what fires the will of the wealthy supranational elites seeking to manipulate and control world events, has not escaped the attention of serious students of conspiracies and cover-ups. The late American Professor Revilo P. Oliver, a confirmed atheist, was forced to conclude: "A theory that a conspiracy has been working consciously for many centuries is not very plausible unless one attributes to them a religious unity. That is tantamount to regarding them as Satanists engaged in the worship and service of supernatural evil. The directors of the conspiracy must see or otherwise directly perceive manifestations which convince them of the existence and power of Lucifer. And since subtle conspirators must be very shrewd men, not likely to be deceived by auto-suggestion, hypnosis, or drugs, we should have to conclude that they probably are in contact with a force of pure evil." (Prof. Revilo P. Oliver, Conspiracy or Degeneracy?, USA)

    "In politics, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way."
    (President Franklin D. Roosevelt)


    In order that our scheme may produce this result we shall arrange elections in favor of such presidents as have in their past some dark, undiscovered stain, some "Panama"or other - then they will be trustworthy agents for the accomplishment of our plans out of fear of revelations and from the natural desire of everyone who has attained power, namely, the retention of the privileges, advantages and honor connected with the office of president. The chamber of deputies will provide cover for, will protect, will elect presidents, but we shall take from it the right to propose new, or make changes in existing laws, for this right will be given by us to the responsible president, a puppet in our hands. The Illuminati Protocols

    1783 The Revolutionary War was fought and concluded when Cornwallis surrendered to Washington at Yorktown. As Americans we have been taught that we defeated the king and won our freedom. The Treaty of 1783, which totally contradicts our having won the Revolutionary War. This Treaty was signed in 1783, the war was over in 1781. If the United States defeated England, how is the king granting rights to America, when we were now his equal in status? We supposedly defeated him in the Revolutionary War! So why would these supposed patriot Americans sign such a Treaty, when they knew that this would void any sovereignty gained by the Declaration of Independence and the Revolutionary War? The United States is still a British Colony

    By the way, Prince Charles Coat of Arms has another symbol--The Order of the Garter. The Order of the Garter is the parent organization over Free Masonry, world-wide. When a man becomes a 33rd Degree Mason, he swears allegiance to that organization, and thereby to Prince Charles. The Bible gives us 42 signs of the Antichrist

    1785 President George Washington, in a letter written to the Reverend G. W. Snyder:  "Reverend, Sir, it was not my intention to doubt that the doctrine of the Illuminati -- the principles of Jacobinism -- had not spread in the United States.  On the contrary, no one is more satisfied of this fact than I am."  Shortly before he died, President Washington was well aware that the Adam Weishaupt radical brand of Freemasonry, the Illuminati, had spread its poison to America.

    "It doesn't matter who the people voted for; they always vote for us".

                                              - Illuminati Statement -


    United States Presidents Who Were and Are Freemasons

    The United States of America was actually formed on March 1, 1781 with the adoption of The Articles of Confederation by Maryland whose delegates delayed its ratification over a western border dispute with Virginia and New York. Upon the March 1 ratification the President of the Continental Congress officially became President of the United States in Congress Assembled.
    To make matters even more perplexing some historians claim that John Hanson was the first President of the United States as he was the first person to serve the full one-year term (1781-82), under the ratified Articles of Confederation. This again is incorrect.
    The ratification occurred during the term of Samuel Huntington who served as President from September 28, 1779 to July 6, 1781. Consequently, Samuel Huntingtonwas the first President of the United States in Congress Assembled. The 1st President of the United States

    George Washington1789-1797 George Washington, 1st. President of the United States? (F) Confirmed Mason. Initiated: November 4, 1752, Fredericksburgh (Fredericksburg) Lodge No. 4, Fredericksburg, Virginia. Brother Washington became Worshipful Master on December 20, 1788, and was inaugurated President of the United States on April 30, 1789, thus becoming the first, and so far the only, Brother to be simultaneously President and Master of his Lodge. Washington took his oath of office as President, April 30, 1789, on the bible belonging to St. johns Lodge No. 1 of New York City. (The New Age Magazine, January 1953, pg. 44) The New Age Magazine is a Masonic publication. Also a member of the Knights Of The Garter. Order of the Garter is the core leader of the Committee Of 300. Washington was a member of the Scottish rite, performed the 'Rite of the Mystic Tie' in a cave-complex near Winchester Virginia during the French and Indian war. (Masonic Assassination, Michael Anthony Hoffman pg. 4) "The United States is in no manner founded on Christian principle." (George Washington Treaty of Tripoli) No Vice Presidents at this time. George Washington Nominated 11 Supreme Court Justices. 6 out of 11 were Confirmed Masons.  Washington wearing his Masonic Apron Washington was related to the following Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, maybe Grant, Van Buren, and Taft's. (Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)

    Note: In Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey extermination was officially promoted by a "scalp bounty" on dead Indians. "Indeed, in many areas murdering Indians became an outright business," ( Historian Ward Churchill, A LITTLE MATTER OF GENOCIDE; HOLOCAUST AND DENIAL IN THE AMERICAS, 1492 TO THE PRESENT (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997). ISBN 0-87286-323-9. pg.182) Indians were defined as subhuman, lower than animals. George Washington compared them to wolves, "beasts of prey" and called for their total destruction.( David E. Stannard, AMERICAN HOLOCAUST; COLUMBUS AND THE CONQUEST OF THE NEW WORLD (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). ISBN 0-19-507581-1. pages 119-120)

    Note: Both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew Cannabis sativa (marijuana) on their plantations. (2201 Fascinating Facts by David Lewis, Greenwich House pg. 46) See Also: The Hemp Conspiracy

    Washington, the Freemason who did not go into that Masonic Lodge that last 30 years of his life—in his own words—who was a Baptist and a Calvinist. He was baptized in the First Baptist Church of New York by one of his captains, Pastor Gano, all surrounded by Calvinists. That’s why they didn’t surrender at Valley Forge; that’s why, when they were naked, when they went through the snow, barefoot, they endured that because they were Bible-believing Calvinists and they refused to submit to the tyranny of King George, who was controlled by the Jesuits. The Black Pope

    1789 John Robison warned all Masonic leaders in America that the Illuminati had infiltrated into their lodges and on July 19, 1789; David Papen, President of Harvard University, issued the same warning to the graduating-class and lectured them on how the influence of Illuminism was acquitting on American politics and religion, and to top it off; John Quincy Adams, who had organized the New England Masonic Lodges, issued his warnings. He wrote three letters to Colonel William L. Stone, a top Mason, in which he exposed how Jefferson was using Masonic lodges for subversive Illuministic purposes. Those three letters are at this very time in Whittenburg Square Library in Philadelphia. In short; Jefferson, founder of the Democratic Party, was a member of the Illuminati which at least partly accounts for the condition of the party at this time and through infiltration of the Republican Party; we have exactly nothing of loyal Americanism today. THE ILLUMINATI AND THE COUNSEL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

    1789-1795 John Jay, S.C.J. (Supreme Court Judge) Chief Justice. Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Unknown Mason Status.

    1790-1791 John Rutledge, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Chief Justice 1795. Nominated by Mason President George Washington.  Confirmed Mason.

    1789-1810 William Cushing, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Confirmed Mason.

    1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dies.. Some say murdered by the masons for revealing Masonic secrets in his opera The Magic Flute. Confirmed Mason (Born In Blood, John J. Robinson, pg. 177)

    1795 John Rutledge, S.C.J. Chief Justice. Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Rutledge became Chief Justice while the Senate was not in session, and when they reconvened he was rejected. Still, he did serve for a time in that position. Masonic Trivia and Facts and The MSA 1940s study say he was a Mason, without identifying his lodge, but 10,000 Famous Freemasons does not list him. Confirmed Mason.

    1796-1800 Oliver Ellsworth, S.C.J. Chief Justice. Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Confirmed Mason.

    1789-1798 James Wilson, S.C.J. Associate Justice, Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Unknown Mason Status.

    1789-1796 John Blair Jr. S.C.J. Associate Justice, Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Previously he was Grand Master of Virginia from 1778 to 1784.

    1790-1799 James Iredell. S.C.J. Associate Justice, Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Unknown Mason Status.

    1792-1793 Thomas Johnson. S.C.J. Associate Justice, Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Unknown Mason Status. Non Mason Replaced by Mason William Patterson.

    1793-1806 William Paterson. S.C.J. Associate Justice, Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Confirmed Mason.

    1796-1811 Samuel Chase. S.C.J. Associate Justice, Nominated by Mason President George Washington. Unknown Mason Status. This is the only Justice ever impeached, acquitted in 1805.

    1796 Thomas Jefferson, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (DR) Confirmed Illuminati.

    1797-1801 John Adams, 2nd. President of the United States (F) Unknown Mason Status. Vice President, Thomas Jefferson "Democratic-Republican."1797-1801. Confirmed Illuminati. Adams helped in the design of the Great Seal. Was related to F. D. Roosevelt, who put the seal on the dollar bill.(Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)

     1798 Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) was initiated into Army Philadelphia Lodge in 1798. His brothers, Joseph, Lucian, Louis and Jerome, were also Freemasons. Five of the six members of Napoleon's Grand Council of the Empire were Freemasons, as were six of the nine Imperial Officers and 22 of the 30 Marshals of France. Confirmed Mason.

    1798 Soon after the American Revolution, John Robinson, a professor of rural philosophy at Edinburgh University in Scotland and member of a Freemason lodge, said that he was asked to join the Illuminati. After studying the group, he concluded that the purposes of the Illuminati were not compatible with his beliefs. In 1798, he published a book called "Proofs Of A Conspiracy," which states: "An association has been formed for the express purpose of rooting out all the religious establishments and overturning all the existing governments.... The leaders would rule the World with uncontrollable power, while all the rest would be employed as tools of the ambition of their unknown superiors." Operation Paper Clip

    1799-1829 Bushrod Washington, S.C.J.  Associate Justice. Nominated by President John Adams. Unknown Mason Status.

    1800-1804 Alfred Moore, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Nominated by President John Adams. Unknown Mason Status.

    1800 John Quincy Adams opposed Thomas Jefferson for the presidency and wrote three letters to Colonel William L. Stone, exposing how Jefferson was using Masonic Lodges for subversive Illuminati purposes.  The information contained in those letters is credited with winning Adams the election.  The letters were held in the Rittenburg Square Library, in Philadelphia.

    1800 Aaron Burr, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (DR) Confirmed Mason.

    1800 John Adams, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (F) Confirmed Illuminati.

    1800s The Collins family had a branch that shot off from it during the early 1800s which was the Todd family. The Todd family branch remained an important part of the Illuminati. (The Illuminati Bloodlines, Fritz Springmeier)

    1801-1809 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd. President of the United States (DR) Confirmed Illuminati & Mason. (Masonic Edition, Holy Bible 1951 Edition) Poor records kept by the Colonial Lodges, the destruction of records by fire and war, make it impossible to consult original Lodge records. Jefferson may have been a Member of Charlottesville Lodge No. 90, Charlottesville, Va., since his name appears on the Minutes of this Lodge on September 20, 1817. Jefferson was also a member of the Lodge of the Nine Muses in Paris and the Beenan Order (Order of the Bees) known outside Bavaria as the Illuminati. Vice President, Aaron Burr (DR), 1801-1805. Confirmed Mason. Was also a member of the Collins family of Satanists who called themselves the Hell Fire Club. Thomas Jefferson was one of the members of this purely Satanic group who practiced satanic sexual occult rituals. (The Illuminati Bloodlines, Fritz Springmeier) Vice President George Clinton, 1805-1809. Confirmed Mason and Illuminati. De Witt Clinton N.Y. Gov. was Georges nephew. Confirmed Mason. Albert (Abraham Alfonse) Gallatin. 4th. Secretary of the treasury. Confirmed IlluminatiJefferson was related to the following Presidents: William Henry Harrison, Jackson, Tyler, Benjamin Harrison, Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, and Lyndon Johnson. (Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)

    Thomas Jefferson had an affair with Sally Hemings. One of his slaves who it is said was his mistress for thirty six years, but after the death of his wife. Recent scientific DNA evidence strongly suggests he was the father of her youngest son, Eston Hemings. Presidents and their reputed Affairs External Link

    Note: Andrew Jackson, whose portrait appears on the U.S. $20 bill today, in 1814 supervised the mutilation of 800 or more Creek Indian corpses, the bodies of men, women and children that his troops had massacred, cutting off their noses to count and preserve a record of the dead, slicing long strips of flesh from their bodies to tan and turn into bridle reins. ( Historian Ward Churchill, A LITTLE MATTER OF GENOCIDE; HOLOCAUST AND DENIAL IN THE AMERICAS, 1492 TO THE PRESENT (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997). ISBN 0-87286-323-9. pg.186) The issue in these days were Indians. The issue of our day is Gun Control, militia, and according to Janet Reno Christians. Janet Reno reflects the issue's of the Clinton administration. Cultist Definition by Janet Reno, Attorney General USA

    1801-1835 John Marshall, S.C.J. Chief Justice. Nominated by President John Adams. Previously he was Grand Master of Virginia, from 1793-1795. (However, there is evidence that John Marshall was not proud or enthusiastic about being a Freemason, at least later in his life.) Confirmed Mason.

    July 11, 1804: Gun-barrel Politics
    Vice President Aaron Burr confirmed Mason, mortally wounds former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in a pistol duel near Weehawken, New Jersey.

    1804-1834 William Johnson, S.C.J.  Associate Justice. Nominated by President Thomas Jefferson. Unknown Mason Status.

    1807-1823 Henry Brockhoist Livingston, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Nominated by President Thomas Jefferson. Unknown Mason Status.

    1807-1826 Thomas Todd, S.C.J. Nominated by President Thomas Jefferson. Confirmed Mason.

    1801-1814 Albert Abraham Alfonse Gallatin. Fourth U.S. Secretary of the treasure. Instrumental in negotiating an end to the war of 1812. Confirmed Mason.

    1804 Charles Pickney, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (F) Unknown Mason Status.

    1808 Charles Pickney, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (F) Unknown Mason Status.

    1809-1817 James Madison, 4th. President of the United States (DR) Confirmed Mason. (New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies, William T. Still, pg. 21)Madison is said to have been a Member of Hiram Lodge No. 59, Westmoreland County, Virginia, a Lodge which had only a short existence, and whose records are lost. (Was married to a Todd, of the Satanic Collins according to The Illuminati Bloodlines, Fritz Springmeier) Vice President George Clinton, 1809-1812. Confirmed Mason andIlluminati. Vice President, Elbridge Gerry 1813-1814. Unknown Mason Status.

    1811-1835 Gabriel Duvall, S.C.J. Associate Justice. Nominated by President James Madison. Unknown Mason Status.

    1811-1845 Joseph Story, S.C.J. Nominated by President James Madison. Story is listed as a member of Philanthropic Lodge in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 10,000 Famous Freemasons and the MSA 1940s study, but not in Masonic Trivia and Facts.

    Other parts of the world during this presidency: 1811-1821 Jose de San Martin. Soldier and Statesman. An officer in the Spanish army for 20 years. Led South America's independence movement for confirmed Mason President Simon Bolivar. Confirmed Mason.

    1812 De Wit Clinton, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (F) DeWitt Clinton, who was assoc. with the Illuminati very early in the history of the United States. George Clinton, vice president to Thomas Jefferson, was De Wit Clintons Uncle.

    1812 Winfield Scott. Grad from West Point. Fought in the war of 1812 and rose to the rank of major general .Fought in the battle of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane in 1814.Supervised the removal of the Cherokee Indians from Southern state to reservations west of the Mississippi River. Unsuccessful Whig candidate for President in 1853. Confirmed Mason.

    1814 Francis Scott Key, lawyer and the author of the U.S. national anthem. Confirmed Mason. Officially adopted in 1931. 

    The Federal 6th US Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati last week in a 30-page decision, stated that references to God are not permissible because they are clearly Christian. The state of Ohio wanted to use the motto "With God, All Things Are Possible" on its official seal or anywhere else. The US Circuit Court said, "In God We Trust" comes from "The Star-Spangled Banner" by Francis Scott Key and is not a reference to a specific faith.  (C-span 4.20.2000)

    1816 Rufus King, served in the state legislature, and in the Continental Congress, where he introduced the resolution calling for a convention at Philadelphia to draft a new Constitution. Was elected as New York's first U.S. senator. Was also the loosing (F) party running against James Monroe for the Presidency. Confirmed Mason.

    1817-1825 James Monroe, 5th. President of the United states (DR) Confirmed Mason. (The New Age Magazine, January 1953, pg. 44) Initiated: November 9, 1775, St. John's Regimental Lodge in the Continental Army. Monroe was not yet eighteen, but "lawful age" had not yet been universally fixed at twenty-one. Later, Brother Monroe took Membership in Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, Williamsburg, Virginia. Also a member of the Knights Of The Garter. Order of the Garter is the core leader of theCommittee Of 300. Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins 1817-1825. Unknown Mason Status. President Monroe was related to President Richard Nixon. (Everything is Under Control. Conspiracies, Cults, and Cover-Ups by Robert Anton Wilson pg 39-40)

    1823-1843 Smith Thompson, S.C.J. Associate justice. Nominated by Mason President James Monroe. Unknown Mason Status.

    Other Parts of the world During this Presidency: Argentina. 1819-1830 Simon Bolivar, President of, New Granada, 1819, Venezuela, 1821, Ecuador, 1822, until finally with the liberation of upper Peru, which became Bolivia after Bolivar, already President of Columbia, his rule on the continent became complete. Confirmed Mason.

    1820 John Quincy Adams, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (IR) Unknown Mason Status.

    1824 Albert (Abraham Alfonse) Gallatin. 4th. Secretary of the treasury 1801 -1814. Nominated for vice presidency. Withdrew in fear of weakening ticket due to foreign birth. Confirmed Illuminati.

    1824 Andrew Jackson, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (D) Confirmed Mason.

    1824 Henry Clay, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (DR) Confirmed Mason. Henry Clay was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and Grand Orator for the G.L. 1806-09. Very good friends to the Illuminati Dupont's. The Dupont's were already one of the primary top families, it is rumored that Clay was coming to them for guidance on how to steer the nation. The Dupont's played a role in the building of the American capital, which was laid out and constructed with numerous occult patterns. Clay also became the leader of the Whig Party. It is from this info the Presidents who were on the Whig Party are in question.

    According to occultists/Satanic doctrine, the upper four points of the Goat head (left) represent the four elements of the world, Fire, Water, Earth, and Air.  The bottom fifth point represents the spirit of Lucifer.  In the above photocopy of the Goat head Pentagram, the fifth point extends down into the mind of the goat, who represents Lucifer. Notice the above pentagram of the Washington Streets layout in which the south part of the pentagram falls on the White House. Where the Spirit of Satan is to dwell. 

    Photo courtesy of David Icke's website symbolism archives.

    The demon goddess Lilith is represented throughout history as an owl.

    Photo courtesy of David Icke's website symbolism archives.

    Notice the owl on the dollar bill. 

    The Beast of the Apocalypse: 666 a gigantic self programming computer!

    WWW=World Wide Web. Web=net, trap. World Wide Web=World Wide Trap External Link

    The System they are working towards is called LILITH External Link

    1824 William H. Crawford, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (DR) Unknown Mason Status.

    Web Hosting Companies